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with degradation only, others with a short suspension, or easy confinement. The laity were liable to the most grievous outrages, which they durst not repel, for fear of ruinous expenses or severe punishment. It was proved in the presence of the king, that during the eight years since his accession to the throne in 1155, above a hundred murders had been committed in the kingdom by the Ecclesiastics, of whom not one was punished so much as with degradation, the penalty enjoined by the canons. Astonishing as it may seem, the prelates gloried in this indulgence, supposing they could give no surer marks of their zeal for religion and the service of God, than by maintaining these immunities of the clergy.
Offended with the haughtiness of Becket, the nobles readily united with the king in the following articles, as regulations necessary for the tranquillity of the nation:
"I. No person shall appeal to Rome without the king's leave. II. No archbishop or bishop shall go to Rome, upon the pope's summons, without the king's leave. III. No tenant in chief, or any other of the king's officers, shall be excommunicated, or his lands put under an interdict, without the king's license. iv. All clergymen charged with capital crimes, shall be tried in the king's courts. V. The laity, whether the king or others, shall hold pleas of churches, and tithes, and the like."
These articles, though signed by the temporal lords, were rejected by the bishops and abbots, unless they were neutralized with this clause :-" Saving the rights and privileges of the clergy and church."
Provoked by this refusal, the king threatened the clergy with some further abridgment of their powers, and they apologized and signed; and by their entreaty, Becket was induced to follow them: but the pope rejected them, as prejudicial to the church. The archbishop recanted, and took part with the pope; on which Becket was prosecuted, and ordered to be tried as a traitor. Supported by the pope, and encouraged by the king of France, Becket treated the king's courts with contempt, and refused obedience to his sovereign; on which they declared him guilty of perjury.
When he knew that the court of peers was assembled, he went to church, and ordered the words of the second Psalm to be sung, "The rulers take counsel against the LORD, and against his anointed." Then taking his cross in his hand, he daringly entered the room where the king and the lords were seated. The archbishop of York seeing him enter in that manner, severely reprimanded him for his presumption in the royal presence, which was bidding defiance to the king: and bade him consider, that his sovereign's weapon was sharper than his. Becket insolently replied, that "It was true that the king's weapon could kill the body, but his destroyed the soul and sent it to hell." For this insult he was ordered to be imprisoned; but after other provocation, as they feared the daring priests, he was allowed to escape, and he departed in disguise to Flanders.
Becket was well received by the king of France and by the pope; to resent which, Henry ordered to be imprisoned or banished, all the relations of the archbishop, and of those who joined the traitor; on which Becket sent a threatening letter to the king. This dispute continued for six years; when Henry became indisposed, and in the prospect of death, he desired to be reconciled to the pope, and agreed to almost every article required by the archbishop. Accordingly he swore to Becket that he heartily forgave him, and would restore to him the same state he enjoyed before his banishment, and make restitution to all his relations and friends.
Although Becket had obliged the king to pardon all his coadjutors, he was not disposed to show the same generous spirit. Before he left France, he obtained the pope's license to suspend the archbishop of York, and to excommunicate the bishops of London, Durham, and Exeter, whom he supposed his enemies, and friendly to the king. This license he put in execution immediately on landing in England, and carried himself so haughtily towards all, even towards the king's eldest son, who had recently been crowned by his father's desire, that it was not possible for his tyranny to be endured. The excommunicated prelates carried their complaints to the king, still in Normandy; when, exasperated at his insolence, he is said to have exclaimed, "I am an unhappy prince, who maintain a great number of lazy, insignificant persons, of whom none has gratitude or spirit enough to revenge the affronts I receive from a single wretched priest."
These indiscreet words of the king, were caught by four of the knights present, who, reflecting on the reproaches of their royal master, conspired to free him from his enemy. They hastened to Canterbury, and taking the opportunity of the archbishop being at the cathedral, they entered the church armed with swords. After reproaching him with pride and ingratitude to his sovereign, and with his various cruelties, they murdered him near the altar, and retired without molestation, A. D. 1171. The assassins, fearing they had gone too far, durst not return to the king in Normandy, but retired to Yorkshire, where every one shunned them. They at length took a voyage to Rome; and being admitted to penance by Pope Alexander III, they went to Jerusalem; where, by the pope's order, they spent their lives in penitential austerities, died in the Black Mountain, and were buried at Jerusalem, in the church of the Templars.
King Henry was deeply affected at the intelligence of Becket's death; and dispatched an embassy to Rome, to clear himself from the imputation of being the cause of it. Immediately all divine offices ceased in the church of Canterbury, for a year, except nine days; at the end of which, by order of the pope, it was reconsecrated.
It was the policy of the pope to aggravate the blame of the king, as the occasion of Becket's death; and Henry was summoned to meet the papal legates in Normandy, to be tried for that murder! Though the legates had orders to grant the king absolution, they took many depositions, endeavouring to prove him guilty, in order to enhance the favour he was to receive from his Holiness! In short, he was permitted to clear himself by a solemn oath, that he neither commanded nor consented to Becket's assassination. He publicly declared, that he was extremely sorry for having been the occasion of his death, by the words he had imprudently uttered, and was ready to undergo whatever penance should be enjoined by the legates. Upon this declaration, and his oath, he was absolved from the alleged crime, on terms denoting the favour of the pope more than the innocence of the king. To obtain absolution, King Henry bound himself,I. Never to oppose the pope's will, so long as he was treated as a Catholic prince. II. Never to hinder appeals to the Holy See. III. To lead an army to the Holy Land against the infidels, and to remain there at least three years. However, he might send thither two hundred men instead, if he would rather go in person against the Saracens in Spain. IV. To recal all that were banished on account of the late archbishop of Canterbury, restoring them their estates and revenues. V. To abolish all laws and customs lately introduced to the preju dice of the ecclesiastics at Canterbury, or any part of England. To these, which were made public, à secret
article was added, by which the king obliged himself to go barefoot to Becket's tomb, and receive discipline from the hands of the monks of St. Austin.
Dr. Southey gives the following account of King Henry's degradation :
"Landing at Southampton, he there left his court, and the mercenaries whom he had brought over, and set off on horseback with a few attendants for Canterbury. When he came within sight of its towers he dismounted, laid aside his garments, threw a coarse cloth over his shoulders, and proceeded to the city, which was three miles distant, barefoot over the flinty road, so that in many places his steps were traced in blood. He reached the church trembling with emotion, and was led to the martyr's shrine; there, in the crypt, he threw himself prostrate before it, with his arms extended, and remained in that posture, as if in earnest prayer, while the bishop of London solemnly declared in his name, that he had neither commanded, nor advised, nor by any artifice contrived the death of Thomas à Becket, for the truth of which he appealed to God: but because his words, too inconsiderately spoken, had given occasion for the commission of that crime, he now voluntarily submitted himself to the discipline of the church. The monks of the convent, eighty in number, and four bishops, abbots, and other clergy who were present, were provided each with a knotted cord; he bared his shoulders, and received five stripes from the prelates, three from every other hand. When this severe penance had been endured, he threw sackcloth over his bleeding shoulders, and resumed his prayers, kneeling on the pavement, and not allowing a carpet to be spread beneath him: thus he continued all that day, and till the midnight bell tolled for matins. After that hour, he visited all the altars of the church, prayed before the bodies of all the saints who were there deposited, then returned to his devotions at the shrine till day-break. During this whole time he had neither ate nor drank; but now, after assisting at mass, and assigning, in addition to other gifts, forty pounds a year for tapers, to burn perpetually before the martyr's tomb, he drank some water, in which a portion of Becket's blood was mingled. He then set off for London, where he found himself in a state incapable of exertion, and it was necessary to bleed him!" We leave our readers to make their own reflections on the terrible power of the Papal hierarchy !
This prescribed humiliation was intended by the pope and his council to strike terror into the sovereigns of Europe, and to show how dangerous it was to contradict the pleasure of the blasphemous court of Rome, thus illustrating the prediction of the apostle Paul concerning this Antichrist, "who opposeth and exalteth himself above all that is called God, or is worshipped; so that he as God sitteth in the temple of God, showing himself that he is God." 2 Thess. ii, 4.
CANONIZATION OF THOMAS A BECKET. Miracles were reported by the priests at Canterbury, as having been performed at the tomb of Becket. Upon this the pope sent legates to Canterbury to inquire into the matter. To them the good people of the place testified many prodigious things, of which they were persuaded by the priests, as miraculous; upon which, his Holiness passed the decree of canonization of the archbishop, by the name of ST. THOMAS OF CANTER
decreed that a jubilee of fifteen days should be solemnized in that church every fiftieth year. Gifts and offerings the most costly were presented at the tomb of Becket, as plenary indulgences were granted to all that visited the tomb; so that it is said 100,000 pilgrims were registered at one time in Canterbury. The devotion towards Becket had quite effaced in that town the adoration of the Deity, and almost that of the Virgin Mary. Of this superstition the following may be taken as illustrations. In one year the offerings were
There must be employment of two kinds :
1. Our ordinary calling, to serve God in it, and perform it with faithfulness, diligence, and cheerfulness. 2. Our spiritual employment, mingling somewhat of God's immediate service in the business of the day.
If alone:-Beware of wandering, vain thoughts; fly from thyself, rather than entertain these. Let thy solitary thoughts be profitable: view the evidences of thy salvation, the state of thy soul, the coming of Christ, thine own mortality: it will make thee humble and watchful.
In company:- Do good to them. Use God's name reverently. Beware of leaving an ill impression of evil example. Receive good from them, if more knowing than thou.
Cast up the accounts of the day. Beg pardon for every thing amiss. Gather resolutions of more vigilance. Bless the mercy and grace of God, which have supported and preserved thee.
PERPLEXITY. He that taketh his own cares upon himself, loads himself in vain with an uneasy burthen. The fear of what may come, expectation of what will come, desire of what will not come, and infallibility of redressing all these, must breed continual torment. I will cast all my cares upon God; he hath bidden me; they cannot hurt Him, he can redress them.-Bp. Hall.
ARGUMENTS ADVANCED BY THE JEWS,
TO PROVE THE AUTHENTICITY OF THE SCRIPTURES.
THE Jewish nation, for proof of the Scriptures, allege the great and wonderful antiquity thereof. For as God, say they, was before idols, and truth before falsehood; so was the Scripture, which is the history of the true God, before the writings of pagans and infidels. Also, that the greater part of the things recounted in the Bible were done before most of the pagan gods were in existence; and that the very last writers of the Hebrew canon, which are Ezra, Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi, were almost five hundred years before the coming of Christ, when the second monarchy (i. e. the Persian) was flourishing; and were before most of the ancient heathen historiographers; to wit, Hellenicus, Herodotus, Pherecides, Thucydides, and Xenophon. And although the Gentiles had some poets before, as Homer, Orpheus, Hesiod, and Lycurgus the lawgiver, who lived some time after, yet the oldest of these went no further back than Solomon's time, which was five hundred years after Moses, who wrote the first four books of the Bible; after whose time it was that the most part of the heathen gods were invented, as Vulcan, Mercury, &c. as the Gentile genealogies corroborate. And as for Abraham, who lived five hundred years before Moses, he was not only older than these gods, but also before the most ancient of them, as Jupiter, Neptune, and Pluto, who were called the most ancient of the race of gods. And yet the Scriptures record events of more than two thousand years prior to these heathen deities being in existence. This proves that the Hebrew Scriptures are the most ancient writings or records known in the world, and were partly translated into various languages previously to the time of the Persian monarchy. See Eusebius, lib. ix, cap. ii, iii.
The first four books of Moses were written from the word of God himself as declared to Moses; but the following books, such as Judges, the Chronicles, &c. were written by general consent, to record the miracles done by God for the Jewish nation; the acts, whether good or evil, of the rulers and kings; the prophecies, as to the future dealings, &c.; and were also written at the time when the events they record actually occurred, or at the time when the aforesaid prophecies were delivered.
When any thing was written or recorded, it was done with much care and extreme caution. For either the whole synagogue who had the approving thereof (and amongst whom were commonly divers prophets) did know most certainly the things and miracles to be true (as did also all the people) that were recorded in these writings, or else they saw the same confirmed from God by signs and wonders, as in the books of the prophets, and of their lawgiver Moses.
When any thing was to be recorded, first there were made twelve authenticated copies for the use of all the twelve tribes; and then again in every tribe there were so many copies made as there were particular synagogues within that tribe: all was done by special persons appointed to that office, called scribes. These copies, after diligent review, were laid up by the whole congregation in the treasure-house of the synagogue, under divers locks and keys, not to be touched but by men appointed, and not to be used but with singular reverence. To add, diminish, corrupt, or alter, was present death by the laws of the nation. Thus, how Could it be possible, say the Jews, that among these writings either falsehood should creep in at first, or truth once received should afterwards by any means be corrupted?
"THE WORM THAT NEVER DIES." SEVERAL of our readers have expressed a wish to know the meaning of "that terrible expression of our Saviour," the " worm that never dies," and the "fire that is never quenched," with which the wicked will be punished in a future world. See Matt. xxv, 41; Mark ix, 44; Isa. lxvi, 24; Rev. xiv, 10, 11; and the "second death," Rev. xx, 14, 15.
In reply we would observe, that it is not necessary, as some have maintained, to believe that a living and sensible worm, or real, elementary, material fire is intended. We believe that the expressions are allegorical and figurative. "I have used similitudes," says God, by the ministry of the prophets," Hos. xii, 10. Jesus Christ also used similitudes, which are denominated parables. In this style the torments of hell are described by fire and the worm, both in the Old and the New Testament. Our Saviour makes use of this similitude, to represent the punishment of condemned souls, Mark ix, 44. He also speaks of the eternal fire prepared for the devil and his angels, with which the reprobate wicked will be punished, Matt. xxv, 41. The sting and remorse of conscience will constitute the worm that will never die; and the wrath of God upon the whole persons of the lost will be the fire that is unquenchable. Mr. Pollock describes these with much power of language. "One I remark'd
Attentively; but how shall I describe
I saw, distinctly whisper'd in my ear
These words-THIS IS THE WORM THAT NEVER dies.'
ETERNAL DEATH-THE SECOND DEATH.
Fast by the side of this unsightly thing,
It writh'd, convuls'd, and utter'd mimic groans
I trembling gaz'd, and listen'd, and heard this voice
Letters to a Mother, upon Education.
Dear Madam, THE aspect of this subject is more inviting than that of the last; but proper views of its nature are equally rare. Reward, you know, signifies payment for good conduct: it is therefore a species of wages. Like wages in other instances, it need not be a matter of precise stipulation, it may be only a tacit expectancy; and, like wages in other instances, it need not be paid in money. Hence then it appears to me, that a question of considerable importance arises; namely, will you reward your child for his good conduct? It appears to me to be decidedly objectionable to do so, for the following reasons.
1st. Whenever a child is rewarded, either with commendations or presents for his good conduct, an im pression is thereby communicated to his mind, that he is to be good for the sake of what he can get by it. Thenceforward, virtue and duty represent themselves to his mind as marketable commodities; and the result will be, that when there are no buyers, he will become indifferent to the possession of such wares. You are aware, that it is of the utmost importance to the excellency of your child's character, and to his everlasting welfare, that he should be taught to love propriety of conduct from principle, and inclined to perform it independently of a view to consequences. He may indeed be taught that good conduct is attended with advantage, but every thing which is calculated to make him pursue good conduct for the mere sake of advantage, or with a considerable regard to it, should be avoided. Yet is not this the real tendency of the system of paying him, or giving him presents, or taking him on an excursion, because he has been a good boy?
2dly. The system of rewards for good conduct (I speak simply of the system as applied to private education, and to that stage of it which falls under the immediate superintendence of the parent), is calculated to increase the difficulties of education. If once you begin you must go on with it. At the same time the appetite for reward you have induced in the mind of your infant will increase, and you will find that your successive rewards must increase in value. Besides all this, it is troublesome to the last degree. How painful it is to see a parent purchasing the obedience of his child! How many words, and even hours, are wasted, in conference with the wilful infant! the parent promising and threatening on her part, and the child remaining reluctant or obstinate, till she has either bid high enough, or threatened deeply enough, to induce him to
How distressing to see a parent reduced to this dilemma, or the child becoming mercenary, and artful, and disobedient!
Mrs. Child relates the following story in her book upon education.
"A mother was very busy in preparing for company. Her children knew by experience, that when she was in a hurry she would indulge them in any thing, for the sake of having them out of the way. George began· 'Mother, I want a piece of mince pie.' The answer was, It is nearly bed-time, and mince pie will hurt you.' He repeated the request. You shall have a piece of cake, if you will sit down and be still,' was, at length, the reply. The boy ate his cake; and liking the system of being hired to sit still, he soon began again: Mother, I want a piece of mince pie.' The first answer was repeated. Mother, I want a piece of mince pie-I want a piece of mince pie' was repeated incessantly. Will you leave off teazing, if I give you a piece? Yes, I will-certain-true.' "Soon afterwards, with his mouth half full, he began again- I want ano
ther piece-I want another piece.' 'No, George, I shall not give you another mouthful. Go, sit down, you naughty boy! You always behave worst when I am going to have company.' George continued his teazing, and at last said, 'If you don't give me another piece, I'll roar.' This threat not being attended to, he kept his word. Upon this, his mother seized him by the shoulder, and shook him angrily. Hold your tongue, you naughty boy!' 'I will, if you will give me another piece of pie,' said he. Another small piece was given him, after he had promised that he certainly would not teaze her any more. As soon as he had eaten it, he of course began again, and with the additional threat, 'If you don't give me a piece, I'll roar after the company comes, so loud that all can hear me.' The end of all this was, that the boy had a sound whipping, was put to bed, and could not sleep all night, because the mince pie made his stomach ache."
This, it seems, is a true story. To me it appears a perfect illustration of the whole system of rewarding a child for good behaviour in any way whatever, and equally of the evil of offering him an inducement to be obedient.
Yet how perpetually is this done in almost every family. As soon as a child can understand, he finds himself praised, or scolded and threatened. He accordingly learns to wait before he will act, till he is induced or driven. What numberless words are thus thrown away, and what lamentable consequences are produced. It appears to me that a child would never expect such things, if they were not offered to him; but that a uniform system of judicious treatment being pursued, a family of young children would be as manageable as a flock of lambs.
With what delight have I witnessed, in a well-regulated family, a young boy coming to his father, and asking permission to accept an invitation to play, given him by the child of a neighbour; and upon the parent, after hesitating a few moments, mildly and without any thing marked in his manner, saying "No,' the child
was silent. I looked at the expression of their countenances. The father's was that of mild authority: the child's that of unruffled cheerfulness. This was the result of good management, begun at the beginning, and pursued without deviation.
It appears to me that a parent should avoid the system of paying his child to be good, as the greatest of all evils. However kind she may be to him, whatever presents she may bestow upon him, never should she breathe the contaminating secret, that it is because he has been good. I disapprove of a parent giving her child many presents: let those few which she gives be apportioned to his age and pursuits, and be very good of their kind; but let them be tokens of her love, not wages for her child's obedience. Never should she kiss or caress her child after he has pleased her: this is a reward. Never should she praise him: this is of the same nature. Let the structure of education be reared as silently as was Solomon's temple. The materials were all prepared at a distance, and when brought to the spot were only adjusted; and thus this most beautiful edifice daily grew, but there was not the sound of an axe or a hammer heard within it. Education should be a noiseless process.
When I hear a mother and her children debating, when I hear her threatening or promising, and them entreating, even when I hear a command issued a second time, I feel persuaded that defective principles and practice of education have been pursued. Nothing, on the other hand, is so delightful and beautiful as the tranquillity of a well-disciplined household. This is indeed that
A VOICE OF PEACE FROM IRELAND. DISTRACTED IRELAND demands the kindest sympathy of every Christian throughout the British empire. With its complaints and wrongs, and their causes, we do not meddle: we are content to leave them to the wisdom of the Legislature and the Government, praying that the distressed clergy and the suffering peasantry may find speedy relief. While we are hearing such reports of cruelty, malevolence, and irreligion, prevailing in unhappy Ireland, we are delighted to receive such a paper as the following from one of our IRISH Correspondents, we believe a LADY, whose life is devoted to do good. It breathes the genuine spirit of the Gospel of Christ, and may be read with profit by British Christians.-ED.
AN IRISH ADDRESS TO CHRISTIANS.
Dear Brethren and Sisters in Christ,
Permit me to call your attention to a few important facts at the present awful crisis. The enemy of mankind is abroad in the world, using every means in his power to deceive and ruin the souls of our unfortu nate fellow-creatures. "He hath blinded the minds of them which believe not, lest the light of the glorious gospel of Christ, who is the image of God, should shine unto them" and shall we, who by divine grace alone have been "made to differ," shall we not employ the talents committed to our care for their spiritual welfare? It is alone in the power of God to convert the heart of any human being; but He often works by means, and He has commanded us, "while we have opportunity, to do good unto all men;"-let me then, as a fellowlabourer with you in the vineyard of Christ, earnestly and affectionately entreat you all, to unite your efforts in making known to them the Gospel of the Redeemer, which is the power of God unto salvation to every one that believeth." Time is rapidly passing; and while we, alas! are but too often spending it in trifles, the souls of those around us are perishing for lack of knowledge, ignorant of Jesus Christ, as their only refuge from the wrath to come. Oh! let us, my dear Christian friends, with these awful considerations in view, be more diligent than heretofore, in setting Him forth as the repentant sinner's friend. Let us, who have found Him precious, recommend Him to those who are unacquainted with his salvation. Let us "cast our bread upon the waters, for we shall find it after many days." We know not where, with God's blessing, it may be made instrumental in "winning souls to Christ." We have many opportunities of imitating the example of our Divine Master, who "went about doing good." Many words might be spoken in season, where Christians are silent. The fear of man, as well as the mistaken idea of wounding the feelings of our unconverted fellowsinners, prove too often a hindrance to the believer, to speak the truth with all boldness. Let us then pray, that the Holy Spirit may remove every obstacle, and inspire our hearts with more love and zeal in the Redeemer's cause.
Permit me to offer a remark with respect to that bond of Christian union, which should ever distinguish the followers of the Lamb. It is very much indeed to be lamented, that the different opinions regarding the Millenium, as well as the variety of sects and parties which have for years distracted the church of Christ, are great causes of separation among those who are "born of the same Spirit." Dear friends, these things ought not so to be: for while "one saith, I am of Paul, and another, I am of Apollos, are ye not carnal ? » The new commandment given by our adorable Redeemer was, "that ye love one another, as I have loved you;" and are we fulfilling this injunction when we
allow subjects, comparatively of minor importance, to sever that bond of Christian union so emphatically enjoined. "Let every man be fully persuaded in his own mind;" and where a difference of opinion does exist, Christians should especially guard against entertaining any thing like animosity or party spirit, so unbecoming the followers of the "meek and lowly Jesus." If our hearts and minds were more engaged in the exercise of love to Him, and love to the souls of our fellowcrcatures, there would not be so much schism in the church of Christ; and the observation made during the primitive ages of Christianity, "See how those Christians love one another!" would be as applicable to us, as it was to those who now surround the throne of the Lamb. Praying that the Holy Spirit may "increase your faith, and give you all joy and peace in believing," I remain, dear Christian friends, in the bonds of the everlasting Gospel,
YOUR FELLOW-LABOURER IN the Lord.
Dublin, Jan. 16, 1833.
BRITISH SOLDIERS AND SAILORS. LITTLE has hitherto been attempted to invite the attention of British soldiers to the saving realities of the Gospel of Christ. Appeals have been made to us repeatedly on their behalf, and we shall feel happy in contributing by the CHRISTIAN'S PENNY MAGAZINE to promote their spiritual welfare. We have before us a communication, in which the writer says
"I have the great satisfaction of informing you, that the Soldiers' best interests are not wholly neglected; and I doubt not but you will feel a pleasure in making known the humble endeavours of a Society formed in Westminster, called The SOLDIER'S FRIEND SOCIETY for promoting the Knowledge of Religion in the British Army. They have built for the Soldiers in London a convenient chapel, in White Horse Yard, Broadway, Westminster, where the Gospel is preached to them three times every Sunday, and once in the week; and many are in the habit of attending. This is the first object of the Society: but they have adopted other means, such as establishing Reading Rooms and Libraries for them; the distribution of Religious Tracts and Books; and by encouraging Meetings for Prayer. These various means have been blessed by God to the conversion of many Soldiers. The Society likewise employs a Missionary, who devotes his whole time to the Soldier's cause; and as this is but an infant cause, and does not lend its exertions to the establishment of sects or parties, but endeavours to act upon the broad principles of Christianity, they hope to meet with encouragement from the Religious Public. Good men of all religious denominations are more or less interested in our military population. Infidels are sowing their poisonous productions among them: we hope, by being able to distribute such publications as those of the Religious Tract Society, to counteract their wicked designs."
We shall be glad to hear more particulars of this interesting Society, and to announce the publication of a cheap little volume for Soldiers and Sailors, which is now in the press, entitled, "THE SAILOR AND SOLDIER'S CHRISTIAN FRIEND AND POCKET COMPANION." This work has been compiled by a well-known author, at the urgent request of several devoted friends of our fellow-subjects in the Army and Navy.
Why do I find such struggling in me, provoking me to sin, putting me back from that which is good? The answer is soon given - Thou art a wrestler, not a conqueror. Gurnal.