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superior strength of a playmate who has become a foe. You will have early taught him, that "the righteous Lord loveth righteousness," and that when he has done moral wrong, then only should he be afraid: that then he should acknowledge it, and make restitution as soon as possible, and then dismiss fear. Above all things, guard against making him fear to do and assert what is right, because he is liable to suffer from the superior power of others. Teach him rather to suffer than to give up his own principles. Teach him the dignity of suffering in such a cause.
The dread of animals and insects originates in the silly habit of nurses, who in order to keep a child quiet, tell him of a mouse, or of a rat, or of a bear, or of some terrible creature, who will come and eat him, or take him away. All this told an infant, with tones of aversion and horror, by the nurse, causes that disgust at certain animals and insects, which some persons cannot overcome in after-life. Never let your child be taught to call any creature, even a toad, ugly and disgusting. Teach him that the same Creator formed bim and them: that they have all their use: that in each other's view they are not offensive. It is to the use of such epithets in early life, that the habit of cruelty to such helpless creatures, or indifference to their sufferings, may be traced in manhood.
I was once walking with a father and his children. The father belonged to a learned profession. One of the boys called out that there was a toad by the side of our path. The father turned out of our way, and seizing a large flint stone, dashed the wretched creature into a writhing mass of suffering. In vain I expostulated: one stone after another was heaped upon it; and when it was supposed that all was over, the rolling down of some of the stones attested that the throes of agony were not extinct. What was the fault of this miserable creature? What mighty fault had this being done, which was formed by the hand of Him who made the seraph? It was a toad! The blind and inconsiderate man who had destroyed it had early learned to hate a toad.
It is important to disabuse the mind of a child of all mal-associations with any creature, or to prevent their existence. Teach him the real character of obnoxious creatures. Tell him that a toad is perfectly harmless : that a bee or a wasp will not sting unless provoked; that if they sting when undesignedly injured, it is owing to their want of sufficient intelligence to discriminate. Teach him (and show him a plate of the ear), that the earwig cannot get into the head by the ear. Tell him that the earwig is a very amiable insect, which broods over its young ones after the manner of a hen over her young: that it is remarkable for its attachment to its progeny. Teach him to regard even the meanest creature as a complication of wonders, as the result of infinite wisdom, as the object of almighty care and goodness. Tell him that even venomous snakes and serpents do not voluntarily attack man: that their poison is intended to dispatch the mice and rabbits upon whom they feed, sooner than could be done by the crush of the teeth, and therefore is a provision of benevolence: that a snake stings a man or a child only in the same circumstances and from the same causes as does the wasp. Teach him too, that the poison of every species would not generally be fatal of itself upon man; and that in all countries where they abound, the God of nature has caused the antidotes to grow abundantly which are to be applied, when any of these snakes accidentally sting a human being. In a word, never let a prejudice or a fear of any creature, and especially of the lower orders of beings, exist in his mind. He will otherwise regard such ranks of being as his enemies, and will extend to all the aversion and
the disgust with which he has erroneously been permitted to regard a few. But I see that my paper is filled up. I have yet many more observations to make upon the other objects of fear alluded to in a former part of this Letter, and with which I hope to present you in my next. I am, dear Madam, yours, &c. CLERICUS.
SCRIPTURE GAZETTEER. INTELLIGENTLY to read the Holy Scriptures, it is necessary to possess a tolerable idea of the Geography of the countries to which the sacred writers refer. A Scripture Gazetteer, therefore, must be of much value to our younger readers, for whose instruction we have made preparation; and we shall occasionally devote a page to this interesting purpose.
ABARIM, (passages, or passengers), mountains of; the northern boundary of the land of Moab. They are an exceedingly high ridge of desolate mountains, no otherwise diversified than by a succession of naked rocks and precipices, rendered in several places more frightful by a multiplicity of torrents which fall on each side of them. This ridge is continued all along the eastern borders of the Dead Sea, as far as our eye can carry, affording all the way a most lonesome, melancholy prospect, not a little assisted by the intermediate view of a large stagnating, unactive expanse of water, rarely, if ever, enlivened by any flocks of water fowl that settle upon it, or by so much as one vessel of passage or commerce that is known to frequent it. Nebo and Pisgah were some particular parts of these mountains, whence Moses beheld the land of Canaan, before he was gathered to his people. Num. xxvii, 12, 13.
ABEL-SHITTIM (mourning of the thorns), or SHITTIM, a city situate in the plains of Moab beyond Jordan, opposite to Jericho. Eusebius says, it stood in the neighbourhood of Mount Peor. Moses encamped at this city some time before the Hebrew army passed the river Jordan. Here the Israelites fell into idolatry, and worshipped Baal-Peor, for which God punished them so severely by the hands of the Levites.
ABILENE (the father of mourning), the country of; the eastern boundary of Galilee. It was so named from its chief city Abila, and is thought by some to have lain with the borders of Naphthalim, though it was never subdued by that tribe. Mr. Maundrel tells us, that the next day after he left Damascus, in his return towards Tripoli, they came to a small village called Sinic, just by which is an ancient structure on the top of a high hill, supposed to be the tomb of Abel, and to have given the adjacent country in old times the name of Abilene. The tomb is thirty yards long, and yet is here believed to have been but just proportioned to the stature of him who was buried in it.
ACCAD, or ARCHAD (a vessel, a pitcher), according to the LXX, a city built by Nimrod, the situation whereof is not very well known; but some footsteps of its name Archad, are, according to Dr. Wells, thought to be preserved in the river Argades, mentioned by Ctesias, as a river near Sittace, lying at some distance from the river Tigris, and giving name formerly to Sittace, &c., a country lying between Babylon and Susa; and because it was very usual, particularly in these parts, to have rivers take their names from some considerable city they run by; hence it is not improbably conjectured, that the city Sittace was formerly called Argad, or Archad, and took the name Sittace, and Psittace, from the plenty of pistachias, a sort of nut, which grow there.
ACCRO (inclosed, or pressed together), afterwards called Ptolemais, lay north of Mount Carmel, with a harbour to the sea. It fell to the tribe of Asher upon the division. The Israelites would not extirpate the inhabitants of Accho, and it continued in the hands of the Canaanites.
ACHAIA (grief, or trouble), a province of Greece. The Romans distinguished all the countries which went under the general name of Greece into two provinces, viz. Macedonia and Achaia; under the former of which they comprehended Epirus and Thessaly; under the latter, Greece properly so called, and the Peloponnesus. The word is taken in the Old Testament in the largest sense, so as to include Macedonia; but in the New, it is plainly taken exclusively of Macedonia, and as equivalent to Achaia in the Roman acceptation of it; i.e. so as to include not only Greece, properly so called, but also the Peloponnesus, wherein lay Achaia Propria, whereof Corinth was the capital. In this city St. Paul preached, (Acts xviii, 12), and St. Andrew suffered martydom.
ADRAMYTTIUM (the court or mansion of death), a e sea-port town in Mysia, in the Lesser Asia, lying over against the Isle of Lesbos, and not far from Troas. St. Paul, in his first voyage into Italy, embarked in a vessel which was going to that port. Acts xxvii, 5.
ADRIA (Acts xxvii, 27); the Adriatic Sea, whereby was denoted all the sea lying between Crete and Sicily, together with the lower parts of Italy. It received its naine from Adria, a city upon the Tartaro, in the state of Venice.
MY SCRAP BOOK.
"The Boe that wanders, and sips from every flower, disposes what she has gathered into her cells."-SENECA.
Mr. Robert Tillotson went up to London on a visit to his son, when he was Dean of Canterbury, and being in the dress of a plain countryman, was insulted by one of the Dean's servants, for inquiring if John Tillotson was at home. His person, however, being described to the dean, he iminediately exclaimed, "It is my worthy father," and running to the door to receive him, he fell down upon his knees in the presence of his servants, to ask his father's blessing.
Dr. Fawcett's Life of Oliver Heywood, p. 139. The celebrated Mr. John Howe was particularly inti mate with Dr. Tillotson (afterwards Abp) in respect to whom the following anecdote is worthy of notice. The Dean, as he was then (1680), preached a sermon at Court, on Josh. xxiv, 15; in which he asserted, that "no man is obliged to preach against the religion of a country, though a false one, unless he has the power of working miracles." King Charles slept most of the time. When the sermon was over, a certain noble=man said to him, "It is a pity your Majesty slept, for we have had the rarest piece of Hobbism that you ever heard in your life." "Have you?" said the king, "he shall print it then;" and immediately called the Lord Chamberlain to give his command to the Dean for this purpose. When the sermon came from the press, the Dean, as was usual with him, sent it as a present to Mr. Howe; who, on the perusal, was grieved to find a sentiment which had so ill a tendency, and drew up a long letter, in which he freely expostulated with the Dean for giving such a wound to the Reformation;
and carried the letter himself. The Dean, upon the sight of it, proposed a little journey into the country, that they might talk the matter over without interruption. Mr. Howe enlarged upon the contents of the letter as they travelled in the chariot. The good Dean at length wept, and said, it was the most unhappy thing that had befallen him for a long time; owned that what he had asserted was not to be maintained, and urged in his excuse, that he had but little notice of preaching that day, and none of printing the sermon.
Chalmers's Biog. Art. Till., and Pulmer's Noncon.
The certainty of Death, a poor remedy against the fear of it. Some consider death no otherwise than as it is common to all men, and they think it reasonable enough to submit to what they cannot avoid. 'Tis true this is a reflection that may contribute something to lay the disturbances of the mind when death approaches; but this alone is a very poor argument against the fear of death; they ought to think it as true, that all men must be judged, as that all inen must die. Lucas's Serm., p. 198.
RULES FOR RELIGIOUS DISCOURSE.
1st. Never to talk of religion but when you think of it. There are a sort of people in the world that have such a lazy, unthoughtful, listless, yawning way of talking of religion, that one would almost think they talked in their sleep. They have a road of pious expressions, and are got into a certain set of good words, such as "Lord Jesus Christ”—“ What pleases God”"The Lord's will be done”. "Please God I live "We are all mortal,” &c., which upon all occasions they go over by rote, just as a seaman doth his compass, or rather as a bellman doth his godly rhimes, without thinking what they say, or being at all affected with it. Methinks when I hear such people talk of religion, I fancy the chimes going to the tune of a psalm. The truth is, there is but too much resemblance between. them; they both go as they are set, and one almost as mechanically as the other; only there is this unhappy difference in the case, that the bells oft-times call people to their devotions, whereas these sleepy, dreaming talkers of religion, do but make them sick of it. 2dly. To talk of it seriously, gravely, and soberly. 3dly. Practically.
4thly. Seasonably. There is prudence and management in all things; and if we make choice of a convenient time to give physic to a man's body, much more should we when we administer it to his soul. That is a convenient time, when it is likely men will be the better for what is said to them. For there are times when men are not likely to be the better but rather the worse, and to talk religion to them then, is both to spill your physic, and injure your patient.
5thly. To join along with it the great advantage of a good life, which will give weight to our words. Norris's Serm., vol. iv, p. 38.
In prosperity, prepare for a change; in adversity, hope for one.-Burgh's Dignit. Hum. Nat., p. 82.
The devil tempts the active and vigorous into his service, knowing what fit and proper instruments they are to do his drudgery: but the slothful and idle, nobody having hired them or set them to work, lie in his way, and he stumbles upon them as he goes about, and they do, as it were, offer themselves to his service; and having nothing to do, they even tempt the devil himself to tempt them, and to take them in his way.
Tillot., vol. iv, p. 464.
S. J. B*****.
INSCRIPTION UNDER THE PICTURE OF AN
Art thou a woman? So am I; and all
Art thou a man? Oh! I have known, have lov'd,
THE BLASPHEMER CUT OFF IN HIS SIN.
The following awful instance of unprepared death was related as a recent fact by the clergyman of the place where it occurred. Thinking it may be useful to some of your Readers, I beg to send you the particulars, as nearly as I can recollect them. Sir
is in the habit of visiting the village of annually, and bringing with him about half a dozen young men, profligates like himself. While these misnamed gentlemen continue in the place they are the pest of the neighbourhood, polluting all the young people who come in their way. One of these dissolute young men was sitting drinking with a party of others. In a state of intoxication, he and another agreed, for a sum of money, to try their skill in blasphemy; the prize to be given to him who should be unanimously considered to have poured out the most horrible imprecations and blasphemies. The above-mentioned young man, having been more accustomed to the scenes of high life than his antagonist, and being also perfectly familiar with all kinds of sea-slang, was unanimously acknowledged conqueror.
Crowned with this hellish honour, he left the place; but not reaching home so soon as was expected, a person was dispatched in search of him. The wretched
man was found in a field near a ditch, QUITE DEAD, and a scythe near him. From the position of the body, it was supposed, that he had taken up the scythe, intending either to throw it into the ditch for a frolic, or to try his skill at a stroke; but, being in liquor, he had fallen over on the scythe's sharp edge: for he was found lying in a pool of his own blood, with the main artery of his thigh completely cut through. He must have died in a few minutes after the cut. Thus, in a fit of drunkenness, and bearing off the prize as the most accomplished blasphemer, he was hurried into eternity! E. DAW.
A HINT TO TEACHERS.
Individual and national happiness, it is admitted by every intelligent person, depends principally on a proper education. Admitting the Bible to have been given by divine inspiration, that education must be seriously defective, if not in many respects pernicious, which is not grounded on an extensive training by the Holy Scriptures. Infidels, in all cases, are grossly ignorant of the contents of the sacred volume: and though we are not of opinion that Infidelity is solely the fruit of ignorance, we are certain it is so in a very great degree. Infidelity arises from the natural alienation of the heart from God but this fatal principle is nourished by ignorance, and especially by the absence of pure scriptural knowledge.
There is one work, WATTS'S SCRIPTURE HISTORY, which especially we wish to recommend to the Teachers of Youth of both sexes, as an invaluable lesson book. It is probably the most instructive of the kind, and well adapted to serve as an introductory Commentary ou the Bible. It may now be purchased in a very neat form for a couple of shillings, with the explanatory plates annexed. At least once a week this might be read with incalculable advantage to the young and though we do not undervalue the Histories of England, Greece, and Rome, as necessary class books, we are persuaded that Watts's little volume is beyond comparison superior in importance.
A FATHER, AND TEACHER.
THE MOMENT OF DEATH.
"How wilt thou do in the swelling of Jordan."-Jer. xii, 5.
Speak but the word, in mercy say
My soul serene shall then abide,
Though dark, though drear, I'll hail the road
S. F. W.
"GOD is a substitute for all things: nothing is a substitute for GOD."
"Peace is a lovely thing; but truth is better than peace. We must be men of war for the truth."
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GENERAL NOTICES OF SWITZERLAND. SWITZERLAND, the ancient Helvetia of Cæsar, by whose conquests and writings it has been rendered famous, is bounded by France, Germany, Austria, and Italy. It has been celebrated by travellers as the most picturesque and romantic country in Europe. It is considered the most mountainous district in the globe; though the Andes in South America, and the Himalayas of Nepaul, in Northern India, may be more stupendous and elevated than the Alps. The towering Alps, crowned with everlasting snows, and rendered still more dreary by immense fields of ice, resembling a stormy sea, are contrasted with valleys of the most luxuriant fertility and beauty; and the varied surface of the whole, is such as would be sought in vain in any other country upon earth.
Switzerland is about 200 miles long from east to west, and about 130 broad froin north to south. In the southern division especially, the mountains Titlis, Yungfrahorn, Shruckhorn, Monch, Eiger, Finsteraar, Glockner, and Ostele, raise their lofty summits from 10,000 to 12,000 feet above the level of the sea; and Mont Rasa, and Mont Blanc, are computed as having an elevation of more than 15,000 feet.
From its mountains and valleys, Switzerland, as may be expected, possesses almost every variety of clinate, yet the air is reckoned pure and salubrious. Delicious fruits of various kinds, and excellent corn, abound in this country; but the principal wealth of the inhabitants consists in their cattle.
Switzerland is divided into twenty-two provinces, called Cantons, which form a confederacy for their mutual support and defence; and the government is administered by a GENERAL DIET, the President of which is styled the Landamman. The population of this country in 1828 amounted to 2,037,030.
LITERARY AND RELIGIOUS NOTICES OF SWITZERLAND.
Switzerland, in a literary and religious point of view, will be most interesting to the readers of the Christian's Penny Magazine. Its learned writers have been considerable, in consequence of liberty having been extensively enjoyed by its inhabitants. Several of the name of Gesner have acquired great celebrity; among whom, Conrad Gesner, called the German Pliny, one of the greatest writers on Natural History; and Solomon Gesner, a poet, called the German Theocritus. Paracelsus, Bonnet, Hirzel, Haller, and Zimmerman, are names well known as Physicians: the Bernoullis and Euler, celebrated mathematicians, were natives of this country. Moser, a native of Schaffhausen, originated the ROYAL ACADEMY OF ARTS in London, of which he died the keeper. Necker, the French financier, and De Lolme, author of the "Constitution of England," were natives of Switzerland: and Lavater, the physiognomist, is known in every part of Europe.
Among its celebrated divines and preachers, are reckoned Zuingle, Calvin, Bullinger, Beza, and the Turretines, father and son.
.Religious professors in Switzerland are divided into two classes, Protestants of the Reformed or Calvinistic creed, and Roman Catholics. Of the former there are said to be 1,218,110, and of the latter 817,110, besides 1,810 Jews. The standard creed of the Protestants, is the Helvetic Confession of Faith, agreeing in substance with the doctrinal articles of the Church of England, and with the Confession of Faith of the Church of Scotland; and their discipline is Presbyterian, similar to the latter establishment.
"While Luther was labouring to promote the noble work of reformation in Germany, God graciously caused the light of evangelical truth to shine upon Switzerland. In 1516, Zuinglius, a canon of Zurich, of learning perhaps superior to Luther, and of like intrepidity of spirit, expounded the Scriptures, and testified against the abominations of popery. Samson, an Italian monk, selling indulgences in Switzerland in 1617, roused the indignation of Zuinglius, who, being encouraged by some learned colleagues, who had been educated in Germany, boldly opposed the impious traffic.
"Pope Adrian in vain endeavoured to gain Zuinglius by promises. He employed Faber, afterwards bishop of Vienna, to dispute with him; but the reformer, appealing to the word of God, was unconquered. He published his sentiments in 1523, in sixty-seven particulars, all confirmed by passages of Holy Scripture.
"At Basil, in 1520, Wolfgang, Capito, and Ecolampadius, introduced the doctrines of the Reformation with success.
"In 1522, Hofmeister published them in Schaffhausen, and Haller maintained them in Berne.
"The Cantons of Zurich, Basil, Berne, Schaffhausen, and also parts of Appenzel and Glaris, having embraced the Reformation, were obnoxious to the nine popish cantons, who took up arms to compel them to return to the Catholic church. They were resisted by the troops of the reformed party. Zuinglius accompanied them as chaplain, in 1531, and fell in one of their engageinents. The papists found him lying among the wounded, with eyes uplifted to heaven; and as he would not comply with their wishes, to confess to the Virgin Mary, they murdered him. The same year, many having perished on both sides by the sword, a peace was concluded, on the condition that each canton should retain its own form of religion. The celebrated Helvetic Confession of Faith was prepared and adopted by their synod in 1566.
"Zuinglius was succeeded in the church of Zurich,
by Bullinger, a man worthy of that age. After labour. ing for the faith of Christ, he died in the assured hope of glory, in 1575. Death approaching, among other delightful things, he said, 'I rejoice exceedingly to be taken from this corrupt age, to get to my Saviour Christ. 1 I am sure that I shall see my Saviour Christ, the saints, patriarchs, prophets, apostles, and all the holy men who have lived from the beginning of the world. Since I am sure to partake of their felicity, why should not I be willing to die, to enjoy their perpetual society in glory?"- Church History through all Ages, p. 205, 206.
Geneva was favoured with the last twenty-eight years of the ministry of the great French Reformer. 'Calvin was singularly endowed, by the Father of lights, for eminent services in the church of Christ. He was a man of extraordinary genius, immense learning, and flowing eloquence; to which were added the most elevated piety, and indefatigable industry. All his talents were consecrated to the cause of Christ, from 1534, when he embraced the doctrines of the Reformation. He endured various persecutions from the king of France; to whom he dedicated his famous work, entitled, Institutes of the Christian Religion,' and in 1536, settled at Geneva. His numerous, learned, and orthodox commentaries, and other writings, rendered his name high authority; and, by his learning and wisdom, he became the principal director to all the reformers, in every nation throughout Europe, after the death of Luther."-Ibid. p. 208.
The Protestant doctrines continued to be taught at Geneva, and through the several reformed cantons, especially under Beza, who succeeded Calvin and died in 1605, and Turretin, another theological professor, who died in 1687, and his son, who died in 1737. But infidelity raging in France, scriptural religion declined in Switzerland, through the lukewarm professors of divinity becoming inclined to speculations rather than to serious godliness. They gradually fell therefore into a system of neology, resembling Socinianism, whose infidel creed many of them publicly countenanced. This was especially the case at Geneva: but a better state of things is arising in that lovely and romantic country.
"The canton of Berne has been distinguished for activity in the cause of Christ, by circulating the Scriptures, and promoting a missionary spirit. A Bible Society was formed at Bâsle in 1804, and others have since been instituted at Berne, Zurich, and several other places.
"An evangelical Missionary Society has been formed at Bâsle, from which several worthy missionaries have been sent forth, six of whom were ordained in 1822, to labour among the ignorant people on the shores of the Caspian sea.
"Dr. Malan, an evangelical minister of Geneva, has been for many years a zealous and successful labourer in that city, but not without molestation. On account of his noble stand for the gospel of Christ, he was deposed from his office as regent of the college, deprived of his ministerial character in the church, and he is indebted to the indulgence only of the government for the degree of toleration he has enjoyed, in being suffered to preach in a chapel which has been built for him without the walls. Many religious tracts have been composed and circulated in great numbers, both in Switzerland and in France, by Dr. Malan, and chiefly at his own expense. But the visits of that distinguished preacher to England, have excited a lively interest in favour of the Swiss, and considerable assistance has been rendered to them by British Christians.
"Persecution in vexatious forms has arisen in various parts of Switzerland, and some of those ministers who