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WISE MAXIMS FOR SERVANTS,
To the Faithful, Honest, and Industrious.
I. A good character is valuable to every one, but especially to servants, for it is their bread; and without it they cannot be admitted into a creditable family; and happy it is that the best of characters is in every one's power to deserve.
II. Engage yourself cautiously, but stay long in your place; for long service shows worth, as quitting a good place through passion is a folly, which is always repented of too late.
III. Never undertake any place you are not qualified for; for pretending to what you do not understand, exposes yourself, and, what is still worse, deceives those whom you serve.
IV. Preserve your fidelity; for a faithful servant is a jewel, for whom no encouragement can be too great.
V. Adhere to the truth; for falsehood is detestable; and he that tells one lie, must tell twenty more to conceal it.
VI. Be strictly honest; for it is shameful to be thought unworthy of trust.
VII. Be modest in your behaviour; it becomes your station, and is pleasing to your superiors.
VIII. Avoid pert answers; for civil language is cheap, and impertinence provoking.
IX. Be clean in your business; for slovens and sluts are disreputable servants.
X. Never tell the affairs of the family you belong to; for that is a sort of treachery, and often makes mischief; but keep their secrets, and have none of your own.
XI. Live friendly with your fellow-servants; for the contrary destroys the peace of the house.
XII. Above all things avoid drunkenness; for it is an inlet to vice, the ruin of your character, and the destruction of your constitution.
XIII. Prefer a peaceable life with moderate gains, to great advantages with irregularity.
XIV. Save your money; for that will be a friend to you in old age. Be not expensive in dress, nor marry
XV. Be careful of your master's property; for wastefulness is a sin.
XVI. Never swear; for that is a crime without excuse, as there is no pleasure in it.
XVII. Be always ready to assist a fellow-servant; for good-nature gains the love of every one.
XVIII. Never stay when sent on a message; for waiting long is painful to a master, and a quick return shows diligence.
XIX. Rise early; for it is difficult to recover lost time.
XX. The servant that often changes his place, works only to be poor; for the rolling stone gathers no moss. XXI. Be not fond of increasing your acquaintance; for visiting leads you out of your business, robs your master of your time, and often puts you to an expense you cannot afford: and, above all things, take care with whom you are acquainted; for persons are generally the better or the worse for the company they keep.
XXII. When out of place, be cautious where you lodge; for living in a disreputable house puts you upon a footing with those that keep it, however innocent you are yourself.
XXIII. Never go out on your own business without the knowledge of the family, lest in your absence you should be wanted; for leave is light, and returning punctually at the time you promise, shows obedience, and is a proof of sobriety.
XXIV. If you are dissatisfied in your place, mention
your objections modestly to your master or mistress, and give a fair warning, and do not neglect your business, nor behave ill in order to provoke them to turn you away; for this will be a blemish in your character, which you must always have from the last place you served.
COLLECTED BY THE LATE REV. WILLIAM BUTTON. No. IV.
REV. JAMES HERVEY,
Rector of Weston Favell, Northamptonshire. Died Dec. 25, 1758.
"He clos'd his eyes, and saw his God."-Watts. THE last and great trial of his faith was more precious than that of gold which perisheth. Its preciousness never appeared more than in the hour of death; for then he evidently saw by faith and apprehended the salvation of God, and could rejoice in a clear view of his interest in it. When Dr. Stonehouse saw him for the last time, namely, on Christmas day, about two hours before he expired, Mr. Hervey pressed home upon him his everlasting concerns, in the most affectionate manner, telling him that here is no abiding place; and begging of him, amidst the multiplicity of his business, to attend to the one thing needful. The Doctor, seeing the great difficulty and pain with which he spoke (for he was almost suffocated with phlegm and frequent vomiting), and finding by his pulse, that the pangs of death were coming on, desired that he would spare himself. "No (said he), Doctor, no. You tell me I have but a few moments to live; oh! let me spend them in adoring our great Redeemer. Though my flesh and my heart fail me, yet God is the strength of my heart, and my portion for ever." He then expatiated in the most striking manner upon those words of St. Paul, 1 Cor. iii, 22, 23. "All things are
yours, life and death, for ye are Christ's." "Here, said he, is the treasure of a Christian. Death is reckoned among this inventory; and a noble treasure it is. How thankful am I for death, as it is the passage through which I pass to the Lord and Giver of eternal life, and as it frees me from all this misery you now see me endure, and which I am willing to endure, as long as God thinks fit: for I know he will by and by, in his own good time, dismiss me from the body. These light afflictions are but for a moment, and then comes an eternal weight of glory. Oh! welcome, welcome, Death. Thou mayest well be reckoned among the treasures of the Christian! To live is Christ, but to die is gain."
After which, as the Doctor was taking his final leave of him, Mr. Hervey expressed great gratitude for his visits, though it had been long out of the power of medicine to cure him. He then paused a little, and with great serenity and sweetness in his countenance, though the pangs of death were then upon him, repeated these triumphant words, "Lord, now lettest thou thy servant depart in peace, according to thy most holy and comfortable word, for mine eyes have seen thy precious salvation. Here, Doctor, is my cordial. What are all cordials to the dying, compared to the salvation of Christ? This, this supports me." found this supporting him in his last moments, and declared it by saying twice or thrice, "PRECIOUS SALVATION!" and then, leaning his head against the side of the easy chair, in which he sat, he shut his eyes, and fell asleep."
Funeral Sermon preached by the Rev. W. Romaine, Jan. 4, 1759, from Luke ii, 29, 30. "Lord, now lettest thou thy servant depart in peace, according to thy word for mine eyes have seen thy salvation."
THE GENIUS OF DEATH.
WHAT is death? "Tis to be free
From earthly love, or hope, or fear; To join the great Equality
All alike are humbled there. The mighty grave wraps lord and slave, Nor pride nor poverty dares come Within that refuge-house-the Tomb. Spirit, with the drooping wing And the ever-weeping eye, Thou of all earth's kings art king, Empires at thy footstool lie. Beneath thee strew'd, their multitude Sink like waves upon the shore: Storms shall never rouse them more. What's the grandeur of the earth To the grandeur round thy throne! Riches, glory, beauty, birth,
To thy kingdom all have gone! Before thee stand the wondrous band, Bards, heroes, sages, side by side, Who darken'd nations when they died. Earth has hosts, but thou canst show Many a million for her one: Through thy gates the mortal flow
Has for countless years roll'd on. Back from the tomb no step has come; There fix'd, till the last thunder's sound Shall bid thy prisoners be unbound!
AN AMERCAN INDIAN'S LETTER FOR A BIBLE. MANY of our readers will recollect the interest excited about two years ago, by the sermons and addresses at public meetings, delivered by the Rev. Peter Jones, the Indian Chief, who was then on a visit to our country. On his return to Canada he applied himself diligently to the work of evangelizing his ignorant countrymen, and translating the Scriptures. Part of the word of God having been translated into the Chippeway tongue, "the hearts of the people," he says, in a letter to the Bible Society's Committee, "rejoice at the idea of possessing the words of our Saviour in their own language. In order to show you how they value the good book, and their anxiety to receive it, I herewith send you a translation of an Indian Letter, which I received the other day from one of the Lake Sineve Indians, written in the Chippeway tongue: it is as follows ;
My beloved brother, Peter Jones; -1, Thomas Shilling, speak to you. I wish to tell you I have no book. I want one of the good talking books you brought out with you last summer. Our Chief holds the one you left here, fast in his hands, and will not let it go. I shall borrow it of him, and I will give him money for the use of it. He cannot read. He does not know so much as ABC; and we who can read have no good book to read!"
Peter Jones observes, "The chief alluded to is otherwise Yellowhead, a
and intelligent man; and I expect the reason he holds the book I left with him so tight in his hands, is, that those who can read may come and read it at his own house and in his own ears, and thus understand the will of God concerning him and his people!"
TRADE IN MEN.-It is stated, that above 600,000 Negroes have been stolen from Africa, and transported to Brazil and Cuba alone, since the peace of Paris. A third more, probably, have been stolen, and died!
WHY IS THE TWENTY-FIFTH OF MARCH
Most of our readers know that it is so called in honour of the "Our Lady," the Virgin Mary. On this day is celebrated the angel's message respecting our Blessed Saviour. Luke i, 28.
The eastern churches celebrate this festival at a dif ferent season from those of the west. The Syrians call it Bascarah, i. e. search, inquiry; and mark it in the Calendar for the first of December. The Armenians hold it on the fifth of January: thus anticipating the time, to prevent its falling in Lent: but the Greeks make no scruple of celebrating the festival even in Lent. The earliest mention of the observation of this festival is in the seventh century, when ceremonies had exceedingly multiplied in the churches. At the council of Trullo, in that century, there was a canon made, forbidding the celebration of festivals in Lent, except the Lord's day, and the feast of the Annunciation.
LADY DAY AT ROME.
In the Romish church, on this feast, the Pope performs a ceremony of marrying or cloistering a certain number of maidens, who are presented to him in the church, clothed in white serge, and muffled up from head to foot. An officer stands by, with purses containing notes of 50 crowns for those who make choice of marriage, and notes of 100 for those who choose the veil !
A FRIEND IN ADVERSITY.
THE following remark, from the Rev. G. Whitfield's Journal of his First Voyage to Georgia, serves to show the habitual disposition of that excellent man to turn the most common occurrences of life to purposes of improvement.
Monday, March 20, 1738. To-day Colonel C. came to dine with us; and in the midst of our meal we were entertained with a most agreeable sight. It was a shark, about the length of a man, which followed our ship, attended with five smaller fishes, called pilot-fish, inuch like our mackarel, but larger. These, I am told, always keep the shark company; and, what is most surprising, though the shark is so ravenous a creature, yet, let it be ever so hungry, it will not touch one of them. Nor are they less faithful to him: for, as I am informed, if the shark is hooked, very often these little creatures will cleave close to his fins, and are often taken up with him. Go to the pilot-fish, thou that forsakest a friend in adversity, consider his ways, and be ashamed.”
The first volume of the Christian's Penny Magazine, from June to December 1832, is now complete, and may be had, neatly bound in canvass, price 38. 6d. through any Bookseller or Newsman; and also any of the preceding Parts or Numbers. A specimen of the Embellishments in the First Volume is printed on a large Sheet, price 2d., which will be found to contain some beautiful articles for Books of Prints.
The demand for the Sheet of Engravings having been much greater than was anticipated, it has been found necessary to reprint it. Subscribers and others can now be supplied through the usual channels.
London; Printed and Published by C. WOOD AND SON, Pǝppin's Court, Fleet Street; to whom all Communications for the Editor (post paid) should be addressed; and sold by all Booksellers and Newsmen in the United Kingdoin.
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CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY was noticed in No. 35 of the Christian's Penny Magazine, to which we refer our readers. We now call attention to one of its most splendid ornaments,
KING'S COLLEGE CHAPEL.
This magnificent building owes its origin to Henry VI, who reigned from A. D. 1422 to 1461.
"The extreme length of the Chapel is 316 feet, the breadth 84 feet; the height from the ground to the summit of the battlements 90 feet, to the top of the pinnacles somewhat more than 101, and to the summit of the corner towers 146 feet 6 inches. The space inclosed by the walls, is 291 feet in length, 78 feet in height, and 45 feet 6 inches in breadth."
How far this sumptuous fabric was raised during the life of Henry VI is not accurately known; but it is probable that it was not carried so high as the roof. In the year 1460 an entire stop was put to the work; for Edward IV confiscated the duchy of Lancaster, as well as all the other revenues of the college, re-granting, however, a sufficient sum for the maintenance of the provost and scholars, but nothing towards the completion of the building. After an interruption of sixteen years, the work was resumed through the interest of Dr. Field, warden of Winchester College, and provost of King's. In the four years following, 1296/. 1s. 8d. VOL. II.
was expended on the chapel. From the 14th of June 1483 till the 22d of March in the ensuing year, the business was again at a stand; but Richard III at that time appointed Thomas Cliff overseer of the works, who continued 30 till December; but nothing material appears to have been done, the expenses in nine months amounting only to 7467. 10s. 9d. of which sum, Richard is supposed to have given 7007.
From this period the work was suspended till May 1508, when it was recommenced by Henry VII. The next year the king died, but left directions to complete the chapel, and invested his executors with sufficient authority to defray all necessary expenses. The building from this period advanced with rapidity, and the shell of the chapel was finished July 29, 1515.
"About the middle of the chapel is a wooden screen supporting the organ-gallery, very curiously carved. This was erected in the year 1534, when the beauteous Anna Boleyn was queen to Henry the Eighth. The west side is ornamented with several lovers' knots, and a panel near the wall, on the right, displays the arms of the ill-fated Anna, impaled with those of the king. On another panel is a piece of sculpture, in very bold relief, which represents the Almighty hurling the rebel angels from heaven. Over the screen is a stately and fine-toned organ, erected in 1803.
"This screen separates the ante-chapel from the choir.
The walls on the inside of the former are ornamented with carved stone of excellent workmanship, representing the arms of the houses of York and Lancaster, with numerous crowns, roses, portcullises, and fleurs de lis. In the centre of one of the roses at the west end is a small figure of the Virgin Mary. The view from the screen at the entrance of the choir has much grandeur. On each side are two rows of stalls of carved wood; on the panels, at the back part of the upper rows, are the arms of all the kings of England, from Henry the Fifth to James the First; the arms of the universities of Cambridge and Oxford; and of the colleges King's and Eton. These arms are carved with considerable skill, and the supporters are in fine basrelief. Behind the Provost's stall, on the right of the entrance, is St. George and the Dragon, exceedingly well executed. The choir is paved with marble from the bottom of the stalls.
"The east end of the chapel, which had remained unfinished till about fifty years since, is now completed in a style of symmetry nearly corresponding with the general magnificence of the building. Under the direction of the late James Essex, F. S. A. a grand altar-piece was erected, which has since been embellished with a fine painting of the descent from the cross, presented to the society by the present Earl of Carlisle, who was educated at this college. The painting was purchased by his lordship, when travelling on the continent, as the work of Daniel de Volterra; but some connoisseurs have adjudged it to be the performance of Raphael.
The elegant roof of this fabric is composed of Gothic arches, springing from the buttresses, filled up with beautiful groins; and in the centre, between the groins, are suspended twelve massive stones, of at least a ton weight each; the under surface of which is carved into a rose and portcullis, alternately. The disposition of the materials of this roof, and the ingenuity displayed in its construction, may be justly classed with the most happy efforts of architectural skill. About ten feet above the stone roof, is another of wood, covered with lead.
"An additional cause of the celebrity of this superb edifice may be found in the exquisite beauty of its painted windows, which are also in the Gothic form, and each of them nearly fifty feet high. The subjects are expressive of the most interesting scriptural events, particularly the life, death, and memorable actions of our Saviour, with corresponding incidents from the Old Testament, and are one hundred in number. The side windows are separated by munnions into five lights; these are subdivided into upper and lower compartments by a transom. In the central light of each divison is depicted an angel and a saint, exhibiting scrolls and labels, descriptive of the events represented in the other lights, which are occupied by four subjects in each window, two lights containing a subject. In the arrangement of the subjects, the delineations in the upper divisions are in general selected from the Old Testament, and the paintings immediately underneath, from corresponding circumstances in the New Testament. Thus, in the upper compartments of one window is the Queen of Sheba offering presents to King Soloman, and Abraham performing the ceremony of circumcision in the divisions beneath, the wise men's offerings, and the circumcision of Christ.
"The east and west windows differ from all the other: the glass of the latter is not painted; the former is embellished with paintings of almost inconceivable beauty. The upper and lower division of this window are each separated by buttresses into three compartments, and these are again subdivided by munnions into three lights, each compartment containing a subject. These six
subjects are all taken from the New Testament, and represent the crucifixion, and the most material events immediately connected with it.
"On each side of this elegant building are nine small chapels (20 feet by 10), that were probably erected as chantries, and four of them are known to have been so appropriated. These chapels are built between the buttresses, and, for the most part, communicate with each other. Several of them, on the south side, contain the College Library, which is well furnished with valuable and scarce books, particularly a choice MS of the book of Psalms, upon parchment, four spans in length and three in breadth, which is said to have been taken from the Spaniards at the siege of Cadiz, in 1691. In the year 1804 the celebrated Jacob Bryant, Esq. formerly a fellow of this college, left by will his valuable library to this collection.
"The second chapel from the west on this side was consecrated to religious uses by Provost Hacombleyn, by whom it was ornamented more than any of the others, and afterwards, by his own desire, made his burial place. In the window is a portrait on glass of Henry the Sixth, tolerably well executed; and in the centre of the chapel a large table monument of marble, on the top of which is a flaming urn; and on the east and west side, cherubs supporting the family arms. On the north side is a Latin inscription to the memory of John Churchill, son of the great Duke of Marlborough. This accomplished youth was a student of this college, where he died on the 20th of February, 1702, only five weeks beyond the completion of his sixteenth year.
"In August 1801, a plain white marble tablet, with a suitable inscription, was erected against the east wall of this chapel, to the memory of the celebrated Dr. Glynn, who was buried in the vault near the north door of the great chapel. He died February 6, 1800, aged 81, and bequeathed to the college very large sums towards the erection of new buildings."
"The throne of God and the Lamb shall be in it."-Rev. xxii, 3.
Blest thought! there is a world above!
Blest hope! when death withdraws its vail,
The Cause of Flattery.-The cause of flattery is the pleasure men take in hearing their own praise.
Letters to a Mother, upon Education.
On learning to read.
I WILL now imagine your child to have acquired a knowledge of those sounds, by the combination of which the words of his native language are formed; and also of those arbitrary characters by which the inhabitants of this country have agreed that they shall be represented. Of course the acquisition is most valuable. It will be the means of his access to all the authors of every department who have written in his native language. The next thing however for him to do, is to acquire that facility of recognizing those arbitrary characters, and associating with them their sounds, and of combining them, and pronouncing them in a combined form, which we denominate reading.
This, however, can only be done by practice. But what means will you adopt for this purpose? The usual resort is to the spelling-book. I must however confess, that I am not acquainted with any spelling-book, which is adapted as well as in my view it might be for this purpose. The qualities of a spelling-book ought to be as follow. That it be printed upon good paper, without pictures of any kind, in plain bold letters: that the size of the book be portable; nor need it be of onetenth part of the size of spelling-books in general. In a word, there should be as little as possible in its external appearance to deceive, puzzle, or deter.
These, however, are comparatively its inferior quali ties. Those which are more important are, that it be divided into successive lessons, one lesson on each page. The pages not to be numbered, because I would have the infant see nothing on the paper which he is not to understand from the time he first sees the book. None. of the lessons ought to contain any words of Scripture, or any reference to any religious topics: beware how you ever associate toil, in the mind of your infant, with that inestimable subject. The lessons ought to contain no ideas except those with which he is already familiar, nor any mode of presenting those ideas to his mind, except such as is perfectly natural. When two words are joined together, they ought to make sense, and such sense as the child can understand. Accordingly, such a lesson in reading as the words "I do," would be ineligible, because they contain an abstract idea instead of a sensible idea; which, however familiar to you, is not so to your child. He will be perplexed, and discouraged, which is a calamity ever to be watched against as the greatest of evils. Such a lesson as "the bird," is ineligible, because the idea of a bird would never present itself to the mind with the definite article. Your child never would think of the words, unless in their connection in a sentence. He has no idea of the artificial disposition of words for the sake of a mere lesson in reading.
The lessons next after the alphabet should be the names of the most familiar sensible ideas, placed under each other like a column of spelling, without the article. They should also be those names, in preference to others, which are formed of sounds but little altered by their combination from the sounds which they have when separately pronounced. Thus, man
The word dog would be ineligible, because the sound of the g is different in combination from the sound which it has when separately pronounced. The principle to be acted on throughout is, that the introduction to reading should be as little troublesome as possible, merely a simple transition from the sounds of the
alphabet in the separate to the combined form, and these consisting only of sounds which constitute the names of the most familiar objects. Neither ought the lessons for a long while to come to include a word, which, though the name of a substantive, is used in the sense of the adjective. For instance, "a horn handle" would be an ineligible lesson for a long time to come, because the word horn is best known to your child as a substantive: the use of substantives joined to substantives to express a quality respecting them, is a new, and not a natural mode of perception to your infant. Neither ought your child to commit any thing to memory out of a book for a long time to come. Learning columns of spelling is needless labour. Let the eye be properly exercised, and the memory will follow. Each lesson ought to occupy a day. Like the alphabet, they should be taught in the fewest possible times of going over them. Every repetition of a lesson tends to blunt the perceptions of your infant.
The spelling-book should consist of a few lessons in each class of advancement. For instance, four or five lessons of words of one syllable, selected under the regulations already mentioned: then four or five, of words of one and of two syllables: then four or five, of words of one, two, and three syllables, and so onward.
Conducted in this manner, learning to read will be a delightful and speedy accomplishment. Respecting this, as many other branches of education, the error consists in imagining that it cannot be accomplished under a certain degree of time and a certain degree of labour.
I candidly allow, however, that although there may be numerous spelling-books, containing all these and all other desirable qualities, yet, perhaps from ignorance, I do not know where they may be found.
The generality of spelling books appear to me to be instruments of torture and of intellectual perversion. Look into the most familiar, and see how completely adapted they are to perplex, discourage, and retard the intellect of a child. First, there is the likeness of the writer, as large as the page itself, at which the child gazes with blank astonishment. Then the alphabet, perhaps in Roman, and Germun text, and Italian. Then a series of lessons upon the combination of the letters, as, ab eb ib ob ub, ac ec ic oc uc, ad ed id od ud; allow me to add one more, ag eg ig og ug! Unhappy infant! that is doomed to be driven through this dreary page. In the succeeding lessons, however, the prospect is scarcely amended. The lessons are taken out of the Scriptures, generally out of the Psalms, and a terrible pilgrimage is before the child, through the antiquated elliptical language of King James's translators of the Bible.
Imagine an infant reading the following lesson, which actually occurs in a spelling-book used in schools. "Oh my soul, thou hast said unto the Lord, my goods are nothing unto Thee." I can understand the sublime meaning really latent under this comparatively obscure translation, but imagine an infant employed in reading it. His mind perceives nothing: his eye is all; and his memory benumbed, because awakened by no associations, slowly furnishes him, amid sighs and tears perhaps, with the sounds for each of the letters and words. Such a lesson has the effect on the intellect, which the torpedo inflicts upon the human hand.
When, too, the child is sufficiently advanced to read some of the lessons which follow, what may be the estimated effect of his perusing the following idiom: "A fox being sharp set by hunger!" These are not mere oversights: spelling-books generally are as ill adapted almost throughout as they could possibly have been.
I have previously objected to pictures in a spelling