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61

Wisconsin should add twenty-five per cent. to her yield per acre.. 61

Soil compensating system..

62

The importance and value of growing clover..

62

Improvements in stock-Dairy-product of the state..

63

Mr. White, of Kenosha, averages 600 pounds of cheese per cow. 64

Improve the common stock by thoroughbreds...

64

Value of live-stock in the state-Smithfield cattle-show..

Those who plod in the same old rut complain that farming don't

pay....

65

Remarks of Secretary Field-Discussion.

66-73

Societies represented at the convention..

74

Prominent citizens who participated in the proceedings..

64, 65

74, 75

VII.--STATE AGRICULTURAL CONVENTION--Continued.

Page.

PEAT-A CHEAP FUEL IN THE NEAR FUTURE. By W. II. Newton. 75, 89

Fuel, like food, is a prominent element in the economy of human

life..

75

One-third of the population of Wisconsn now using coal for fuel.. 75

Effect of cutting away our forests...

76

Forests and their products indispensable.

76

Peat of the state to be utilized..

77

Great pecuniary gain to the state.

78

Analysis of samples of foreign peat.

80

Relative value of wood and peat.

80

Calorific power of certain combustibles.

80

Smelting value of different fuels....

81

Comparative value of Wisconsin and other peats..

82, 83

Extract from Professor Chamberlain's geological report..

84

Many million tons of peat in the gs about Madison..

85

One hundred and fifty tons in the state-Process of manufacture... 85-88

Peat a cheap substitute for wood-fuel-Discussion..

88-92

PROTECTION FROM LIGHTNING. By Professor John W. Sterling..92-106

The importance to farmers and others of understanding the laws

of electrical action

93

A moderate degree of study only necessary.

94,95
Statical electricity-Distribution of electricity

95-97

Induction-Dynamical electricity.....

.97-100

Electricity of the clouds-Lightning-rods. .

101-103

Practical directions relative to putting up rods— Discussion. 103-113

OBJECTS AND METHODS OF CULTIVATION. By Professor W. W. Dan-
iells...

.113-121

The soil is the great store-house of the mineral constituents of

plant-food

113

A soil is rock disintegrated

114

Plowing, harrowing, and cultivating the means which shall bring

the rich harvest

114

Fine culture, lightness and porosity of soil essential.

115

Absorptive power of soils

116

Moisture essential-inode of obtaining it..

117

Fertilizers carried into the soil by rain—Benefits of manure.
Better and wiser culture demanded-Discussion......

. 120-130

SOME OF THE LESSONS OF THE PAST SEASON. By J. W. Wood ...130-143

The importance of adapting better and surer methods of culture.. 130

Low prices nothing when compared with the emptiness of our bins 130, 131

Clover, &c., are sure and simple methods of restoring exhausted
soils—Timothy exhausts, while clover improves soils..

131, 132

Experience of seventy-five years with clover fertilization.

132

Lime-its action upon organic matter-Chinch-bugs.

133, 134

Winter-wheat--Early varieties of spring-wheat.

135

Rotation of crops—General co-operation...

136-140

Experiments with seed-corn and other grains.

141

Cost of production has no effect upon prices-supply, demand, and
transportation govern

.141, 142

The most hopeful sign of the times is the wide-spread discontent

which prevails-Discussion....

. 142-148

ECONOMY IN FARMING, By John Bascom, LL. D.

. 148–159

The prosperity of the nation and of christian society, must depend

very much upon the farmers..

148

They are the peers of everybody and above nobody.

148

Our land—the paradise of the farmer...

149

Saving and wise expenditure-two essential branches of economy 150

Tools-Farm-buildings-Handling of cattle and lands.... 150-154

Contrast of the average farmer and the average drayman.

154

Nature takes the laboring-oar in the West...

154

Failure in method a great waste-An example...

155

118, 119

1792

VII.--STATE AGRICULTURAL CONVENTION_Continued.

Page.

ECONOMY IN FARMING--Continued.

Sacks of gold in a manure-heap

155

A clod-hopper can abuse the world, but a wise man only can woo it 156

Higher education and social economy-University influence.....156, 157

Few callings that promise so much as intelligent farming.

. 158, 159

Discussion..

..159, 160

THE NEED OF ORGANIZATION AMONG PRODUCERS, By Hon. M. K.

Young...

160-174

Material wealth of the nation lies with producers.

161

Physical and organic laws to be studied

162

Breeding-Experiences of past and present to be secured by organ-

ization

. 162, 163

Division of farm-production.

164

Producers of other values organize; hence, farmers should.

. 164, 165

Command that capital exercises over labor.

. 165-168

Producers must make themselves felt in public affairs. ..167,168

A word to the officials—Trust of power-Specie payment.... ..169-171

"You have doubled my fortune, but you have ruined your country. 171

A legal basis for money basis enough-How shall we organize. 172, 173

The ballot should be made compulsory-Discussion...

.174-181

COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES or MACHINERY

IN AGRICULTURE. By E. H. Benton....

181-189

Advantage of machinery--greater amount of work accomplisired

in a given time-illustrations..

..181, 182

Work more effectively done-Fifty per cent. saved in time......182, 183

More dignity in mixing brain and muscle than in the mere use of

brawn-Contrast between machine and hand labor......

. 184, 185

“Knack," or "gumption," necessary to operate machinery:

186

Disadvantages of machinery, Machinery must be run by brains.186, ,187

Increase of power involves increase of skill.

187

Farmers must be educated in the principles of mechanics.

187

Patent laws and their workings..

188

The purchase of so much machinery-a doubtful investment. 189

Discussion.

189-196

Discussion of Prof. Daniell’s paper continued.

196-200

GYPSUM, OR LAND-PLASTER, AND HOW TO USE IT. By N. E. Allen. 201-207

Experiences and observations in its use..

201

Plaster fixes the ammonia in the soil, and aids in the decomposi-

tion of vegetable substances...

202

Will double a crop on new soil—Will do no good on wet soil.... 202

A simple rule by which to determine the benefits of plaster..

Discussion...

203-207

AGRICULTURE-GLIMPSE AT ITS Past, PRESENT, AND FUTURE. By
J. M. Smith .......

208-219

Great wants of any people—food and clothing

108

Glance at agriculture of the more favored of ancient nations. 209

Egypt the then granary of the world..

210

Labor performed by slaves....

211

Agricultural condition of Europe at that time was wretched. 212

Wages of laborers fixed by law and ranged from four to six shil-

lings per week-Agricultural societies..

,213, 214

Agricultural papers an American institution..

.214, 215

Comparison of the past with the present of agriculture

.215, 216

The farmer of to-day bows in reverence to none except his God.. 216

The west and northwest the only territory of any size in the world

where the masses of the people can afford to have wheat-bread,

butter, and meat as the main articles of daily food

216

Noble men leading the way in stock-improving.

217

Experiments of J. B. Lawes, of England...

. 217, 218

VII.-STATE AGRICULTURAL CONVENTION-Continued.

Page.

AGRICULTURE-GLANCE AT ITS PAST, ETC.-Continued.

Farmers to be better educated in the future.

218

The profession of farming to be elevated financially, socially, mor-

ally, and intellectually, and the farmer take the front rank of in-

fluence among his fellow men-Discussion......

..218-230

INTEREST ON MONEY-A High RATE RUINOUS TO PRODUCTIVE IN-

DUSTRY. By Seeretary W. W. Field..

230-247

The beauties and benefits of money.

230

By high rate of interest, power of money

increased.

231

Interest to be paid by labor, and if too high, labor receives nothing

but a bare subsistence...

232

What is justice and for the general welfare. .

233

The accumulative power of
money shown

.233-237

The effect of paying 10 per cent—Teachings in our schools.. 238

Governor Randall on interest— Annual message, 1859....

238

Interest on money should be regulated by the power that creates it 239

Co-operative banks in Germany

.239, 240

Interest should be as low as the net profits from the productive in-

dustries-Extract from Kellogg..

..240, 241

Speedy resumption would cripple the labor and industry of the

country_True functions of money.

242

The true currency-greenbacks.

243

The contest between labor and capital..

244

Senator Windham's report relative to a Department of Industry. 244, 245

Summary conclusions-Discussion...

.245–274

THE FUTURE OUTLOOK OF THE DAIRY-INTEREST IN WISCONSIN.

By Stephen Favill

275-277

Wheat-raising unprofitable.

275

The dairy a success in the older states.

275

Drouths a drawback to Wisconsin dairying

276

Natural advantage we have over the East

276

Profitable dairying in Wisconsin has already been settled.,

276

No danger that cheese and butter manufacture will be overdone. .276-277

Discussion

.277-280

HORSES. By Hon. John L. Mitchell

280-288

What is the most profitable kind

280

The thoroughbred and trotting-horse.

281

The draft-horse—The carriage-horse..

.282, 283

Authorities relative to breeding as recommended.

..283, 284

Horses a subject of great practical importance

285

Discussion

.285-288

APICULTURE, OR “LIGHT IN THE BEE-HIVE.By G.W. Maryatt.288, 299

The honey-bec the only domesticated insect .

288

What a colony consists of

289

Economy in extracting the honey and saving the comb to be re-

filled-Laws relating to the management of bees.

..290, 291

Peculiarities of queens..

.291, 292

Bees aid in the impregnation of plants..

293

Forced swarming-conditions...

.293, 294

Produce queens, workers, or drones at pleasure..

294

Bee-keeping one of the economies of the farm..

295

Italian bees-a superior breed..

296

Hints to beginners-Discussion..

.296, 299

NATURES METHOD OF SOIL-FORMATION AND THE PROCESS OP

CULTURE WHICH THESE METHODS SUGGEST. By Professor John

Murrish....

309

The work of organiz tion-Forces of disintegration.

300

Facts in connection with the formation and disintegration of rocks 301

Absorptive power of the soil-matter of which plants are com-

posed.

302

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VII.--STATE AGRICULTURAL CONVENTION-Continued.

Page.

NATURE'S METHOD OF SOIL FORMATION, ETC.-Continued.

The soil under certain physical conditions gives birth to vegetable

life-Wonderful power of plants...

...303, 304

Distribution of one form of matter, and the building up of higher

forms- Amount and kind of matter taken up by plants.. 305 306

Facts to be observed...

306

Free circulation of air in the soil important.

307

Beautiful process shown by which heat is produced, causing the

animal to grow,

the car to move, and the boat to push its way

across the ocean-Discussion...

.307-309

SOILS OF EASTERN WISCONSIN. By Professor T. C. Chamberlain. 309, 318

Light and heavy soils..

310

Soils formed by the decomposition of rocks.

310

Artificial manipulations of certain soil-substances.

..310-312

Prairie-loam and clayey-loams-Heavy clayey-loams.

.312, 313

Red marly clayey-soil ---Limestone-loam and sandy soils. 314-316

Humus and calcareous sandy soils..

.316, 317

Magnesian limestones of great value

317

LIVE-STOCK ON WISCONSIN FARMS. By Geo. E. Morrow .318-321

Increased interest in stock-raising..

318

Raising animals tends to higher intelligence and better furming. 319

Nothing succeeds like success

319

Must raise stock well adapted for the purpose designed.

.319, 320

Make use of superior and well-bred males-Discussion.

320-322

Resolution of thanks and remarks of Secretary Field.

. 322, 323

How SHALL FARMERS IMPROVE THEIR CONDITION—Remarks by

Mr. Benton and Mr. Smith....

.323, 324

THE GARDEN AND LAWN—Remarks by H. W. Roby, Milwaukee. .324-326

VIII.-EXHIBITION OF 1874....

328

Opening Address. By President Eli Stilson

.328-332

Address of Professor W. W. Daniells-Hard times a cause and

remedy

..333–346

Address of Gov. Wm. R. Taylor-Industrial development of the

state

..346-349

Report of Vice-President John L. Mitchell, superintendent horse-

department ..

..350, 351

Report of Vice-President Geo. E. Bryant, superintendent cattle de-

partment .

351

Report of Vice-President T. C. Douseman, superintendent sheep

and swine departments

.352-354

Report of E. J. Cooper, assistant superintendent poultry depart-

ment.

.354-356

Report of Dr. C. L. Martin, superintendent agricultural depart-

ment

356, 357

Report cf 0. S. Willey, superintendent horticultural department. 357–359

Report of H. W. Roby, superintendent floral department..

.360, 361

Report of Vice-President Rufus Cheney, superintendent machin-

ery department...

362-364

Report of special committee on machinery.

.364-368

Report of Vice-President Satterlee Clark, superintendent manufac-

turers' department...

.369, 370

Report of J. 0. Eaton, superintendent fine-art department. ..370-372

PREMIUMS AWARDED

.372-397

IX.-COUNTY AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES.

.398, 399

X.-UNIVERSITY FARM....

400-406

XI.-WEATHER-RECORD.

.407-409

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