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This in general is the state and condition of the soul managed in this psalm; and is as the key to the ensuing discourse, or the hinge on which it turns. As to my intendment from the psalm, that which ariseth from hence may be comprised in these two propositions :

1. Gracious souls, after much communion with God, may be brought into inextricable depths and entanglements on the account of sin. For such the psalmist here expresseth his own condition to have been; and such he was.

2. The inward root of outward distresses, is principally to be attended in all pressing trials ; sin, in afflictions.

Gracious souls may be brought into depths on the account of sin.

What those depths are.

Before I proceed at all in the farther opening of the words, they having all of them respect unto the proposition first laid down, I shall explain and confirm the truth obtained in it; that so it may be understood, what we say, and whereof we do affirm in the whole process of our dis

course.

It is a sad truth that we have proposed unto consideration. He that hears it ought to tremble in himself, that he may rest in the day of trouble; it speaks out the apostle's advice, Rom. xi. 20. Be not highminded but fear :' and that also, 1 Cor. x. 12. “Let him that thinketh he standeth, take heed lest he fall. When Peter had learned this truth by woful experience, after all his boldness and frowardness, he gives this counsel to all saints : 'that they would pass the time of their sojourning here in fear;' 1 Pet. i. 14. Knowing how near, in our greatest peace and serenity, evil and danger may lie at the door.

Some few instances of the many that are left on record, wherein this truth is exemplified, may be mentioned : Gen. vi. 9. Noah was a just man, perfect in his generation, and Noah walked with God.' He did so a long season, and that in an evil time, amidst all sorts of temptations, 'when all flesh had corrupted its way upon earth,' ver. 12. This put

an eminency upon his obedience; and doubtless rendered the communion which he had with God in walking before him, most sweet and precious to nini. He was a gracious soul upon the redoubled testimony of God himself. But we know what befell this holy person. He that shall read the story that is recorded of him, Gen. ix. 21. will easily grant, that he was brought into inextricable distress on the account of sin. His own drunkenness, ver. 21. with the consequent of it, gives scandal unto, and provokes the unnatural lust of his son, ver. 22. and this leads him to the devoting of that son, and his posterity, unto destruction, ver. 24, 25. all which joined with the sense of God's just indignation, from whom he had newly received that tremendously miraculous deliverance, must needs overwhelm him with sorrow and anxiety of spirit.

The matter is more clear in David. Under the Old Testament none loved God more than he; none was loved of God more than he. The paths of faith and love wherein he walked, are unto the most of us, like the way of an eagle in the air, too high and hard for us. Yet to this very day, do the cries of this man after God's own heart sound in our ears. Sometimes he complains of broken bones, sometimes of drowning depths, sometimes of waves and water-spouts, sometimes of wounds and diseases, sometimes of wrath and the sorrows of hell, every where of his sins, the burden and trouble of them. Some of the occasions of his depths, darkness, entanglements, and distresses, we all know. As no man had more grace than he, so none is a greater instance of the power of sin, and the effects of its guilt upon the conscience than he. But instances of this kind are obvious, and occur to the thoughts of all, so that they need not be repeated. I shall then shew,

First, What in particular is intended by the depths and entanglements on the account of sin, whereinto gracious souls, after much communion with God, may be cast.

Secondly, Whence it comes to pass, that so they may be, and that oftentimes so they are.

For the first, some or all of these things following do concur to the depths complained of.

1. Loss of the wonted sense of the love of God which the soul did formerly enjoy. There is a twofold sense of

the love of God, whereof believers in this world may be made partakers. There is the transient acting of the heart by the Holy Ghost, with ravishing unspeakable joys, in apprehension of God's love, and our relation unto him in Christ. This, or the immediate 'effect of it, is called, ‘joy unspeakable and full of glory ;' 1 Pet. i. 8. The Holy Ghost shining into the heart, with a clear evidence of the soul's interest in all gospel mercies, causeth it to leap for joy, to exult, and triumph in the Lord; as being for a season carried above all sense and thought of sin, self-temptation, or trouble. But as God gives the bread of his house unto all his children, so these dainties, and high cordials, he reserveth only for the seasons, and persons, wherein, and to whom, he knows them to be needful and useful. Believers may be without this sense of love, and yet be in no depths. A man may be strong and healthy, who hath wholesome food, though he never drink spirits and cordials.

Again, There is an abiding, dwelling sense of God's love upon the hearts of those of whom we speak, who have had long communion with God, consisting in a prevailing gospel persuasion, denoting both the opposition that is made unto it, by Satan and unbelief, and its efficacy in the conquest thereof. This is the root from whence all that 'peace and ordinary consolation, which believers in this world are made partakers of, do spring and grow. This is that which quickens and enlivens them unto duty, Psal. cxvi. 12, 13. and is the salt that renders their sacrifices and performances savoury to God, and refreshing to themselves. This supports them under their trials, gives them peace, hope, and comfort in life and death. Psal. xxiii. 4. • Though I walk in the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil, for thou art with me.' A sense of God's presence in love, is sufficient to rebuke all anxiety and fears, in the worst and most dreadful condition; and not only so, but to give in the midst of them, solid consolation and joy. So the prophet expresseth it, Hab. iii. 17, 18. Although the fig-tree shall not blossom, neither shall fruit be in the vines ; the labour of the olive shall fail, and the fields shall yield no meat; the flocks shall be cut off from the fold, and there shall be no herd in the stalls : yet I will rejoice in the Lord, I will joy in the God of my salvation. And this is that sense

of love, which the choicest believers may lose on the account of sin. This is one step into their depths. They shall not retain any such gospel apprehension of it, as that it should give them rest, peace, or consolation; that it should influence their souls with delight in duty, or supportment in trial; and the nature hereof will be afterward more fully explained.

2. Perplexed thoughtfulness about their great and wretched unkindness towards God, are another part of the depths of sin-entangled souls. So David complains, Psal. lxxvii. 3. “I remembered God,' saith he, “and was troubled.' How comes the remembrance of God to be unto him a matter of trouble? In other places he professeth, that it was all his relief and supportment. How comes it to be an occasion of his trouble ? All had not been well between God and him; and whereas formerly in his remembrance of God, his thoughts were chiefly exercised about his love and kindness, now they were wholly possessed with his own sin and unkindness. This causeth his trouble. Herein lies a share of the entanglements occasioned by sin. Saith such a soul in itself, Foolish creature, hast thou thus requited the Lord? Is this the return that thou hast made unto him for all his love, his kindness, his consolations, mercies? Is this thy kindness for him, thy love to him? Is this thy kindness to thy friend? Is this thy boasting of him, that thou hadst found so much goodness and excellency in him and his love, that though all men should forsake him, thou never wouldst do so? Are all thy promises, all thy engagements which thou madest unto God, in times of distress, upon prevailing obligations, and mighty impressions of his good Spirit upon thy soul, now come to this, that thou shouldst so foolishly forget, neglect, despise, cast him off? Well! now he is gone; he is withdrawn from thee, and what wilt thou do? Art thou not even ashamed to desire him to return? They were thoughts of this nature, that cut Peter to the heart upon his fall. The soul finds them cruel as death, and strong as the grave. It is bound in the chains of them, and cannot be comforted. Psal. xxxviii. 3–6. And herein consists a great part of the depths

quired after. For this consideration excites, and puts an edge upon all grieving, straitening, perplexing affections, which are the only means whereby the soul of a man may

man.

be inwardly troubled, or trouble itself; such are sorrow and shame, with that self-displacency 'and revenge, wherewith they are attended. And as their reason and object in this case do transcend all other occasions of them, so on no other account do they cause such severe and perplexing reflections on the soul as on this.

3. A revived sense of justly deserved wrath belongs also to these depths. This is as the opening of old wounds. When men have passed through a sense of wrath, and have obtained deliverance and rest through the blood of Christ, to come to their old thoughts again, to be trading afresh with hell, curse, law, and wrath, it is a depth indeed. And this often befalls gracious souls on the account of sin, Psal. lxxxviii. 7. Thy wrath lieth hard upon me,' saith He

It pressed and crushed him sorely. There is a selfjudging as to the desert of wrath, which is consistent with a comforting persuasion of an interest in Christ. This the soul finds sweetness in, as it lies in a subserviency to the exaltation of grace. But in this case, the soul is left under it without that relief. It plungeth itself into the curse of the law, and flames of hell, without any cheering supportment from the blood of Christ. This is walking in the valley of the shadow of death.' The soul converseth with death, and what seems to lie in a tendency thereunto. The Lord also, to increase his perplexities, puts new life and spirit into the law ; gives it a fresh commission, as it were, to take such a one into its custody; and the law. will never in this world be wanting unto its duty.

4. Oppressing apprehensions of temporal judgments, concur herein also ; for God will judge his people. And judgment often begins at the house of God. Though God, saith such a one, should not cast me off for ever; though he should pardon my iniquities; yet he may so take vengeance of my inventions, as to make me feed on gall and wormwood all my days. Psal. cxix. 120. saith David, “My flesh trembleth for fear of thee, and I am afraid of thy judgments.' He knows not what the great God may bring upon him: and being full of a sense of the guilt of sin, which is the bottom of this whole condition, every judgment of God is full of terror unto him. Sometimes he thinks God may

VOL. XIV.

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