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From Original in Ontario Bureau of Archives, Toronto.

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IN THE WESTERN DISTRICT.

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The Eastern Waterfront.

The following letter from Major Holland to General Haldimand gives an interesting description of the route from Montreal to Kingston :

QUEBEC, 26th June, 1783. SIR,-Agreeably to the commands contained in your Excellency's letter to me dated the 26th of last month, I immediately set off for Montreal, with the two Mohawks, Captain Brant and Johan; there I left them, Captain Brant being unable to proceed from sickness. On the 3rd of June Captain La Force joined me at LeChine, and we proceeded, with two batteaux, for Carleton Island. As the time limited by your Excellency for my return would not permit me to make an actual survey of the ungranted lands on the north side of the River St. Lawrence, I examined them with attention, and collected all the information I could as to the facility of establishing settlements there, and I found that from the supposed bounds of the Seigneurie of Soulange the property of Monsieur de Longueille on the Lake St. Francis the lands are low towards the water side and fit for meadows, but at the same distance the soil is exceedingly good tillage. From the upper part of Lake St. Francis to the Long Sault no land can be more promising, covered with fine timber fit for building vessels, and in some places pineries fit for masts. The shore along the Long Sault has not an inviting aspect, but the soil, 'tis said at no great distance back is equal to that on Lake St. Francis.

There are fine pineries two or three miles from the water's edge where large masts may be procured.

From the head of the Long Sault to the top of the uppermost rapid, where the navigation begins, the country has a most favorable appearance. From hence to Cataraqui the shore is high and rocky, but opening here and there into beautiful coves and bays, where the view extends a great way into fine natural meadows, and though the shore appears rough and uninviting the soil is rich at some distance-fit for all purposes of agriculture, as I have been informed.

I arrived at Carleton Island on the 10th, late at night, and applied to Major Harris to despatch your orders for Major Ross and Mr. Tinling, the assistant engineer. On the 12th I reached Cataraqui, and began the survey of the Fort and entrenchments made there by the French troops. On the following day my assistant proceeded

to survey the harbor and Captain La Force to take the soundings. Lieut. Tingling joined me on the 17th, when I examined the fort, and made arrangements for the re-establishment of this important post, which in every part surpassed the favorable idea I had formed of it. Your Excellency will perceive its advantageous situation by the plans and drawings which accompany this letter.

The vaults still remain entire, with part of the walls of the fort, barracks, etc., etc., and are in such a state as will contribute to lessen the expense of its re-establishment. The works or lines began by the French on the commanding grounds near the fort will cover a sufficient space for a town. The harbor is in every respect good, and most conveniently situated to command Lake Ontario. The batteaux men prefer keeping over on this side, as they can follow the shore without crossing to the islands in their

course.

Captain Joseph Brant, with several Indians of the Six Nations, went up to Cataraqui Falls and made excursions into the woods. They seemed

to be well satisfied with the country. At their return they declined saying anything concerning the lands; but told me that as soon as they have examined the north side of the lake they will inform your Excellency of the spot where they'll choose to fix their abode. For this purpose they have Bent Captain Isaac with six men of their number to accompany the surveying party.

On the 19th we returned to Carleton Island, where I arranged matters with Major Harris, and wrote to Major Ross for fifty men from each post, and to transport materials to Cataraqui to prosecute the works carrying on there under Mr. Tinling, with whom I left Lieut. Holland as an assistant, who was despatched to forward materials from Oswego.

Captain La Force, Mr. Cotte,* and Mr. Peachy proceeded to survey the north shore of the Lake Ontario all the way to Niagara, having received my instructions for that purpose. On the 20th I set out from Carleton Island for Quebec, where I arrived yesterday. I have the honor to be, etc.,

SAMUEL HOLLAND. Following are the official descriptions of the townships of Cataraqui and west of it which were outlined by the Deputy Surveyor-General (Collins) during the fall of 1783, and subdivided during the following year:

TOWNSHIP No. 1 (Kingston),-A township or tract of land six miles square, lying and being in the Province of Quebec, situate on the north șide of Lake Ontario, near the ancient Fort Frontenac, beginning at a stone boundary standing south 49 degrees, west two hundred and twenty perches from the west angle of the said fort, and six perches from the bank of the lake, runs due west, crossing the mouth of the Little Cataraqui six miles to a stone boundary standing six perches from the bank of the Bay Tonegeyon; and from thence due north, crossing the head of the Bay Tonegeyon, and a small creek that discharges itself into the said bay, six miles to a stone boundary; and from thence a due east course, passing through a low country six miles to a stone boundary standing on a hill twenty-eight perches from the main bank of the little River Cataraqui; and from thence due south, crossing the main branch of the little River Cataraqui and two other branches that discharge into the said river, terminates on the north bank of Lake Ontario at the first station, including twenty-three thousand and forty superficial acres of land, the greater part of which appears to be of an excellent quality, fit for the production of wheat, oats, Indian corn, hemp, flax, timothy and clover. The woods in general are maple, bass, hickory, ash, elm, pine and white oak, etc.—the two latter in many parts from two and a half to three feet diameter.

This township hath a great many advantages on account of its situation, having Lake Ontario on its front. All the small bays afford good harbor for boats, and the lake abounds with a great variety of fish and wild fowl. The little River Cataraqui is navigable for batteaux from its entrance into the lake to the upper boundary of the township, in which space are many proper places for erecting saw-mills.

TOWNSHIP No. 2 (Ernesttown, so called after Prince Ernest, eighth child of George III), --Surveyed according to the above scheme or plot hereunto annexed, a township or tract of land six miles square, situate on the north side of Lake Ontario, bounded in front by the said lake, and in depth by the ungranted lands belonging to the King; on the east by the ungranted lands as aforesaid, and on the west by a township marked on the plan No. 3, beginning at a stone boundary, and runs up the lake south

59 degrees west six miles, to a stone boundary; from thence along a line of marked trees, north thirty-one degrees west six miles, to a stone boundary ; and from thence along a line of marked trees north fifty-nine degrees, east six miles, to a stone boundary; thence south thirty-one degrees east six miles to the first station, including twenty-three thousand and forty superficial acres of land, which appear to be equal in quality to the best lands in America. The woods the same as described in No. 1. Surveyed the 7th day of November, 1783."

TOWNSHIP No. 3 (afterwards called Fredericksburgh, after Frederick, Duke of Sussex, ninth child of the King), -Surveyed according to the above scheme or plot hereunto annexed, a township or tract of land situate on the north side of Lake Ontario, bounded in front by the said lake, and in depth by the ungranted lands belonging to the King; on the east by No. 2, and on the west by No. 4, beginning at a stone boundary standing thirty perches from the bank of the lake, and runs up the same south fifty-nine degrees east six miles to a stone boundary standing on the north bank of the Bay of Quinte; from thence along a line of marked trees north thirty-one degrees west, crossing a large bay six miles and one hundred and forty-one perches to a stone boundary; and from thence along a line of marked trees north fifty-nine degrees east six miles to a stone boundary standing on line No. 2; thence down the said line south thirty-one degrees east six miles and one hundred and forty perches to the first station. The quality of the land and woods the same as described in No. 1. Surveyed the 12th day of November, 1783.

TOWNSHIP No. 4 (Adolphustown, called after the Duke of Cambridge, tenth son of George III., and Fredericksburgh, additional),–Surveyed according to the above scheme or plot hereunto annexed, a township or tract of land situate on the north side of the Bay of Quinte, bounded in front by the aforesaid bay, and in depth by the ungranted lands belonging to the King; on the west side by the bay aforesaid, and on the east by the division line that divides this township from No. 3.

Beginning at a stone fixed on the north bank of the Bay of Quinte, the upper boundary of No. 3, and runs up the bay the several courses of the water to the west point or peninsula of land that lies between the said Bay of Quinte and Savannah Bay; thence crossing Savannah Bay north fiftyone degrees east seven hundred and fifty-nine perches to a stone boundary standing in the line of No. 3; thence down the said line south thirty-one degrees east five miles and two hundred and eighty perches to the first station. Surveyed the 15th day of November, 1783.

J. COLLINS, D. S. General. Assisted by Capt. Sherwood and Lieut. Kotte.

PERSONAL NOTES,

Forty years of British occupation and rule—1760-1800—gave a number of very able Administrators and Officials to Canada, conspicuous among whom were Governors Murray, Dorchester, Haldimand, Col. Henry Hamilton, Col. Henry Hope, General Alured Clarke, Lt-Col. John Graves Simcoe, Samuel Holland, Sir John Johnson, Col. Alexander McKee, David W. Smith, and John Collins.

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Governor-General James Murray was the fourth son of Lord Elibank, a Scottish nobleman of ancient and distinguished family. He entered the army early in life and at the seige of Quebec commanded a brigade, succeeding to the command of the forces after the capture of the city. He acted as Military Governor from 1760 to 1763 and as Governor-General of Canada from 1763 to 1767. He subsequently served in the army and became Governor of Minorca in 1774. In his gallant defence of Fort St. Philip in 1781-82 he greatly distinguished himself. He died on the 18th June, 1794 leaving a son, James Patrick who rose to be a Major General in the British Army, and married Elizabeth, daughter of Edward Rushworth, Esq: of Freshwater House, Isle of Wight.

Governor-General, Lord Dorchester, occupies an exceptionally high place, the most eminent of all, among the personages associated with the organization and early government of Canada. He was no less distinguished as a soldier than as a statesman and the value of his services to Canada can hardly be overestimated. He was born on the 3rd Sept 1724 at Strabane, Ireland, and after completing his studies, entered the army and obtained speedy promotion. He accompanied Wolfe to Canada, showed signal ability in the operations before Quebec, and served at Belleisle and Havana. appointed Lieut-Governor and Acting Governor-General of Quebec in 1766 and Governor-General in 1768. He was in London prior to the passing of the Quebec Act of 1774 and conferred with the British Authorities respecting the measure. After the passage of the Act he returned to Canada and took a deeply interested part in bringing its provisions into operation, as well as rendering superior services in the field on the outbreak of the Revolutionary War. In 1777 he withdrew to England, having been superceded in the command of the army by General Burgoyne. The honor of knighthood was conferred on him during this visit. In 1782 he was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the forces in America in the place of Sir Henry Clinton, with headquarters at New York. On returning to England in 1786, he was raised to the Peerage as Baron Dorchester and a pension of £1000. per annum was bestowed upon him for life and for the lives of his wife and two sons. In the same year he was again appointed GovernorGeneral and Captain General of Canada and he continued to govern the Province until 1796. He married in 1772 Lady Maria, daughter of the second Earl of Effingham, by whom he had many children. He died on the 10th Nov. 1808 at Stubbings, near Maidenhead England.

Governor-General Sir Frederick Haldimand was a native of Yverdun, in the Canton of Neuchâtel, Switzerland, where he was born on the 11th August 1718. He began his military career in the service of the King of Sardinia. He transferred to the Prussian Army and after three years was admitted as a lieutenant in the Guards with the rank of lieutenant-colonel. In 1754 he joined the British Army with the rank of colonel, and in 1756 came to America to serve in the Royal Americans then lately raised. His course as a soldier was distinguished, and his defence of Oswego, in the war with France, is regarded as of great merit. He sustained his reputation as a soldier throughout the Revolutionary War.

After the capitulation of Montreal he was stationed at Three Rivers, and for a time was Governor there. He replaced Carleton as Governor-General of Canada in 1778 and held office until 1784. He resided for a time in London, and died at his early home at Yverdun, in his brother's house on the 5th of June 1791. His name will always be associated with the history of early Canada on

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