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Jean Tache, author of the first Canadian poem "Tableau de la Mer" (ancestor of Sir E. Tache). It became known as the Holland farm, and here Major Holland, according to Le Moine, lived in afluence for many years, subsequent to the close of the War, and in the exercise of open hospitality. The farm is now known as Spencer Grange. He was a member of the Legislative and Executive Councils and died in 1801. His son, Samuel Holland, was killed in a duel at Montreal by Major Ward, of the 60th Regiment. Father and son were buried at Quebec.

Samuel Bolland

Lune sest The name of Sir John Johnson is overshadowed by the greater name of Sir William Johnson, his father. Yet his own services were many and important. He joined the Army as a volunteer in the Revolutionary War, and operated largely among the Mohawk Indians. He raised and commanded a regiment of two battalions in Canada, named the Royal Greens. He defeated Herkimer in 1777 at Fort Stanwix, and suffered defeat in 1780 at Fox's Mill. He was knighted by the king at London in 1765. After the war he was appointed Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs in British_North America, Colonel-in-Chief of the six battalions of the militia of the Eastern Townships, and a member of the Legislative Council. He resided in Montreal. He married Mary, daughter of John Watts president of the Council, New York, and had one son William, a colonel in the British Army, killed at Waterloo. Sir John died at Montreal in 1822.


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Deputy Surveyor-General John Collins was actively engaged in the earliest surveys of Ontario. He operated at Kingston in 1783, and westward of it, in the townships of Ernestown, Fredericksburg, Adolphustown and Marysburgh, in the following year. He accompanied Sir John Johnson in 1784 with the party of U. E. Loyalists under Captain Michael Grass and assisted in their settlement, administering the oath of allegiance to them under a Special Commission. But he had been connected with Canadian surveys long previously, having received an appointment from Major Holland as early as the 8th September 1764 as Deputy Surveyor-General. Sharp differences of opinion occasionally arose between Major Holland and Mr. Collins, as, for instance in the laying out and settlement of Kingston and in these disputes he seems to have had influence enough with the GovernorGeneral to enable him to prevail, probably by the backing of Sir John John

son. Outside of his professional life very little has come down to us about him. He was an ardent Freemason and in 1787 founded St. James Lodge in the King's Rangers at Cataraqui.

John Collins, Dise

The Hon. Hugh Finlay was an active member of the Legislative Council for many years, and was chairman of the Land Committee at Quebec. He acted also in other important official capacities and was Deputy Postmaster-General. He died at Quebec on the 26th December, 1801.

Hugh Finlay

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Jenkin Williams, Secretary of the Executive and Privy Council of Canada, 1775.

Henry Moty
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Henry Motz, Secretary to the Governor-General of Canada.



The District Land Boards preserved minutes of their transactions and transmitted reports regularly to the Governor General-in-Council at Quebec. But the Ontario Archives possesses only those of the Board for the District of Hesse, and a fragment of those for the District of Nassau. It is hoped that those of the Boards for Mecklenburg and Lunenburg are still recoverable, and that such invaluable records as they would be may not be lost to the Province to which they belong. Even in the case of the District of Hesse the Land Board documents are far from complete. In demitting the office of Secretary to the Board, on the 8th of June 1792, Mr. D. W. Smith, makes a note of “three registers, and nineteen attendant ones thereon ; besides all the other papers which are sorted and classed." The nineteen office registers and the papers have disappeared, but it is unlikley that they have all been destroyed, and therefore may yield to search. The three registers mentioned are in the Archives and are in fair state of preservation, although the tooth of time has not spared them. Their contents are given in full in this Section, with a detailed general index

The minutes of the Land Board for the District of Nassau must have comprised several books, but only a thin volume can be found. It, with other Nassau

papers, are given in this Section; as well as the book of instructions to the land surveyors of Upper Canada, a book of surveyors' letters, lists of settlers, miscellaneous papers bearing on the settlement of land, and a statement of the papers in the Surveyor-General's office in 1807.

As first constituted, three members formed a quorum of each Board. From the 1st of May, 1791, on account of the increase of public business, the quorum was raised to five and additional members selected from U. E. Loyalists were appointed. Accordingly, at the meeting of the Board for Hesse held on the 20th May, 1791 (p. 133), three new members were in attendance : John Askin, George Leith and Montigny de Louvigny. Those added to the Board for Nassau were: Gilbert Tice, John Burch, John Warren, Robert Kerr and John McNab. To that for Mecklenburg were added James McDonnel and Hector McLean; and to that for Lunenburg, Malcolm McMartin.

The first Secretary of the Board for Hesse was Thomas Smith, who became one of the members of the second Legislature of Upper Canada for the County of Kent. He was succeeded as Secretary by David William Smith, who was one of the members of the first Legislature for Upper Canada for the County of Kent. The third Secretary of the Board was Edward James O'Brien, who continued in that office until the dissolution of the Board.

In connection with the Schedules and Index of the Two Connected Townships given on pp. 76-80, and the Heads of Inquiry previous to granting lots in the Two Connected Townships given on pp. 269-291, it may be explained that they are the townships of Colchester and Gosfield, lying on Lake Erie east of the township of Malden in the angle of Lake Erie and Detroit River. They consist of a block of land given by the Indians, who then owned it, to a number of men whose names have been, from the commencement of British settlement in the County of Essex, closely and prominently associated with the Detroit District,--Alexander McKee, William Caldwell, Charles McCormack, Robin Emphleet, Anthony St. Martin, Matthew Elliott, Henry Bird, Thomas McKee and Simon Girty. But the British Government did not recognize purchases by private individuals from the Indians, the rule being that all Indian land should

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be secured by the Crown, and granted subsequently to settlers by the Crown, thus securing Crown control of the land and protection for the Indians. The grantees in this case, however, pressed for sanction to settle on the land, and Haldimand, while not consenting, encouraged the applicants to carry on improvements, and in the meantime negotiated with the Indians to convey the land to the King so that it could be surveyed, and properly granted to the settlers. Before the case was closed, however, Haldimand was succeeded by Dorchester, and the question soon engaged his attention. Hence Major Matthews went from Quebec to Detroit and in 1788 laid out the two townships 97 lots, confirming the original squatters, apparently with Dorchester's consent. Some years, however, elapsed before the final settlement of claims, and inquiries were instituted at Quebec in 1791 and at Detroit in 1793, when apparently an adjustment was reached.

HESSE: Of the first members of the Land Board for the District of Hesse Major Farnham Close, of the 65th Foot, was the Commandant of the Garrison at Detroit, and held office by virtue of his military position. William Dummer Powell, was of Welsh descent, born at Boston in 1755. His grandfather came from England as Secretary to Lieutenant-Governor Dummer. The future Chief Justice of Upper Canada was sent to England to be educated and he returned to Boston in 1772. After a brief residence in Lower Canada he settled at Detroit in 1789. The journey occupied a long time, taking ten days from Montreal to Kingston, four, from Kingston to Niagara. Mr. Powell was the first judge who presided over the Court in the District of Hesse, and was a member of the Land Board. Subsequently he settled in Toronto and retired from the bench in 1825. He had a high reputation as a judge, and bore a conspicuous part in the civil life of his time. It is generally accepted that M. Duperon Baby was the M. Babee who in 1760 negotiated for Bellestre with Roger's representative, as to the surrender of Detroit to the British. He was of an old French family, “grandson of Jacques Baby de Rainville who came to Canada from Guienne with the Carignau regiment.Duperon Baby was born in 1738, was made a justice of the Court of Common Pleas in 1788, and died at Sandwich in 1796. (James). Col. Alexander McKee was Indian Agent at Pittsburg before the Revolutionary War, after the outbreak of which he was imprisoned by the revolutionists at Pittsburg. He effected his escape and co-operated with Sir John Johnson among the Indians, becoming Deputy Superintendent-General. In 1778 he travelled through the Indian territory to Detroit, and greatly assisted in maintaining friendly relations between the tribes and the British Crown. He was a Justice of the Court of Common Pleas at Detroit. His services were greatly appreciated by Lord Dorchester, and in his death on the 14th January 1799 the service lost an able and devoted officer. William Robertson was one of the most active members of the Land Board. He settled at Detroit in 1782, engaging in general business as a merchant. He was appointed one of the Justices of the Court of Common Pleas in 1788. He appeared before the Council in Quebec in that year on behalf of the inhabitants of Detroit who memorialized the Governor-General on matters touching the administration of justice. He was appointed a member of Simcoe's first Executive Council, but had by that time settled in England and does not appear to have returned to Canada again. Alexander Grant was the fourth son of Grant of Glenmoriston, Invernessshire. He served in the Royal Navy as a midshipman. He was present with Amherst in the Lake Champlain expedition and was afterwards placed in command of the lake vessels from Niagara to Mackinaw with headquarters at Detroit. Hence his title of commodore. He was a member of the Land Board of Hesse, of Simcoe's

Executive Council, and Administrator of Upper Canada in 1805, during the interval between Lt.-Governor Hunter & Lt.-Governor Gore. He died in 1813. Judge Woods of Chatham Ont is a grandson. The name of Lt Adhemar St. Martin is among those of the Justices of the Peace for Hesse on the list for 1788, and in the year following he appears as a member of the Land Board of Hesse, being then a resident at St Vincent. He had been for many years prominent in the affairs of the Western settlement, gave valuable service as Commissary and interpreter in the Pontiac affair, and suffered severe loss of property. His name is associated with the famous Cass House which came into his possession about 1750, and was the birthplace of Major-General Macomb and at one time the home of the Anthons of whom Charles was the distinguished classical author and Editor. Changes began soon to take place in the personell of the Board and one of the most prominent of the new members was Col. John Askin. The Askin family attained influence in the Detroit district at an early period The name was originally the Scottish “Erskine" and was changed to conceal identity after the Jacobite defeat in 1715. One of the old family removed to Ireland and had a son, John Askin who settled in America and at the time of the Conquest of Canada was a merchant at Albany. In the Pontiac outbreak he transported the supplies from Albany by Lake Erie to Detroit and received, as a reward, grants of land at Detroit. In 1764 he went as Commissary to Michilimackinac, returning in 1780 to Detroit as a trader. He was successful in business and amassed much property, which he abandoned to the States at the close of the Revolutionary War. He then settled in Canada on the east side of the Detroit river. He was appointed a Captain of Militia in 1787 by Lord Dorchester and in 1796 was promoted to be Lieut-Colonel & Colonel in 1801.

NASSAU: When the Land Board was appointed for the District of Nassau, the Commanding officer at Niagara, and ex-officio a member was Lieut-Colonel Hunter. He was, shortly afterwards, succeeded at Niagara by Lt-Col. Gordon, Commanding the Upper Posts. Lieut-Colonel John Butler of the famous Butler's Rangers settled at Niagara after the peace. He was born in New London, Connecticut in 1728. closely associated with Sir William, Sir John, and Col. Guy Johnston, In return for his indefatigable military services he received a pension of £200 per annum and a position in the department of Indian affairs worth £500 a year, besides 500 acres of land for himself and free grants of land for his children. Niagara was named Butlersburg after him. He died on the 12th May 1796. Peter Ten Broeck possessed considerable property in Tryon Valley which was confiscated by the revolutionists. He held a captain's commission in Butler's Rangers. He settled on the Niagara River after the war. Robert Hamilton was descended from a distinguished Scottish family and first settled at Kingston where he assumed as partner, Mr. Richard Cartwright. Dissolving partnership Mr. Hamilton went to Queenston he afterwards resided there. He engaged very extensively in trade and prospered well. He was a member of Simcoe's Legislative Council. His fine residence at Queenston, built in the English style (says Rochefaucault in 1795) was the centre of much social entertainment and hospitality. St. Catherines was named after his wife Catherine. Benjamin Pawling was the son of a Welshman who had settled in Pennsylvania. He, and his brother Jesse, on the confiscation of their property went to Nova Scotia and travelled thence to Quebec by walking and canoeing. They joined the British forces there and fought through the war. Benjamin was a captain-Lieutenant in Butler's Rangers, retiring at the close of the war with the rank of a Colonel. His

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