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K. Rich. Well, go, muster men. But, hear you, || My son George Stanley is frank'd4 leave behind in hold; if I revolt, off goes young George's head; The fear of that withholds my present aid. But, tell me, where is princely Richmond now? Chris. At Pembroke, or at Ha'rford-west, in Wales.

Your son, George Stanley; look your heart be firm,
Or else his head's assurance is but frail.

Stan. So deal with him, as I prove true to you.
[Exit Stanley.

Enter a Messenger.

Mess. My gracious sovereign, now in Devonshire,
As I by friends am well advertised,
Sir Edward Courtney, and the haughty prelate,
Bishop of Exeter, his elder brother,
With many more confederates, are in arms.

Enter another Messenger.

2 Mess. In Kent, my liege, the Guildfords are in


Tell him, the queen hath heartily consented
He shall espouse Elizabeth her daughter.

And every hour more competitors!
Flock to the rebels, and their power grows strong. These letters will resolve him of my mind.
[Gives papers to Sir Christopher.


Enter another Messenger.

3 Mess. My lord, the army of great Bucking


K. Rich. Out on ye, owls! nothing but songs of death? [He strikes him. There, take thou that, till thou bring better news. 3 Mess. The news I have to tell your majesty, Is,-that, by sudden floods and fall of waters, Buckingham's army is dispers'd and scatter'd; And he himself wander'd away alone, No man knows whither.

Enter another Messenger.

4 Mess. Sir Thomas Lovel, and lord marquis Dorset,

'Tis said, my liege, in Yorkshire are in arms.
But this good comfort bring I to your highness,—
The Bretagne navy is dispers'd by tempest:
Richmond, in Dorsetshire, sent out a boat
Unto the shore, to ask those on the banks,
If they were his assistants, yea, or no;
Who answer'd him, they came from Buckingham
Upon his party: he, mistrusting them,
Hois'd sail, and made his course again for Bretagne.
K. Rich. March on, march on, since we are up
in arms;
If not to fight with foreign enemies,
Yet to beat down these rebels here at home.

Stan. What men of name resort to him?
Chris. Sir Walter Herbert, a renowned soldier;
Sir Gilbert Talbot, sir William Stanley;
Oxford, redoubted Pembroke, sir James Blunt,
And Rice ap Thomas, with a valiant crew;
And many other of great fame and worth:
And towards London do they bend their course,
If by the way they be not fought withal.
Stan. Well, hie thee to thy lord; commend me
to him;

K. Rich.

O, I cry you mercy : There is my purse, to cure that blow of thine. Hath any well-advised friend proclaim'd Reward to him that brings the traitor in?

3 Mess. Such proclamation hath been made, my Vaughan, and all that have miscarried Holy king Henry, and thy fair son Edward,


By underhand corrupted foul injustice;
If that your moody discontented souls

Even for revenge
Do through the clouds behold this present hour,
my destruction!
This is All-Souls' day, fellows, is it not?
Sher. It is, my lord.

Buck. Why, then All-Souls' day is my body's

This is the day, which, in king Edward's time,
I wish'd might fall on me, when I was found
False to his children, or his wife's allies:
This is the day, wherein I wish'd to fall
This, this All-Souls' day to my fearful soul,
By the false faith of him whom most I trusted;
Is the determin'd respite of my wrongs,5
That high All-seer which I dallied with,
Hath turn'd my feigned prayer on my head,
And given in earnest what I begg'd in jest.
Thus doth he force the swords of wicked men
Thus Margaret's curse falls heavy on my neck,
To turn their own points on their masters' bosoms:
When he, quoth she, shall split thy heart with



That, in the sty of this most bloody boar,


SCENE I-Salisbury. An open place. Enter the Sheriff, and Guard, with Buckingham, led to execution.

(1) Associates.
(3) Chaplain to the countess of Richmond.

(2) Force.

Buck. Will not king Richard let me speak with him?

Enter Catesby.

Cate. My liege, the duke of Buckingham is taken,
That is the best news; That the earl of Richmond
Is, with a mighty power,2 landed at Milford,
Is colder news, but yet they must be told.

Remember Margaret was a prophetess.

K. Rich. Away, towards Salisbury; while we Come, sirs, convey me to the block of shame; reason here,


A royal battle might be won and lost
Some one take order, Buckingham be brought
To Salisbury; the rest march on with me. [Exe.
SCENE V-A room in Lord Stanley's house.
Enter Stanley and Sir Christopher Urswick.3
Stan. Sir Christopher, tell Richmond this from

Wrong hath but wrong, and blame the due of blame.
[Exeunt Buckingham, &c.
SCENE II-Plain near Tamworth. Enter,
with drum and colours, Richmond, Oxford, Sir
James Blunt, Sir Walter Herbert, and others,
with forces, marching.

Sher. No, my good lord; therefore be patient.
Buck. Hastings, and Edward's children, Rivers,

Richm. Fellows in arms, and my most loving friends, Bruis'd underneath the yoke of tyranny,

(4) A sty in which hogs are set apart for fattening. (5) Injurious practices.

Thus far into the bowels of the land
Have we march'd on without impediment;
And here receive we from our father Stanley
Lines of fair comfort and encouragement.
The wretched, bloody, and usurping boar,
That spoil'd your summer fields, and fruitful vines,
Swills your warm blood like wash, and makes his

In your embowell'd bosoms, this foul swine
Lies now even in the centre of this isle,
Near to the town of Leicester, as we learn:
From Tamworth thither, is but one day's march.
In God's name, cheerly on, courageous friends,
To reap the harvest of perpetual peace
By this one bloody trial of sharp war.

Oxf. Every man's conscience is a thousand swords,
To fight against that bloody homicide.

Herb. I doubt not, but his friends will turn to us. Blunt. He hath no friends, but who are friends for fear;

Which, in his dearest need, will fly from him.
Richm. All for our vantage. Then, in God's
name, march:

True hope is swift, and flies with swallow's wings,
Kings it makes gods, and meaner creatures kings.
SCENE III-Bosworth Field. Enter King
Richard, and forces; the Duke of Norfolk,
Earl of Surrey, and others.

My lord of Surrey, why look you so sad?

Sur. My heart is ten times lighter than my looks.

K. Rich. My lord of Norfolk,

Here, most gracious liege.
K. Rich. Norfolk, we must have knocks; Ha!
must we not?

Nor. We must both give and take, my loving lord. K. Rich. Up with my tent: Here will I lie tonight;

Nor. Six or seven thousand is their utmost power.
K. Rich. Why, our battalia trebles that account:
Besides, the king's name is a tower of strength,
Which they upon the adverse faction want.
Up with the tent.-Come, noble gentlemen,
Let us survey the vantage of the ground;-
Call for some men of sound direction :-
Let's want no discipline, make no delay;
For, lords, to-morrow is a busy day. [Exeunt.
Enter, on the other side of the field, Richmond,
Sir William Brandon, Oxford, and other Lords.
Some of the soldiers pitch Richmond's tent.
Richm. The weary sun hath made a golden set,
And, by the bright track of his fiery car,
Gives token of a goodly day to-morrow.-
Sir William Brandon, you shall bear my standard.-
Give me some ink and paper in my tent;-
I'll draw the form and model of our battle,
Limit! each leader to his several charge,
And part in just proportion our small power.
My lord of Oxford,-you sir, William Brandon,-
And you, sir Walter Herbert, stay with me:
The earl of Pembroke keeps2 his regiment ;-
Good captain Blunt, bear my good-night to him,
And by the second hour in the morning
Desire the earl to see me in my tent :-

K. Rich. Good Norfolk, hie thee to thy charge;

K. Rich. Here pitch our tents, even here in Use careful watch, choose trusty sentinels.
Bosworth field.-

Yet one thing more, good captain, do for me;
Where is lord Stanley quarter'd, do you know?

Blunt. Unless I have mista'en his colours much
(Which, well I am assur'd, I have not done,)
His regiment lies half a mile at least
South from the mighty power of the king.
Richm. If without peril it be possible,

Sweet Blunt, make some good means to speak with

And give him from me this most needful note.

Blunt. Upon my life, my lord, I'll undertake it;
And so, God give you quiet rest to-night!
Richm. Good night, good captain Blunt. Come,

(1) Appoint. (2) Remains with.
(3) A watch-light. (4) Wood of the lances.

Let us consult upon to-morrow's business;
In to my tent, the air is raw and cold.

[They withdraw into the tent. Enter, to his tent, King Richard, Norfolk, Ratcliff, and Catesby.

K. Rich. What is't o'clock?

It's nine o'clock.
K. Rich.

I will not sup to-night.-
Give me some ink and paper.-
What, is my beaver easier than it was?
And all my armour laid into my tent?

Cate. It is, my liege; and all things are in readi


Send out a pursuivant at arms
To Stanley's regiment; bid him bring his power
Before sun-rising, lest his son George fall
Into the blind cave of eternal night.-

[Soldiers begin to set up the king's tent.Fill me a bowl of wine.-Give me a watch :3But where, to-morrow?-Well, all's one for that.Who hath descried the number of the traitors?

[To Catesby. Saddle white Surrey for the field to-morrow.Look that my staves4 be sound, and not too heavy. Ratcliff,

Rat. My lord?

K. Rich. Saw'st thou the melancholy lord Northumberland?

It's supper time, my lord;

Nor. I go, my lord.

K. Rich. Stir with the lark to-morrow, gentle


Nor. I warrant you, my lord.
K. Rich. Ratcliff,-
Rat. My lord?
K. Rich.

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And flaky darkness breaks within the east.
In brief, for so the season bids us be,
Prepare thy battle early in the morning;
And put thy fortune to the arbitrement
Of bloody strokes, and mortal-staring war.
I, as I may (that which I would, I cannot,)
With best advantage will deceive the time,
And aid thee in this doubtful shock of arms:
But on thy side I may not be too forward,
Lest, being seen, thy brother, tender George,
Be executed in his father's sight.


Farewell: The leisure and the fearful time
Cuts off the ceremonious vows of love,
And ample interchange of sweet discourse,
Which so long sunder'd friends should dwell upon
God give us leisure for these rites of love!
Once more, adieu :-Be valiant, and speed well!
Richm. Good lords, conduct him to his regiment :
I'll strive, with troubled thoughts, to take a nap;
Lest leaden slumber peisel me down to-morrow,
When I should mount with wings of victory:
Once more, good night, kind lords and gentlemen.
[Exeunt Lords, &c. with Stanley.
O Thou! whose captain I account myself,
Look on my forces with a gracious eye;
Put in their hands thy bruising irons of wrath,
That they may crush down with a heavy fall
The usurping helmets of our adversaries!
Make us thy ministers of chastisement,
That we may praise thee in thy victory!
To thee I do commend my watchful soul,
Ere I let fall the windows of mine eyes;
Sleeping, and waking, O, defend me still! [Sleeps.
The Ghost of Prince Edward, son to Henry the
Sixth, rises between the two tents.

Ghost. Let me sit heavy on thy soul to-morrow! [To King Richard. Think, how thou stab'dst me in my prime of youth At Tewksbury; Despair therefore, and die!Be cheerful, Richmond; for the wronged souls Of butcher'd princes fight in thy behalf: King Henry's issue, Richmond, comforts thee.

The Ghost of King Henry the Sixth rises. Ghost. When I was mortal, my anointed body [To King Richard. By thee was punched full of deadly holes: Think on the Tower, and me; Despair, and die; Harry the Sixth bids thee despair and die.-Virtuous and holy, be thou conqueror! [To Richmond. Harry, that prophesy'd thou should'st be king, Doth comfort thee in thy sleep; Live, and flourish!

Grey. Think upon Grey, and let thy soul despair! [To King Richard. Vaugh. Think upon Vaughan; and, with guilty fear,

The Ghost of Clarence rises.

Ghost. Let me sit heavy on thy soul to-morrow! [To King Richard. I, that was wash'd to death with fulsome wine, Poor Clarence, by thy guile betray'd to death! To-morrow in the battle think on me, And fall thy edgeless sword; Despair, and die!Thou offspring of the house of Lancaster, [To Richmond. The wronged heirs of York do pray for thee; Good angels guard thy battle! Live, and flourish! The Ghosts of Rivers, Grey, and Vaughan, rise. Riv. Let me sit heavy on thy soul to-morrow, [To King Richard. Rivers, that died at Pomfret! Despair, and die! (1) Weigh.

Let fall thy lance! Despair, and die!— [To King Richard. All. Awake! and think, our wrongs in Richard's bosom [To Richmond. Will conquer him;—awake, and win the day! The Ghost of Hastings rises. Ghost. Bloody and guilty, guiltily awake; [To King Richard. And in a bloody battle end thy days! Think on lord Hastings; and despair, and die!— Quiet untroubled soul, awake, awake!

[To Richmond. Arm, fight, and conquer, for fair England's sake! The Ghosts of the two young Princes rise. Ghosts. Dream on thy cousins smother'd in the Tower;

Let us be lead within thy bosom, Richard,
And weigh thee down to ruin, shame, and death!
Thy nephews' souls bid thee despair, and die.-

Sleep, Richmond, sleep in peace, and wake in joy;
Good angels guard thee from the boar's annoy!
Live, and beget a happy race of kings!
Edward's unhappy sons do bid thee flourish.

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Ghost. The first was I, that help'd thee to the [To King Richard. The last was I that felt thy tyranny: 9, in the battle think on Buckingham, And die in terror of thy guiltiness! Dream on, dream on, of bloody deeds and death; Fainting, despair; despairing, yield thy breath!I died for hope, ere I could lend thee aid: [To Richmond. Put cheer thy heart, and be thou not dismay'd: God and good angels fight on Richmond's side; And Richard falls in height of all his pride.

[The Ghosts vanish. King Richard starts out of his dream.

K. Rich. Give me another horse,-bind up my wounds,

Have mercy, Jesu!-Soft; I did but dream;
O coward conscience, how dost thou afflict me!-
The lights burn blue. It is now dead midnight.
Cold fearful drops stand on my trembling flesh.
What do I fear? myself? there's none else by:
Richard loves Richard; that is, I am I.
Is there a murderer here? No:-Yes; I am :

Then fly,-What, from myself? Great reason

Lest I revenge. What? Myself on myself?
I love myself. Wherefore? for any good,
That I myself have done unto myself?
O, no: alas, I rather hate myself,
For hateful deeds committed by myself.
I am a villain: Yet I lie, I am not.

Fool, of thysel speak well:-Fool, do not flatter.
My conscience hath a thousand several tongues,
And every tongue brings in a several tale,
And every tale condemns me for a villain.
Perjury, perjury, in the high'st degree;
Murder, stern murder, in the dir'st degree;
All several sins, all us'd in each degree,
Throng to the bar, crying all,-Guilty! guilty!
I shall despair.-There is no creature loves me;
And, if I die, no soul will pity me :-
Nay, wherefore should they? since that I myself
Find in myself no pity to myself.
Methought, the souls of all that I had murder'd
Came to my tent: and every one did threat
To-morrow's vengeance on the head of Richard.
Enter Ratcliff.

Rat. My lord,

K. Rich. Who's there?

The least of you shall share his part thereof.
Sound, drums and trumpets, boldly and cheerfully;

Rat. Ratcliff, my lord; 'tis I. The early village God, and Saint George! Richmond, and victory


[Exeunt. Re-enter King Richard, Ratcliff, attendants, and forces.

K. Rich. What said Northumberland, as touch-
ing Richmond?

Rat. That he was never trained up in arms.
K. Rich. He said the truth: And what said
Surrey then?

Rat. He smil'd and said, the better for our pur-

K. Rich. He was i'the right; and so, indeed, it is. [Clock strikes. Tell the clock there.-Give me a calendar.Who saw the sun to-day?

Hath twice done salutation to the morn;
Your friends are up, and buckle on their armour.

K. Rich. O, Ratcliff, I have dream'd a fearful
What thinkest thou? will our friends prove all true?
Rat. No doubt, my lord.
K. Rich.
Ratcliff, I fear, I fear,-
Rat. Nay, good my lord, be not afraid of shadows.
K. Rich. By the apostle Paul, shadows to-night
Have struck more terror to the soul of Richard,
Than can the substance of ten thousand soldiers,
Armed in proof, and led by shallow Richmond.
It is not yet near day. Come, go with me;
Under our tents I'll play the eaves-dropper,
To hear, if any mean to shrink from me.

[Exeunt King Richard and Ratcliff.
Richmond wakes. Enter Oxford and others.
Lords. Good morrow, Richmond.
Richm. 'Cry mercy, lords, and watchful gentle-


That you have ta'en a tardy sluggard here.
Lords. How have you slept, my lord?
Richm. The sweetest sleep, and fairest-boding



||Of England's chair,' where he is falsely set;
One that hath ever been God's enemy:
Then, if you fight against God's enemy,
God will, in justice, ward2 you as his soldiers;
you do sweat to put a tyrant down,
You sleep in peace, the tyrant being slain;
If you do fight against your country's foes,
Your country's fat shall pay your pains the hire;
If you do fight in safeguard of your wives,
Your wives shall welcome home the conquerors;
If you do free your children from the sword,
Your children's children quits it in your age.
Then, in the name of God, and all these rights,
Advance your standards, draw your willing swords;
For me, the ransom of my bold attempt

Shall be this cold corpse on the earth's cold face;
But if I thrive, the gain of my attempt


That ever enter'd in a drowsy head,
Have I since your departure had, my lords.
Methought, their souls, whose bodies Richard mur-
Came to my tent, and cried-On! victory!
I promise you, my heart is very jocund
In the remembrance of so fair a dream.
How far into the morning is it, lords?
Lords. Upon the stroke of four.
Richm. Why, then 'tis time to arm, and give di-
[He advances to the troops.
More than I have said, loving countrymen,
The leisure and enforcement of the time
Forbids to dwell on: Yet remember this,-
God, and our good cause, fight upon our side;
The prayers of holy saints, and wronged souls,
Like high-rear'd bulwarks, stand before our faces;
Richard except, those, whom we fight against,
Had rather have us win, than him they follow.
For what is he they follow? truly, gentlemen,
A bloody tyrant, and a homicide;
One rais'd in blood, and one in blood establish'd;
One that made means to come by what he hath,
And slaughter'd those that were the means to help

A base foul stone, made precious by the foil

(1) Throne. (2) Guard. (3) Requite.



Not I, my lord.
K. Rich. Then he disdains to shine; for, by the
He should have brav'd4 the east an hour ago:
A black day will it be to somebody.-

Rat. My lord?

K. Rich.

The sun will not be seen to-day;
The sky doth frown and lour upon our army.
I would, these dewy tears were from the ground.
Not shine to-day! Why, what is that to me,
More than to Richmond? for the self-same heaven,
That frowns on me, looks sadly upon him.

Enter Norfolk.

Nor. Arm, arm, my lord; the foe vaunts in the field.

K. Rich. Come, bustle, bustle;-Caparison my

Call up lord Stanley, bid him bring his power:-
I will lead forth my soldiers to the plain,
And thus my battle shall be ordered.
My foreward shall be drawn out all in length,
Consisting equally of horse and foot;
Our archers shall be placed in the midst :
John duke of Norfolk, Thomas earl of Surrey,
Shall have the leading of this foot and horse.
They thus directed, we ourself will follow
In the main battle; whose puissance on either side
Shall be well winged with our chiefest horse.
This, and Saint George to boot!-What think'st
thou, Norfolk?

Nor. A good direction, warlike sovereign.This found I on my tent this morning.

[Giving a scroll: K. Rich. Jocky of Norfolk, be not too bold, [Reads. For Dickon thy master is bought and sold.

(4) Made it splendid.

(5) The ancient familiarization of Richard. 2 E

A thing devised by the enemy.---
Go, gentlemen, every man unto his charge:
Let not our babbling dreams affright our souls;
Conscience is but a word that cowards use,
Devis'd at first to keep the strong in awe;
Our strong arms be our conscience, swords our law.
March on, join bravely, let's to't pell-mell;
If not to heaven, then hand in hand to hell.-

What shall I say more than I have inferr'd? Remember whom you are to cope withal;→ A sort of vagabonds, rascals, and runaways, A scum of Bretagnes, and base lackey peasants, Whom their o'er-cloy'd country vomits forth To desperate ventures and assur'd destruction. You sleeping safe, they bring you to unrest; You having lands, and bless'd with beauteous wives, They would restrain the one, distain the other. And who doth lead them, but a paltry fellow, Long kept in Bretagne at our mother's cost? A milk-sop, one that never in his life

Felt so much cold as over-shoes in snow?
Let's whip these stragglers o'er the seas again;
Lash hence these over-weening rags of France,
These famish'd beggars, weary of their lives;
Who, but for dreaming on this fond exploit,
For want of means, poor rats, had hang'd themselves:
If we be conquer'd, let men conquer us,
And not these bastard Bretagnes; whom our fathers
Have in their own land beaten, bobb'd, and thump'd,
And, on record, left them the heirs of shame.
Shall these enjoy our lands? lie with our wives?
Ravish our daughters?-Hark, I hear their drum.
[Drum afar off
Fight, gentlemen of England! fight, bold yeomen!
Draw, archers, draw your arrows to the head!
Spur your proud horses hard, and ride in blood;
Amaze the welkin with your broken staves !2
Enter a Messenger.
What says lord Stanley? will he bring his power?
Mess. My lord, he doth deny to come.
K. Rich. Off instantly with his son George's head.
Nor. My lord, the enemy is pass'd the marsh;
After the battle let George Stanley die.

K. Rich. A thousand hearts are great within my

bosom :

Advance our standards, set upon our foes;
Our ancient word of courage, fair Saint George,
Inspire us with the spleen of fiery dragons!
Upon them! Victory sits on our helms. [Exeunt.
SCENE IV-Another part of the field. Alar-

um: Excursions. Enter Norfolk, and forces; to him Catesby.

Cate. Rescue, my lord of Norfolk, rescue, rescue! The king enacts more wonders than a man, Daring an opposite to every danger; His horse is slain, and all on foot he fights, Seeking for Richmond in the throat of death: Rescue, fair lord, or else the day is lost!

Alarum. Enter King Richard.

K. Rich. A horse! a horse! my kingdom for a


Cate. Withdraw, my lord, I'll help you to a horse.

K. Rich. Slave, I have set my life upon a cast, And I will stand the hazard of the die:

(1) Company. (2) Fright the skies with the shivers of your lances.

I think, there be six Richmonds in the field; Five have I slain to-day, instead of him:A horse! a horse! my kingdom for a horse! [Exe. Alarums. Enter King Richard and Richmond; and exeunt fighting. Retreat, and flourish. Then enter Richmond, Stanley, bearing the crown, with divers other Lords, and forces.

Richm. God, and your arms, be prais'd, victorious friends;

The day is ours, the bloody dog is dead.

Stan. Courageous Richmond, well hast thou acquit thee!

Lo, here, this long-usurped royalty,

From the dead temples of this bloody wretch
Have I pluck'd off, to grace thy brows withal;
Wear it, enjoy it, and make much of it.

Richm. Great God of heaven, say, Amen, to all :-But, tell me first, is young George Stanley living?

Stan. He is, my lord, and safe in Leicester town; Whither, if it please you, we may now withdraw us. Richm. What men of name are slain on either side?


Stan. John duke of Norfolk, Walter lord Ferrers, Sir Robert Brakenbury, and sir William Brandon. Richm. Inter their bodies as becomes their births. Proclaim a pardon to the soldiers fled, That in subinission will return to us; And then, as we have ta'en the sacrament, We will unite the white rose with the red :Smile heaven upon this fair conjunction, That long hath frown'd upon their enmity!— What traitor hears me, and says not,-Amen? England hath long been mad, and scarr'd herself The brother blindly shed the brother's blood, The father rashly slaughter'd his own son, The son, compell'd, been butcher to the sire; All this divided York and Lancaster, Divided, in their dire division.O, now, let Richmond and Elizabeth, The true succeeders of each royal house, By God's fair ordinance conjoin together! And let their heirs (God, if thy will be so,) Enrich the time to come with smooth-fac'd peace, With smiling plenty, and fair prosperous days! Abate the edge of traitors, gracious Lord, That would reduce these bloody days again, And make poor England weep in streams of blood! Let them not live to taste this land's increase,

That would with treason wound this fair land's peace!

Now civil wounds are stopp'd, peace lives again; That she may long live here, God say-Amen.


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