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KING HENRY VI.
** The Contention of the two famous houses of York and Lancaster,' in two parts, was published in quarto, in 1600; and the first part was entered on the Stationers' books, (as Mr. Steevens has observed.) March 12, 1593-4. On these two plays, which I believe to have been written by some preceding author, before the year 1590, Shakspeare formed, as I conceive, this and the following drama; altering, retrenching, or amplifying, as he thought proper. At present it is only necessary to apprize the reader of the method observed in the printing of these plays. All the lines printed in the usual manner are found in the original quarto plays (or at least with such minute
variations as are not worth noticing :) and those, I conceive, Shakspeare adopted as he found them. The lines to which inverted commas are prefixed, were, if my hypothesis be well founded, retouched, and greatly improved by him; and those with asterisks were his own original production; the embroidery with which he ornamented the coarse stuff that had been awkwardly made up for the stage by some of his contemporaries. The speeches which he new-modelled, he improved, sometimes by amplification, and sometimes by retrenchment.
King Henry the Sixth:
Hume and Southwell, two priests. Humphrey, duke of Gloster, his uncle.
Bolingbroke, a conjurer. A Spirit raised by him. Cardinal Beaufort, bishop of Winchester, great Thomas Horner, an armourer. Peter, his man. uncle to the king.
Clerk of Chatham. Mayor of Saint Alban's. Richard Plantagenet, duke of York.
Simpcox, an impostor. Two Murderers. Edward and Richard, his sons.
Jack Cade, a rebel : Duke of Somerset,
George, John, Dick, Smith, the Weaver, Michael, Duke of Suffolk,
&c. his followers.
Margaret, queen to king Henry.
Eleanor, duchess of Gloster. Earl of Warwick,} of the York faction.
Margery Jourdain, a witch. Wife to Simpcox. Lord Scales, Governor of the Tower. Lord Say. Sir Humphrey Stafford, and his brother. Sir John Lords, Ladies, and Attendants ; Petitioners, AlStanley
dermen, a Beadle, Sheriff, and Officers; CitiA Sea-captain, Master, and Master's Mate, and zens, Prentices, Falconers, Guards, Soldiers, Walter Whitmore.
Scene, dispersedly in various parts of England.
Seven earls, twelve barons, twenty reverend bishops,
I have perform'd my task, and was espous'd:
palace. Flourish of Trumpets: then Hautboys. In sight of England and her lordly peers,
and Cardinal Beaufort; ||To your most gracious hands, that are the substance on the other, Queen Margaret, led in by Suffolk; Of that great shadow I did represent; York, Somerset, Buckingham, and others, fol. The happiest gift that ever marquis gave, lowing
The fairest queen that ever king receiv'd.
K. Hen. Suffolk, arise. Welcome, queen Mar
garet: As by your high imperial majesty
I can express no kinder sign of love, I had in charge at my depart for France, Than this kind kiss.--O Lord, that lends me life, As procurator to your excellence,
Lend me a heart replete with thankfulness ! To marry princess Margaret for your grace; For thou hast given me, in this beauteous face, So, in the famous ancient city, Tours,
* A world of earthly blessings to my soul, In presence of the kings of France and Sicil, * If sympathy of love unite our thoughts. The dukes of Orleans, Calaber, Bretaigne, and Q. Mar. Great king of England, and my graAlençon,
• The mutual conference that my mind hath hadi * Studied so long, sat in the council-house,
By day, by night; waking, and in my dreans; Early and late, debating to and fro • In courtly company, or at my beads, – • How Franceand Frenchmen might be kept in awe? • With you mine alder-liefest2 sovereign,
* And hath his highness in his infancy • Makes me the bolder to salute my king • Been crown'd in Paris, in despite of foes? • With ruder terms; such as my wit affords, . And shall these labours, and these honours, die? . And over-joy of heart doth minister.
• Shall !Ienry's conquest, Bedford's vigilance, • K. Hen. Her sight did ravish : but her grace in • Your deeds of war, and all our counsel, die? speech,
"O peers of England, shameful is this league! • Her words y-clad with wisdom's majesty, · Fatal this marriage, cancelling your fame : • Makes me, from wondering fall to weeping joys ; ll. Blotting your names from books of memory : Such is the fulness of my heart's content. - Razing the characters of your renown; Lords, with one cheerful voice welcome my love.. Defacing monuments of conquered France; All. Long live queen Margaret, England's hap-ll. Undoing all, as all had never been ! piness!
• Car. Nephew, what means this passionate dis. 2. Mar. We thank you all. (Flourish.
course? Suff. My lord protector, so it please your grace, * This peroration with such circumstance ?3 Here are the articles of contracted peace,
For France, 'tis ours; and we will keep it still. Between our sovereign and the French king Charles, * Glo. Ay, uncle, we will keep it, if we can; For eighteen months concluded by consent. * But now it is impossible we should :
Glo. (Reads.] Imprimis, It is agreed between the Suffolk, the new-made duke that rules the roast, French king, Charles, and William de la Poole, Hath given the duchies of Anjou and Maine marquess of Suffolk, ambassador for Henry king * Unto the poor king Reignier, whose large style of England,—that the said Henry shall espouse * Agrees not with the leanness of his purse. the lady Margaret, daughter unto Reignier king * Sal. Now, by the death of him that died for all, of Naples, Sicilia, and Jerusalem; and crown |* These counties were the keys of Normandy :her queen of England, ere the thirtieth of May But wherefore weeps Warwick, my valiant son ? next ensuing: -Item,—That the duchy of Anjou • War. For grief, that they are past recovery : and the county of Maine, shall be released and For, were there hope to conquer them again, delivered to the king her father
• My sword should shed hot blood, mine eyes na K. Hen. Uncle, how now? Glo.
Pardon me, gracious lord ; | Anjou ænd Maine! myself did win them both; Some sudden qualm hath struck me at the heart, “Those provinces these arms of mine did conquer: And dimm'd mine eyes, that I can read no further.' And are the cities, that I got with wounds,
K. Hen. Uncle of Winchester, I pray, read on. • Deliver'd up again with peaceful words ?
Win. Item,—It is further agreed between them, Mort Dieu! --that the duchies of Anjou and Maine shall be * York. For Suffolk's duke---may he be suffocate, released and delivered over to the king her father ;|| * That dims the honour of this warlike isle ! and she sent over of the king of England's own
* France should have torn and rent my very heart, proper cost and charges, without having dowry. * Before I would have yielded to this league. K. Hen. They please us well.—Lord marquess,l. I never read but England's kings have had kneel down;
* Large sums of gold, and dowries, with their We here create thee the first duke of Suffolk,
wives : And girt thee with the sword.
• And our king Henry gives away his
own, Cousin of York, we here discharge your grace
• To match with her that brings no vantages. From being regent in the parts of France,
* Glo. A proper jest, and never heard before, Till term of eighteen months be full expir’d.
* That Suffolk should demand a whole fifteenth, Thanks, uncle Winchester, Gloster, York, and * For costs and charges in transporting her! Buckingham,
* She should have staid in France, and starv'd in Somerset, Salisbury, and Warwick;
France, We thank you all for this great favour done,
* Before In entertainment to my princely queen.
* Car. My lord of Gloster, now you grow too hot; Come, let us in; and with all speed provide * It was the pleasure of my lord the king. To see her coronation be perform’d.
* Glo. My lord of Winchester, I know your mind; [Exeunt King, Queen, and Suffolk. I 'Tis not my speeches that you do mislike, Glo. Brave peers of England, pillars of the state, But 'tis my presence that doth trouble
you. To you duke Humphrey must unload his grief, * Rancour will out: Proud prelate, in thy face
Your grief, the common grief of all the land. • I see thy fury: If I longer stay, “What? did my brother Henry spend his youth, We shall begin our ancient bickerings. • His valour, coin, and people, in the wars? Lordings, farewell; and say, when I am gone, • Did he so often lodge in open field,
I prophesied-France will be lost ere long. [Erit.. • In winter's cold, and summer's parching heat, Car. So, there goes our protector in a rage. • To conquer France, his true inheritance ? 'Tis known to you, he is mine enemy: • And did my brother Bedford toil his wits, * Nay, more, an enemy unto you all; • To keep by policy what Henry got?
* And no great friend, I fear me, to the king. • Have you yourselves, Somerset, Buckingham, * Consider, lords, he is the next of blood,
Brave York, Salisbury, and victorious Warwick, * And heir apparent to the English crown;
(1) I am the bolder to address you, having (3) This speech crowded with so many circunsalready familiarized you to my imagination.
stances of aggravation. (2) Beloved above all things.
* Look to it, lords; let not his smoothing words * The peers agreed; and Henry was well pleas'd, * Bewitch your hearts; be wise, and circumspect. * To change two dukedons for a duke's fair • What though the common people favour him,
daughter. • Calling him-Humphrey, the good duke of Glos- ||* I cannot blame them all; What is't to them? ter ;
* 'Tis thine they give away, and not their own. • Clapping their hands, and crying with a loud voice * Pirates may make cheap pennyworths of their • Jesu maintain your royal excellence!
pillage, With-God preserve the good duke Humphrey! * And purchase friends, and give to courtezans, • I fear me, lords, for all this flattering gloss, * Still revelling, like lords, till all be gone : * He will be found a dangerous protector. * While as the silly owner of the goods * Buck. Why should he then protect our sove- * Weeps over them, and wrings his hapless hands, reign,
* And shakes his head, and trembling stands aloof, * He being of age to govern of himself?
* While all is shar'd, and all is borne away ; Cousin of Somerset, join you
* Ready to starve, and dare not touch his own. * And all together with the duke of Suffolk, * So York must sit, and fret, and bite his tongue, * We'll quickly hoise duke Humphrey from his seat. * While his own lands are bargain'd for, and sold. * Car. This weighty business will not brook de- / * Methinks, the realms of England, France, and lay;
Ireland, * I'll to the duke of Suffolk presently. (Exit. ||* Bear that proportion to my flesh and blood, . Som Cousin of Buckingham, though Hum-| * As did the fatal brand Althea burn'd, phrey's pride,
* Unto the prince's heart of Calydon.2 * And greatness of his place be grief to us, Anjou and Maine, both given unto the French! * Yet let us watch the haughty cardinal;
Cold news for me; for I had hope of France, • His insolence is more intolerable
Even as I have of fertile England's soil. • Than all the princes in the land beside; A day will come, when York shall claim his own; * If Gloster be displac'd, he'll be protector. And therefore I will take the Nevils' parts,
Buck. Or thou, or I, Somerset, will be protector, || And make a show of love to proud duke Humphrey, * Despite duke Humphrey, or the cardinal. And, when I spy advantage, claim the crown,
[Ereunt Buckingham and Somerset. For that's the golden mark I seek to hit : Sal. Pride went before, ambition follows him. Nor shall proud Lancaster usurp my right, • While these do labour for their own preferment, Nor hold his sceptre in his childish fist, • Behoves it us to labour for the realm.
Nor wear the diadem
his head, * I never saw but Humphrey duke of Gloster Whose church-like humours fit not for a crown. • Did bear him like a noble gentleman.
Then, York, be still a while, till time do serve: Oft have I seen the haughty cardinal
Watch thou, and wake, when others be asleep, * More like a soldier, than a man o'the church, To pry into the secrets of the state; • As stout, and proud, as he were lord of all, Till Henry, surfeiting in joys of love, * Swear like a ruffian, and demean himself With his new bride, and England's dear-bought - Unlike the ruler of a common-weal.-
queen, • Warwick, my son, the comfort of my age ! And Humphrey with the peers be fall’n at jars
Thy deeds, thy plainness, and thy house-keeping, Then will I raise aloft the milk-white rose,
Excepting none but good duke Humphrey.- And in my standard bear the arms of York,
And, force perforce, I'll make him yield the crown, Thy late exploits, done in the heart of France, Whose bookish rule hath pull'd fair England down. • When thou wert regent for our sovereign,
[Exit. * Have made thee feard, and honour'd, of the SCENE II.—The same. A room in the duke
people : • Join we together, for the public good;
of Gloster's house. Enter Gloster and the
Duchess. * In what we can to bridle and suppress • The pride of Suffolk, and the cardinal,
Duch. Why droops my lord, like over-ripen'd With Somerset's and Buckingham's ambition;
corn, And, as we may, cherish duke Humphrey's deeds, Hanging the head at Ceres' plenteous load? While they do tend the profit of the land. * Why doth the great duke Humphrey knit his *War. So God help Warwick, as he loves the
* As frowning at the favours of the world? * And common profit of his country!
* Why are thine eyes fix'd to the sullen earth, * York. And so says York, for he hath greatest) * Gazing on that which seems to dim thy sight?
• What see'st thou there? king Henry's diadem, Sal. Then let's make haste away, and look unto|* Enchas'd with all the honours of the world? the main.
* If so, gaze on, and grovel on thy face, War. Unto the main ! O father, Maine is lost; * Until thy head be circled with the same. That Maine, which by main force Warwick did win, ||Put forth thy hand, reach at the glorious gold : * And would have kept, so long as breath did last : |* What, is't too short? I'll lengthen it with mine ; Main chance, father, you meant; but I meant Maine;' * And, having both together heav'd it up, Which I will win from France, or else be slain. * We'll both together lift our heads to heaven;
(Exeunt Warwick and Salisbury. 1* And never more abase our sight so low, York. Anjou and Maine are given to the French; ||* As to vouchsafe one glance unto the ground, * Paris is lost; the state of Normandy * Stands on a ticklel point, now they are gone :
(2) Meleager; whose life was to continue only
Hiu * Suffolk concluded on the articles;
so long as a certain firebrand should last.
mother Althea having thrown it into the fire, be (1) For ticklish.
lexpired in torment
• And may
Glo. O Nell, sweet Nell, if thou dost love thy 1. Your grace's title shall be multiplied. lord,
Duch. What say'st thou, man? hast thou as yet • Banish the canker of ambitious thoughts :
conferr'd that thought, when I imagine ill With Margery Jourdain, the cunning witch; • Against my king and nephew, virtuous Henry, And Roger Bolingbroke, the conjurer? • Be my last breathing in this mortal world! And will they undertake to do me good? . My troublous dream this night doth make me sad. • Hume. This they have promised,—to show • Duch. What dream, my lord? tell me, and
your highness I'll requite it
A spirit rais'd from depth of under ground, • With sweet rehearsal of my morning's dream. • That shall make answer to such questions, . Glo. Methought, this staff, mine office-badge As by your grace shall be propounded him. in court,
· Duch. It is enough ; I'll think upon the ques• Was broke in twain, by whom I have forgot,
tions : * But, as I think, it was by the cardinal;
• When from Saint Albans we do make return, * And on the pieces of the broken wand
We'll see these things effected to the full. • Were plac'd the heads of Edmond duke of Here, Hume, take this reward; make merry, man, Somerset,
With thy confederates in this weighty cause. • And William de la Poole first duke of Suffolk.
(Exit Duchess. · This was my dream: what it doth bode, God knows. * Hume. Hume must make merry with the * Duch. Tut, this was nothing but an argument,
duchess' gold; That he that breaks a stick of Gloster's grove, Marry, and shall. But how now, sir John Hume? Shall lose his head for his presumption.
Seal up your lips, and give no words but-mum! • But list to me, my Humphrey, my sweet duke :
• The business asketh silent secrecy. Methought, I sat in seat of majesty,
* Dame Eleanor gives gold, to bring the witch: In the cathedral church of Westminster,
* Gold cannot come amiss, were she a devil. And in that chair where kings and queens are " Yet have I gold, flies from another coast : crown'd;
I dare not say, from the rich cardinal, Where Henry, and dame Margaret, kneeld to me, |* And from the great and new-made duke of Suffolk; . And on my head did set the diadem.
* Yet I do find it so: for, to be plain, Glo. Nay, Eleanor, then must I chide outright: They, knowing dame Eleanor's aspiring humour, * Presumptuous dame, ill-nurtur'di Eleanor ! * Have hired me to undermine the duchess, Art thou not second woman in the realm ;
And buzz these conjurations in her brain. And the protector's wife, belov'd of him? * They say, A crafty knave does need no broker; * Hast thou not worldly pleasure at command, * Yet am I Suffolk and the cardinal's broker. * Above the reach or compass of thy thought? * Hume, if you take not heed, you shall go near And wilt thou still be hammering treachery, * To call them both—a pair of crafty knaves. * To tumble down thy husband, and thyself, * Well, so it stands : And thus, I fear, at last, * From top of honour to disgrace's feet? * Hume's knavery will be the duchess' wreck; Away from me, and let me hear no more. * And her attainture will be Humphrey's fall: • Duch. What, what, my lord! are you so * Sort how it will,4 I shall have gold for all. (Exit. choleric
SCENE III.-The same. Aroom in the palace. With Eleanor, for telling but her dream? • Next time, I'll keep my dreams unto myself,
Enter Peter, and others, with petitions. And not be check'd
• 1 Pet. My masters, let's stand close; my lord •Glo. Nay, be not angry, I am pleas'd again. protector will come this way by and by, and then Enter a Messenger.
we may deliver our supplications in the quill.5 • 2 Pet
. Marry, the Lord protect him, for he's a · Mess. My lord protector, 'tis his highness' good man! Jesu bless him!
pleasure, You do prepare to ride unto Saint Albans,
Enter Suffolk, and Queen Margaret. Whereas the king and queen do mean to hawk. *1 Pet. Here 'a comes, methinks, and the queen Glo. I go.--Come, Nell, thou wilt ride with us? * with him: I'll be the first, sure. • Duch. Yes, good my lord, I'll follow presently. • 2 Pet. Come back, fool; this is the duke of
Ereunt Gloster and Messenger || Suffolk, and not my lord protector. Follow I must, cannot go before,
• Suff. How now, fellow? would'st any thing * While Gloster bears this base and humble mind. ll.with me? * Were I a man, a duke, and next of blood, ' 1 Pet. I pray, my lord, pardon me! I took ye * I would remove these tedious stumbling-blocks, · for my lord protector. * And smooth my way upon their headless necks : "Q. Mar. (Reading the superscription.) To my * And, being a woman, I will not be slack ' lord protector ! are your supplications to his lord* To play my part in fortune's pageant.
ship? Let me see them: What is thine ? • Where are you there? Sir John !3 nay, fear not, • 1 Pet. Mine is, an't please your grace, against man,
John Goodman, my lord cardinal's man, for keepWe are alone; here's none but thee, and I. 'ing my house, and lands, and wife and all, from me. Enter Hume.
Su.ff. Thy wife too? that is some wrong indeed.
What's yours ?-What's here! (Reads.) Against Hume. Jesu preserve your royal majesty! the duke of Suffolk, for enclosing the commons · Duch. What say'st thou, majesty! I am but of Melford.—How now, sir knave? grace.
2 Pet. Alas, sir, I am but a poor petitioner of Hume. But, by the grace of God, and Hume's our whole township. advice,
Peter. (Presenting his petition ] Against my (1) I-educated. (2) For where.
(4) Let the issue be what it will. (3) A title frequently bestowed on the clergy. (5) With great exactness and observance of form.
master, Thomas Horner, for saying, That the dukej * And plac'd a quire of such enticing birds, of York was rightful heir to the crown.
* That she will light to listen to the lays, 'Q. Mar. What say'st thou? Did the duke of | * And never mount to trouble you again. * York say, be was rightful heir to the crown? * So, let her rest : And, madam, list to me;
• Peter. That my master was? No, forsooth: my * For I am bold to counsel you in this. master said, That he was; and that the king was * Although we fancy not the cardinal, an usurper.
* Yet must we join with him, and with the lords, Suff: Who is there? (Enter Servants.]—Take this * Till we have brought duke Humphrey in disgrace. fellow in, and send for his master with a pursuivant || * As for the duke of York,--this late complaint* presently :-we'll hear more of your matter before * Will make but little for his benefit: the king. (Exeunt Servants, with Peter. | * So, one by one, we'll weed them all at last, •Q. Mar. And as for you, that love to be pro-||* And you yourself shall steer the happy helm.
tected • Under the wings of our protector's grace,
Enter King Henry, York, and Somerset, convers
ing with him; Duke and Duchess of Gloster, Begin your suits anew, and sue to him.
[Tears the petition.
Cardinal Beaufort, Buckingham, Salisbury, and
Warwick. • Away, base cullions !!_Suffolk, let them go.
* AL. Come, let's be gone. (Exeunt Petitioners. K. Hen. For my part, noble lords, I care not * 2. Mar. My lord of Suffolk, say, is this the
Or Somerset, or York, all's one to me. * Is this the fashion in the court of England ? York. If York have ill demean'd himself in * Is this the government of Britain's isle,
France, * And this the royalty of Albion's king
Then let him be denay'ds the regentship. * What, shall king Henry be a pupil still,
Som. If Somerset be unworthy of the place, * Under the surly Gloster's governance ?
Let York be regent, I will yield to him. * Am I a queen in title and in style,
War. Whether your grace be worthy, yea, or no * And must be made a subject to a duke? Dispute not that: York is the worthier. • I tell thee, Poole, when in the city Tours
Car. Ambitious Warwick, let thy betters speak. • Thou ran'st a tilt in honour of my love,
War The cardinal's not my better in the field. . And stol'st away the ladies' hearts of France; Buck. All in this presence are thy betters, War• I thought king Henry had resembled thee,
wick. • In courage, courtship, and proportion :
War. Warwick may live to be the best of all. • But all his mind is bent to holiness,
* Sal. Peace, son ;
and show some reason, * To number Ave-Maries on his beads :
Buckingham, * His champions are—the prophets and apostles; * Why Somerset should be preferr'd in this. * His weapons, holy saws of sacred writ;
* Q. Mar. Because the king, forsooth, will have * His study is his tilt-yard, and his loves * Are brazen images of canoniz'd saints.
Glo. Madam, the king is old enough himself * I would, the college of cardinals
* To give his censure :6 these are no women's mat* Would choose him pope, and carry him to Rome,
ters. * And set the triple crown upon his head;
Q. Mar. If he be old enough, what need your * That were a state fit for his holiness.
grace •Suff Madam, be patient: as I was cause "To be protector of his excellence? Your highness came to England, so will I
· Glo. Madam, I am protector of the realm ; • In England work your grace's full content. And, at his pleasure, will resign my place. *Q. Mar. Beside the haught protector, have we Suff. Resign it then, and leave thine insolence. Beaufort,
• Since thou wert king, (as who is king, but * The imperious churchman; Somerset, Bucking
thou ?) ham,
• The commonwealth hath daily run to wreck : * And grumbling York; and not the least of these, || * The dauphin hath prevail'd beyond the seas ; * But can do more in England than the king. * And all the peers and nobles of the realm
* Suff. And he of these, that can do most of all, || * Have been as bondmen to thy sovereignty. * Cannot do more in England than the Nevils : * Car. The commons hast thou rack'd; the Salisbury, and Warwick, are no simple peers.
clergy's bags • Q. Mar. Not all these lords do yex me half so * Are lank and lean with thy extortions. much,
* Som. Thy sumptuous buildings, and thy wife's • As that proud dame, the lord protector's wife.
attire, • She sweeps it through the court with troops of ||* Have cost a mass of public treasury. ladies,
* Buck. Thy cruelty in execution, More like an empress than duke Humphrey's wife ; * Upon offenders, hath exceeded law, Strangers in court do take her for the queen : * And left thee to the mercy of the law. * She bears a duke's revenues on her back,
*Q. Mar. Thy sale of offices and towns in * And in her heart she scorns her poverty :
France, * Shall I not live to be aveng'd on her?
* If they were known, as the suspect is great,* Contemptuous base-born callat3 as she is, * Would make thee quickly hop without thy head. • She vaunted ’mongst her minions t'other day,
(Erit Gloster. The Quieen drops her from The very train of her worst wearing-gown Give me my fan: What, minion! can you not? Was better worth than all my father's lands,
(Gives the Duchess a box on the ear. * Till Suffolk gave two dukedoms for his daughter. • I cry you mercy, madam; Was it you? • Suff. Madam, myself have lim'd a bush for her
(5) Denay is frequently used instead of deny (1) Scoundrels. (2) Sayings. (3) Drab, trull. || among the old writers.
(4) i. e. The complaint of Peter the armourer's (6) Censure here means simply judgment or man against luis master