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they drew and lifted up Joseph out of the pit, and sold Joseph to

the Ishmeelites for twenty pieces of silver: and they brought 29 Joseph into Egypt. And Reuben returned unto the pit; and,

behold, Joseph was not in the pit; and he rent his clothes. 30 And he returned unto his brethren, and said, The child is not; 31 and I, whither shall I go? And they took Joseph's coat, and 32 killed a kid of the goats, and dipped the coat in the blood; And

they sent the coat of many colours, and they brought it to their

father; and said, This have we found : know now whether it be 33 thy son's coat or no. And he knew it, and said, It is my son's

the increase of the earth. Ju. vi. 1, 2, 3, 4. (when he heard of his loss of substance and chil Do unto "them" ("the children of Lot") as dren) Job arose, and rent his mantle, and unto the Midianites, as to Sisera, as to Jabin, shaved his head, and fell down upon the ground at the brook of Kison. Ps. Ixxxiii. 9. The and worshipped. Job i. 20. And rend your multitude of camels shall cover thee (the heart, and not your garments, and turn unto Church, by the glorious access of the Gentiles), the Lord your God; for he is gracious and the dromedaries of Midian and Ephah. Is.lx. 6. merciful, slow to anger, and of great kindness,

Sold Joseph.] And Joseph said unto his and repenteth him of the evil. Joel ii. 13. brethren, Come near to me, I pray you. And Which when the apostles, Barnabas and Paul they came near. And he said, I am Joseph heard of (the priest of Jupiter with the people your brother, whom ye sold into Egypt. Ge. of Lystra offering sacrifice to them), they rent xlv. 4. He sent a man before them, even their clothes, and ran in among the people, Joseph, who was sold for a servant. Ps. cv. crying out, and saying, Sirs, why do ye these 17. And I said unto them, If ye think good, things ? &c. Ac. xiv. 14, 15. give me my price : and if not, forbear; so 30 The child is not.] See verse 20. And they weighed for my price thirty pieces of they (Joseph's brethren) said (unto Josepke), silver. And the Lord said unto me, Cast it Thy servants are twelve brethren, the sons of unto the potter: a goodly price that I was one man in the land of Canaan; and, behold, prised at of them. And I took the thirty the youngest is this day with our father, and pieces of silver, and cast them to the potter in one is not. Ge. xlii. 13. And we said unto the house of the Lord. Zec. xi. 12, 13. “bim" ("Joseph," not known as their brother) And “he” (Judas”) said unto them" (" the We be twelve brethren, sons of our father : one chief priests"), What will ye give me, and I is not, and the youngest is this day with our will deliver him unto you? And they cove- father in the land of Canaan And Jacob nanted with him for thirty pieces of silver. their father said unto them, Me have ye beMat. xxvi. 15. Then was fulilled that which reaved of my children : Joseph is not, and was spoken by Jeremy the prophet, saying, Simeon is not, and ye will take Benjamin And they took the thirty pieces of silver, the away. All these things are against me. Ge. price of him that was valued, whom they xlii. 32. 36. Thus saith the Lord; A voice of the children of Israel did value, and gave was heard in Ramah, lamentation and bitter them for the potter's field, as the Lord ap- weeping; Rahel weeping for her children pointed me. Mat. xxvii. 9, 10.

refused to be comforted for her children, be29 He rent his clothes.] And Jacob rent his cause they were not. Je. xxxi. 15. clothes, and put sackcloth upon his loins, and 31 Joseph's coat.] See verse 3. 23. He mourned for his son (Joseph) many days. Ge. that covereth his sins shall not prosper, but xxxvii.34. Then “they" ("Joseph's brethren") whoso confesseth and forsaketh them shall have rent their clothes (when the cup was found in mercy. Pr. xxviii. 13. Benjamin's sack). Ge. xliv. 13. And Joshua the 32 Thy son's coat or no.] See verse 3. And son of Nun, and Caleb the son of Jephunneh, we said unto my lord (said Judah to Joseplay which were of them that searched the land, rent We have a father, an old man, and a child of their clothes. Nu. xiv. 6. And it came to pass, his old age, a little one; and his brother is when "he” (“Jephthah") saw her, that he rent dead, and he alone is left of his mother; and his clothes, and said, Alas, my daughter! thou his father loveth him. And thou saidst unta hast brought me very low, and thou art one thy servants, Bring him down unto me, that of them that trouble me; for I have opened I may set mine eyes upon him. And we said my mouth unto the Lord, and I cannot go unto my lord, The lad cannot leave his father; back. Ju. xi. 35. And it came to pass, when for if he should leave his father, kis father king Hezekiah heard it (Rab-shakeh's blas- would die. Ge. xliv. 20—22. As soon as phemous speech), that he rent his clothes, and this thy son was come, which hath devoured covered himself with sackcloth, and went into thy living with harlots, thou hast killed for the house of the Lord. 2 Ki. xix. 1. Then him the fatted calf. Lu. xv. 30.

coat; an evil beast hath devoured him ; Joseph is without doubt rent in pieces. And Jacob rept his clothes, and put sackcloth 34


33 An evil beast, &c.] See verse 20, and midst of the city, and cried with a loud and a

And thy servant, my father, said unto bitter cry, and came even before the king's us (said Judah to Joseph), Ye know that my (Ahasuerus) gate; for none might enter into wife bare me two sons : And the one went out the king's gate clothed with sackcloth. And from me, and I said, Surely he is torn in pieces. in every province, whithersoever the king's Ge. xliv. 28. The simple believeth every commandment and his decree came, there was word; but the prudent man looketh well to great mourning among the Jews, and fasting, his going. Pr. xiv. 15. What I do thou and weeping, and wailing, and many lay in knowest not now, but thou shalt know here- sackcloth and ashes. Es. iv. 1-3. And after. John xiii. 7.

when they (Job's friends) lifted up their eyes 34 Rent his clothes.] See verse 29, and com. afar off, and knew him not, they lifted up their Joshua rent his clothes, and fell to the earth voice, and wept; and they rent every one his upon his face before the ark of the Lord until mantle, and sprinkled dust upon their heads, the eventide, he and the elders of Israel, and toward heaven. Job ii. 12. I made sackcloth put dust upon their heads (because the Israel- also my garment. Ps. Ixix. 11. And in that ites were smitten at Ai). Jos. vii. 6. Then day did the Lord God of hosts call to weeping, David (having heard that Saul was killed by an and to mourning, and to baldness, and to Amalekite) took hold on his clothes and rent girding with sackcloth. And behold, joy and them, and likewise all the men that were with gladness, slaying oxen, and killing sheep, him. 2 Sa. i. 11. And David said to Joab, eating flesh, and drinking wine. Let us eat and to all the people that were with him, and drink, for to-morrow we die. Is. xxii. 12, Rend your clothes, and gird you with sack- 13. Ye shall conceive chaff; ye shall bring cloth, and mourn before Abner. (Now Joab forth stubble ; your breath, as fire, shall deand Abishai his brother had slain Abner, be vour you.

Is. xxxiii. ll. Then came Eliacause he had slain their brother Asahel, at kim, the son of Hilkiah, that was over the Gibeon, in the battle). 2 Sa. iii. 31. And houshold, and Shebna the scribe, and Joah, his (Ben-hadad, king of Syria) servants said the son of Asaph, the recorder, to Hezekiah unto him, Behold now, we have heard that with their clothes rent, and told him the words the kings of the house of Israel are merciful of Rabshakeh. Is. xxxvi. 22. And it came to kings ; let us, I pray thee, put sackcloth on pass, when king Hezekiah heard it, that he our loins, and ropes upon our heads, and go rent his clothes and covered himself with sackout to the king of Israel (Ahab): peradventure cloth, and went into the house of the Lord. he will save thy life. I Ki. xx. 31. And it And he sent Eliakim, who was over the came to pass, when Ahab heard these things houshold, and Shebna the scribe, and the (Elijah's denunciation of God's judgments for elders of the priests, covered with sackcloth, sparing Ben-hadad), that he rent his clothes, unto Isaiah the prophet, the son of Amos. and put sackcloth upon his flesh, and fasted Is. xxxvii. 1, 2. Yet they were not afraid, and lay in sackcloth, and went softly. I Ki. nor rent their garments, neither the king nor xxi. 27. And David lifted up his eyes, and any of his servants, that heard all these saw the angel of the Lord stand between the words (of the roll of Jeremiah's prophecies, which earth and the heaven, having a drawn sword Jehoiakim had cut with a penknife, and cast in his hand stretched out over Jerusalem. into the fire). Jer. xxxvi. 24. So the people Then David and the elders of Israel, who were of Nineveh believed God, and proclaimed a clothed in sackcloth, fell upon their faces. fast, and put on sackcloth, from the greatest of 1 Ch. xxi.16. And when I heard this thing (the them even to the least of them. Let man and intermarriages of the people with strangers), I beast be covered with sackcloth, and cry rent my garment and my mantle, I fell upon mightily unto God; yea, let them turn every my knees, and plucked off the hair of my one from his evil way, and from the violence head and of my beard, and sat down astonied. that is in their hands. Jon. iii. 5. 8. Woe At the evening sacrifice I rose up from my unto thee, Chorazin ; woe unto thee, Bethsaida: heaviness, and having rent my garment and for if the mighty works which were done in my mantle, I fell upon my knees, and spread you had been done in Tyre and Sidon, they out my hands unto the Lord my God. Ezr. would have repented long ago in sackcloth ix. 3. 5. The children of Israel were assem and ashes. Mat. xi. 31. Then the high priest bled (saith Nehemiah) with fasting, and with (having heard that the Son of man would come sackclothes, and earth upon them, and sepa- in the clouds of heaven, from the lips of Jesus,) rated themselves from all strangers, and stood rent his clothes, saying, He bath spoken blasand confessed their sins, and the iniquities of phemy; what further need have we of wittheir fathers. Ne. ix. 1, 2. When Mordecai nesses ? Behold now ye have heard his blasperceived all that was done (to extirpate the phemy. Mat. xxvi. 65. Which when the Jews), Mordecai rent his clothes, and put on apostles, Barnabas and Paul, heard of (that the sackcloth with ashes, and went out into the people of Lystra would offer sacrifice to them),

35 upon his loins, and mourned for his son many days. And all his

sons and all his daughters rose up to comfort him; but he refused

to be comforted; and he said, For I will go down into the grave 36 unto my son mourning. Thus his father wept for him. And the

Midianites sold him into Egypt unto Potiphar, an officer of Pharaoh's, and captain of the guard.


1 And it came to pass at that time, that Judah went down from his

brethren, and turned in to a certain Adullamite, whose name was 2 Hirah. And Judah saw there a daughter of a certain Canaanite,

they rent their clothes, and ran in among the CHAP. XXXVIII.-1 Turned in to, &c.] people, crying out, saying, Sirs, why do ye And he (Lot) said (unto the angels), Behold, these things ? Ac. xiv. 14. And I will give now my lords, turn in, I pray you, into your power unto my two witnesses, and they shall servant’s house, and tarry all night. And he prophesy a thousand two hundred and three- pressed upon them greatly; and they turned score days, clothed in sackcloth. Re. xi. 3. in unto him, and entered into his house.

35 All his daughters.] And Laban an- Ge. xix. 3, 4. And Jael went out to meet swered and said unto Jacob, These daughters Sisera, and said unto him, Turn in, my lord; are my daughters, and these children are my turn in to me ; fear not. And when he had children, &c. Ge. xxxi. 43.

turned in unto her, she covered him with a Rose up, &c.] And the elders of his house mantle. Ju. iv. 18. And it fell on a day arose, and went to “him” (“David," confessing that Elisha passed to Shunem, where was a his sin with respect to Uriah's wife), to raise great woman, and she constrained him to eat him up from the earth ; but he would not; bread. And so it was, that as oft as he passed neither did he eat bread with them. 2 sa. by he turned in thither to eat bread. 2 Ki. xii. 17. “They” (“Job's friends”) had made iv. 8. Forsake the foolish, and live, and go in an appointment together to come to mourn the way of understanding. Pr. ix. 6. He with him, and to comfort him. Job ii. 11. In that walketh with wise men shall be wise, but the day of my trouble I sought the Lord; my a companion of fools shall be destroyed. Ps. sore ran in the night, and ceased not; my soul xiii. 20. refused to be comforted. Ps. Ixxvii. 2. Rahel Adullamite.] (Of the thirty kings smitten weeping for her children refused to be com- by Joshua), the king of Libnah one; the king forted, because they were not. Je. xxxi. 15. of Adullam one. Jos. xii. 15. (Of the cities

For I will go down, &c.] If mischief befal of the tribe of the children of Judah) were Jarhim (Benjamin) by the way (said Jacob to muth, and Adullam, Socoh, and Azekah. Jos. Reuben), then shall ye bring down my grey xv. 35. David, "therefore" ("through fear hairs with sorrow to the grave. Ge. xlii. 38. of Saul"), departed “thence" (" from Gail"), If ye take this (son) also from me, and mischief and escaped to the cave Adullam; and when befall him, ye shall bring down my gray hairs his brethren, and all his father's house, heard with sorrow to the grave. Ge. xliv. 29. 31. it, they went down thither to him. I Sa. xi. And Israel said (when he saw the waggons l. And three of the thirty chiefs went down, which Joseph had sent to carry him), It is and came to David in the harvest time, unto enough ; Joseph my son is yet alive : I will the cave of Adullam. 2 Sq. xxiii. 13. Yet go and see him before I die. Ge. xlv. 28. will I bring an heir unto thee, O inhabitant of

36 Midianites.] See verse 28. And Joseph Mareshah: he shall come unto Adullam, the was brought down to Egypt; and Potiphar, an glory of Israel. Mi. i. 15. officer of Pharaoh, captain of the guard, an 2 Saw there a daughter, &c.] And when Egyptian, bought him of the hands of the the woman saw that the tree toas good for Ishmeelites, which had brought him down food, and that it was pleasant to the eyes, and thither. Ge. xxxix. 1.

a tree to be desired to make one wise, she Captain of the guard, &c.] See chap. xxxix. took of the fruit thereof, and did eat. Ge. i. 6. And the captain of the guard charged Joseph See chap. vi. 2. and com. And when Skecher, with “them” (Pharaoh's butler and baker" the son of Hamor, the Hivite, prince of that as prisoners), and he served them; and they country, saw her (Dinah), he took her. Ge. continued a season in ward. Ge. xl. 4. Ne- xxxiv. 2. and com. And he (Samson) said, I buzaradan, captain of the guard, a servant of have seen a woman in Timnath, of the daughthe king of Babylon, came unto Jerusalem. ters of the Philistines: now, therefore, get ber 2 Ki. xxv. 8.

for me to wife. Ju. xiv. 2. Then went Sam.

whose name was Shuah; and he took her, and went in unto her. And she conceived, and bare a son; and he called his name Er. 3 And she conceived again, and bare a son; and she called his 4 name Onan. And she yet again conceived, and bare a son; and 5 called his name Shelah : and he was at Chezib, when she bare him. And Judah took a wife for Er his firstborn, whose name was Tamar. And Er, Judah's firstborn, was wicked in the sight 7 of the Lord; and the Lord slew him. And Judah said unto Onan, 8 Go in unto thy brother's wife, and marry her, and raise up seed to

“ He"

son to Gaza, and saw there an harlot, and the face of the Lord. Ge. xix. 13. went in unto her. Ju. xvi. 1. Be ye not ("Manasseh") wrought much evil in the sight unequally yoked together with unbelievers, of the Lord, to provoke him to anger. 2 Ch. for what fellowship hath righteousness with xxxiii. 6. unrighteousness? or what communion hath And the Lord slew him.) Er the first-born light with darkness ? 2 Co. vi. 14.

of Judah was evil in the sight of the Lord, Shuah.] The sons of Judah ; Er, and Onan, and he slew him. I Ch. ii. 3. But thou, o and Shelah, and Pharez, and Zarah. Ge. xlvi. God, shalt bring " them" ("the wicked"') into 12. The sons of Judah, Er, and Onan, and the pit of destruction ; bloody and deceitful Shelah, which three were born unto him men shall not live out half their days. Ps. Iv. of the daughter of Shuah, the Canaanitess. 23. 1 Ch. ii. 3.

8 Go in unto thy brother's wife, &c.] Every Took her.] When the sons of God came in daughter that possesseth an inheritance in any unto the daughters of men, and they bare tribe of the children of Israel shall be wife to children to them, the same became mighty one of the family of the tribe of her father, men which were of old, men of renown. Ge. that the children of Israel may enjoy the invi. 4. Thou shalt not take a wife unto “my heritance of his fathers : neither shall the son” (Isaac") of the daughters of the Ca- inheritance remove from one tribe to another naanites, among whom I dwell (said Abraham tribe, but every one of the tribes of the chilto his eldest servant). Ge. xxiv. 3.

dren of Israel shall keep himself to his own 3 Er.] See com. on Shuah,verse 2. The inheritance. Nu. xxxvi. 8, 9. If brethren sons of Judah were Er, and Onan; and Er shall dwell together, and one of them die, and and Onan died in the land of Canaan. Nu. have no child, the wife of the dead shall not xxvi. 19.

marry without unto a stranger; her husband's 4 Onan.] See com. on Shuahand Er," brother shall go in unto her, and take her verse 2, 3.

to him to wife, and perform the duty of an 5 Shelah.] Then said Judah to Tamar his husband's brother unto her; and it shall be, daughter-in-law (the wife of Er), Remain a that the first-born which she beareth shall widow at thy father's house, till Shelah my succeed in the name of his brother which is son be grown, &c. Ge. xxxviii. 11. Judah dead: that his name be not put out of Israel; acknowledged "them” (the signet, and brace- and his name shall be called in Israel, The lets, and staff" which Tamar had received from house of him that hath his shoe loosed (if he Judah), and said, She hath been more righteous refuse to raise up to his brother a name in Israel), than 1, because I gave her not to Shelah my for then shall his brother's wife come unto

Ge. xxxviii. 26. The sons of Judah him in the presence of the elders, and loose after their families were; of Shelah, the She- his shoe from off his foot, and spit in his face, lanites: of Pharez, the family of the Pharzites: and shall answer and say, So shall it be done of Zerah, the family of the Zarhites. Nu. xxvi. unto that man that will not build up his 20. The sons of Shelah the son of Judah brother's house. De. xxv. 5–10. And Naomi were, Er the father of Lecah, and Laadah the said, Turn again, my daughters (Orpah and father of Mareshah. 1 Ch. iv. 21.

Ruth): why will ye go with me ? are there 6 Took a wife.] See chap. xxi. 21. and com. yet any more sons in my womb, that they may

Tamar.] And Judas begat Phares and Zara be your husbands? Ru. i. ll. Then said of Thamar. Mat. i. 3.

Boaz, What day "thou” (the nearest kins7 Er.] See com. on Shuah and Er, verses man of Ruth") buyest the field of the hand of 2, 3.

Naomi, thou must buy it also of Ruth the Wicked in the sight of the Lord.] Noah Moabitess, the wife of the dead, to raise up found grace in the eyes of the Lord. Ge. vi. the name of the dead upon his inheritance ; 8. The men of Sodom were wicked, and and the kinsman said, I cannot redeem it for sinners before the Lord exceedingly. Ge. xiii. myself, lest I mar my own inheritance; there13. We will destroy “ this place” (Sodom"), fore the kinsman said unto Boaz, Buy it for because the cry of them is waxen great before thee : so he drew off his shoe (now this was


9 thy brother. Add Onan knew that the seed should not be his; and

it came to pass, when he went in unto his brother's wife, that he

spilled it on the ground, lest that he should give seed to his 10 brother. And the thing which he did displeased the Lord : 11 wherefore he slew him also. Then said Judah to Tamar his

daughter in law, Remain a widow at thy father's house, till Shelah my son be grown: for he said, Lest peradventure he die also, as

his brethren did. And Tamar went and dwelt in her father's 12 house. And in process of time the daughter of Shuah Judah's

the manner in former times in Israel concern- 10 Displeased the Lord.] And when the ing redeeming, and concerning changing, for people complained (of the manna), it displeased to confirm all things; a man plucked off his the Lord; and the Lord heard it, and his shoe, and gave it to his neighbour; and this anger was kindled. Nu. xi. 1. And Balaam was a testimony in Israel); and Boaz said said unto the angel of the Lord, I have sinunto the elders, Ye are witnesses this day, that ned, for I knew not that thou stoodest in the I have bought all that was Elimelech's, and all way against me (when he smote the ass thrice). that was Chilion's and Mahlon's, of the hand Now therefore, if it displease thee, I will get of Naomi ; moreover Ruth the Moabitess, the me back again. Nu. xxii. 34. And when wife of Mahlon, have I purchased to be my the mourning (for Uriah) was past, David wife, to raise up the name of the dead upon sent and fetched “her” (Bathsheba," Uriak's his inheritance; and the elders said, We are wife) to his house; and she became his wife, witnesses : and the Lord make the woman and bare him a son. But the thing that that is come into thine house, like Rachel and David had done displeased the Lord. 2 Sa like Leah which two did build the house of xi. 27. And God was displeased with this Israel. Ru. iv. 5--11. Master (said the Sad thing (David's forcing Joab to number Israel): ducees to Jesus), Moses said, If a man die therefore he smote Israel. 1 Chr. xxi. 7. having no children, his brother shall marry The wicked is driven away in his wickedness, his wife, and raise up seed unto his brother; but the righteous hath hope in his death. now there were seven brethren, and the first, Pt. xiv. 32. Rejoice not when thine enemy when he had married a wife, deceased, and falleth, lest the Lord see it, and it displease having no issue, left his wife unto his brother; him. Pr. xxiv. 17, 18. Howbeit I sent unto likewise the second also, and the third, unto “ you" (" the Jews") all my servants, the prothe seventh ; and last of all the woman died phets, rising early, and sending them, saying, also, &c. &c. Mat. xxii. 23—27.

Oh, do not this abominable thing that I hate. 9 The seed should not be his.] And it shall Jer. xliv. 4. Thou art of purer eyes than 10 be, that the first-born which she (after marry- behold evil, and canst not look on iniquity; ing her husband's brother) beareth shall suc- wherefore lookest thou upon them that deal ceed in the name of his brother which is dead, treacherously, and holdest thy tongue when that his name be not put out of Israel. the wicked devoureth the man that is more De. xxv. 6. Are there yet any more sons in righteous than he ? Hab. i. 13. my womb (said Naomi to her daughters-in- Slew him also.] Er and Onan died in the law), that they may be your husbands? Ru. land of Canaan. Ge. xlvi. 12. See Ns. XIV. i. 11. Ruth the Moabitess, the wife of Mahlon, 19. have I purchased (said Boaz), to raise up the 11 Til Shelah my son be grown] And name of the dead upon his inheritance. Ru. Naomi said, Turn again, “my daughters ** iv. 10.

(Orpah and Ruth") : why will ye go with Lest that he should give seed to his brother.] me? are there any more sons in my womb, Wrath killeth the foolish man, and envy that they may be your husbands? Turn slayeth the silly one. Job v. 2. Who is able again, my daughters, go your way, for I am to stand before envy? Pr. xxvii. 4. We too old to have an husband. If I should say, ourselves were sometimes foolish, disobedient, I have hope ; if I should have an husband also deceived, serving divers lusts and pleasures, to-night, and should also bear sons, would ye living in malice and envy, hateful, and hating tarry for them till they were grown? Would one another. Tit. iii. 3. But if ye have bitter ye stay for them from having husbands! Rs. envying and strife in your hearts, glory not, i. 11, 12, 13. and lie not against the truth : this wisdom In her father's house.) If the priest's descendeth not from above, but is earthly, daughter be a widow, or divorced, and have sensual, devilish. Ja. iii. 14, 15. Do ye think no child, and is returned unto her father's that the scripture saith in vain, The spirit house, as in her youth, she shall eat of her that dwelleth" in us lusteth to envy ? Ja. father's meat. Le. xxii. 13. iv. 5.

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