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20 Admah, and Zeboim, even unto Lasha. These are the sons of

Ham, after their families, after their tongues, in their countries, 21 and in their nations. Unto Shem also, the father of all the chil

dren of Eber, the brother of Japheth the elder, even to him were 22 children born. The children of Shem ; Elam, and Asshur, and 23 Arphaxad, and Lud, and Aram. And the children of Aram; Uz, 24 and Hul, and Gether, and Mash. And Arphaxad begat Salah; 25 and Salah begat Eber. And unto Eber were born two sons: the

name of one was Peleg; for in his days was the earth divided; 26 and his brother's name was Joktan. And Joktan begat Almodad,

Philistines, and Ashkelon, and Azzah, &c. &c. Isa. xxii. 6. Then took I the cup at the Jer. xxv. 17. 20.

Lord's hand, to all the kings of Zimri, and all Sodom, &c.] The Lord destroyed Sodom the kings of Elam, and all the kings of the and Gomorrah (for) the men of Sodom were Medes, &c. Jer. xxv. 25. The word of the wicked, and sinners before the Lord exceed Lord that came to Jeremiah, the prophet, ingly. Gen. xiii. 10. 13. And it came to against Elam; I will set my throne in Elam, pass that these (four kings) made war with and will destroy from thence the king and the Bera, king of Sodom, and with Birsha, king princes ; but it shall come to pass in the latter of Gomorrah, &c. Gen. xiv. 1, 2. Because days, that I will bring again the captivity of the cry of Sodom and Gomorrah is great, and Elam, saith the Lord. Jer. xl. 34. 38, 39. because their sin is very grievous, I will go And how hear we every man in our own down now and see, &c. Gen. xviii. 20, 21. tongue, Parthians, and Medes, and Elamites? Then the Lord rained upon Sodom, and upon Acts ii. 9. Gomorrah, brimstone, and fire from the Lord Lud.] I will set a sign among them, and I out of heaven. And he overthrew those cities, will send those that escape of them unto the and all the plain, and all the inhabitants of the nations to Tarshish, Pul, and Lud, that draw cities, and that which grew upon the ground. the bow. Isa. Ixvi. 19. Gen, xix. 24, 25. How shall I give thee up, Aram.] And he (Balaam) took up his paEphraim ? How shall I deliver thee, Israel? rable, and said, Balak the king of Moab hath How shall I make thee as Admah ? How brought me from Aram, out of the mountains shall I set thee as Zeboim? Mine heart is of the east, saying, Come, curse me Jacob, and turned within me, my repentings are kindled come, defy Israel. Numb. xxiii. 7. together. Hos. xi. 8.

23 Uz.] There was a man in the land of 20 See verse 6.

Uz, whose name was Job. Job i. 1. (Then Ham, &c.] And the whole earth was of took I the wine cup of his fury) to all the one language, and of one speech. And they mingled people, and all the kings of the land said, go to, let us build us a city, whose top of Uz, &c. Jer. xxv. 20. may reach unto heaven. And the Lord said, 24 Salah.] And Arphaxad lived five and behold the people is one, and they have all thirty years, and begat Salah. one language, and this they begin to do. Go

25 The name, &c.] And Eber lived four to, let us go down, and there confound their and thirty years, and begat Peleg. And Peleg language, that they may not understand one lived after he begat Reu two hundred and another's speech. Gen. xi. 1. 4. 6, 7.

nine years, and begat sons and daughters. 21 Shem.] Blessed be the Lord God of Gen. xi. 16. 19. Which was the son of Ragan, Shem, and Canaan shall be his servant. Gen. which was the son of Phalec, which was the sam ix. 26. These are the generations of Shem, of Heber, which was the son of Sala. Lake iii. &c. and Terah lived seventy years and begat 35. Abram, Nahor, and Haran. Gen. xi. 10. 26.

In his days, &c.] See rerse 32. When the Eber, &c.] And ships shall come from the Most High divided to the nations their inhecoast of Chittim, and shall afilict Eber. Numb. ritance, when he separated the sons of Adam, xxiv. 24. See verse

he set the bounds of the people according to 22 See Gen. ix. 26. and I Chron. i. 17. 27. the number of the children of Israel. Dent.

Elam, &c.] And it came to pass in the xxxii. 8. And (God) hath made of one blood days of Chedorlaomer, king of Elam, that these all nations of men, for to dwell on all the face (four kings) made war with Bera, king of of the earth, and hath determined the tinues Sodom. Gen. xiv. 1, 2. And the Lord shall before appointed, and the bounds of their haset his hand, to recover the remnant of his bitations. Acts xvii. 26. people from Assyria ; from Elam, &c. Isa. xi. 26 Joktan.] And Joktan begat Almodad, 11. Go up, 0 Elam; besiege, O Níedia (against and Sheleph, and Hazarmaveth, and Jerah. Babylon). Isa. xxi. 2. And Elam bare the 1 Chron. i. 20. quiver, with chariots of men, and horsemen,

Gen. xi. 12.

and Sheleph, and Hazarmaveth, and Jerah, And Hadoram, and 27 Uzal, and Diklah, And Obal, and Abimael, and Sheba, And Ophir, 28 and Havilah, and Jobab: all these were the sons of Joktau. 29 And their dwelling was from Mesha, as thou goest unto Sephar, a 30 mount of the east. These are the sons of Shem, after their fami- 31 lies, after their tongues, in their lands, after their nations. These 32 are the families of the sons of Noah, after their generations, in their nations: and by these were the nations divided in the earth after the flood.

CHAPTER XI.

And the whole earth was of one language, and of one speech. 1 And it came to pass, as they journeyed from the east, that they 2 found a plain in the land of Shinar; and they dwelt there. And 3 they said one to another, Go to, let us make brick, and burn

28 Sheba.] And Jockshan begat Sheba and Chap. XI.—1 Was of one language.] In Dedan. Gen. xxv. 3. And when the queen that day shall five cities in the land of Egypt of Sheba heard of the fame of Solomon, con- speak the language of Canaan, and swear to cerning the name of the Lord, she came to the Lord of Hosts. Isa. xix. 18. For then prove him with hard questions. 1 Kings x. 1. will I turn to the people a pure language, that

29 Ophir and Havilah.) And they came to they may call upon the name of the Lord to Ophir, and fetched from thence gold, four serve him, with one consent. Now when this hundred and twenty talents, and brought it to (the descent of the Holy Ghost) was noised king Solomon. 1 Kings ix. 28. Jehoshaphat abroad, the multitude came together, and were made ships of Tharshish to go to Ophir for confounded, because that every man heard gold. 1 Kings xxii. 48. Then shalt thou lay them speak in his own language. Acts ii. 6. up gold “ as dust” (or, “ on the dust"), and the 2 From the east, &c.] And Lot journeyed gold of Ophir as the stones of the brooks (said east. Gen. xiii. 11. And David went up, and Eliphaz to Job). Job xxii. 24. It (wisdom) all Israel, to Baalah, that is to Kirjath-jearim, cannot be valued with the gold of Ophir, &c. which belonged to Judah, to bring up thence Job xxviii. 16. Upon thy right hand did stand the ark of God the Lord, that dwelleth between the queen in gold of Ophir. Ps. xlv. 9. I the cherubims, whose name is called on it. will make a man more precious than fine gold, 1 Chron. xiii. 6. even a man, than the golden wedge of Ophir. Shinar.] See verse 9. And the beginning Isa. xiii. 12. See commentary on verse 7, under of his (Nimrod's) kingdom was Babel, and Havilah). And they (the generations of Erech, and Acchad, and Calneh, in the land Ishmael) dwelt from Havilah unto Shur. Gen. of Shinar. Gen. x. 10. And it came to pass Xxv. 18. And Saul smote the Amalekites in the days of Amraphel, king of Shinar (the from Havilah, until thou comest to Shur. 1Sam. battle of four kings against five came to pass, fc.) xv. 7.

Gen. xiv. 1. The Lord shall set his hand, 30 Mount of the east, &c.] Balak, the king again a second time, to recover the remnant of Moab, hath brought me from Aram, out of of his people, which shall be left, from Elam the mountains of the east (said Balaam). and from Shinar, &c. Isa. xi. 11. And the Numb. xxiii. 7.

Lord gave Jehoiakim, king of Judah, into his 31 See verse 20.

(Nebuchadnezzar's) hand, with part of the 32 See verses 1. 20. 31.

vessels of the house of God, which he carried Are the families, &c.] And he (Lamech) into the land of Shinar, to the house of his called his (son's) name Noah, saying, this same God; and he brought the vessels into the shall comfort us concerning our work, and toil treasure-house of his god. Dan. i. 2. Then of our hands, because of the ground which the said I to the angel that talked with me, Lord hath cursed. Gen. v. 29.

whither do these bear the ephah (denoting Nations divided, &c.] See verse 25. And wickedness); and he said unto me, to build it God blessed Noah, and his sons, and said unto an house in the land of Shinar; and it shall them, be fruitful and multiply, and replenish be established and set there upon her own the earth. These are the three sons of Noah, base. Zech. v. 11. and of them was the whole earth overspread. 3 Go to, let us make brick, &c.] See verse Gen. ix. I. 19. And (God) hath made of one 4.7. They encourage themselves in an evil blood all nations of men. Acts xvii. 26. matter: they commune of laying snares privily;

them thoroughly. And they had brick for stone, and slime had 4 they for mortar. And they said, Go to, let us build us a city and

a tower, whose top may reach unto heaven ; and let us make us a name, lest we be scattered abroad upon the face of the whole

.

they say, who shall see them? Ps. Ixiv. 5. My Slime for mortar.] And the vale of Siddim son, if sinners entice thee, consent thou not : was full of slime pits. Gen. xiv. 10. And if they say, come with us, let us wait for blood, when she (his mother) could not longer hide let us lurk privily for the innocent without him, she took for him (the infant Moses) an cause : my son, walk not thou in the way with ark of bulrushes, and daubed it with slime and them. Prov. i. 11. 15. I said in mine heart, with pitch, and put the child therein. Exod. go to now, I will prove thee with mirth; ij. 3. therefore enjoy pleasure; and behold this also 4 Whose top, &c.] Whither shall we go up! is vanity. Eccles. ii. l. And now go to, I Our brethren have discouraged our heart, will tell you what I will do to my vineyard; saying, the people is greater and taller than I will take away the hedge thereof, and it we; the cities are great, and walled up to shall be eaten up, and break down the wall heaven; and moreover we have seen the sons thereof, and it shall be trodden down. Isa. of the Anakims there (alluding to the mura v. 5. They (the enemies of Israel) helped murings of the Israelites in the fortieth year every one his neighbour, and every one said in the wilderness). Deut. i. 28.

Hear 0 to his brother, be of good courage. So the Israel (said Moses) thou art to pass over carpenter encouraged the goldsmith, and he Jordan this day, to go in to possess nations that smootheth with the hammer him that greater and mightier than thyself, cities great, smote the anvil, saying it is ready for the soder- and fenced up to heaven. Deut. ix. I. The ing, and lie fastened it with nails, that it

tree grew, and was strong, and the height should not be moved. Isa. xli. 6, 7. Go to thereof reached unto heaven, and the sight now, ye that say, to-day or to-morrow we thereof to the end of all the earth. It is thou, will go into such a city, and continue there a O king Nebuchadnezzar (said Daniel), that art year, and buy and sell, and get gain. James grown and become strong ; for thy greatness iv. 13. Go to now, ye rich men, weep and is grown, and reacheth unto heaven, and thy howl for your miseries that shall come upon dominion to the end of the earth. Dan. iv. you. James v. l. (Not as the passage from 11. 22. Heb. iii. 13. viz.) Exhort one another daily Let us make us, &c.] And David gat him & while it is called to-day, lest any of you be name when he returned from smiting the hardened through the deceitfulness of sin. (Nor Syrians in the valley of Salt. 2 Sam. viii. 13. as Heb. x. 24. viz.) Let us consider one another Their inward thought is, that their houses to provoke unto love and unto good works. shall continue for ever, and their dwelling.

Brick for stone, &c.] And they (the Egyp- places to all generations; they call their lands tians) made their lives bitter with hard bond- by their own names: this their way is their age, in mortar, and in brick, and in all manner folly: yet their posterity approve their sayings. of service in the field; all their (Israel's) Ps. xlix. 11. 13. The memory of the just is service, wherein they made them serve, was blessed, but the name of the wicked shall rot. with rigour. Exod. i. 14. Ye shall no more Prov. x. 7. Is not this great Babylon that I give the people straw to make brick, as here- have built for the house of the kingdom, by tofore (said Pharaoh): let them go and gather the might of my power, and for the honour of straw for themselves. Go, therefore, now, and my majesty ? (said Nebuchadnezzar, king of work, for there shall no straw be given you, Babylon). Dan. iv. 30.

How can ye believe, shall

ye

deliver the tale of bricks. Exod. which receive honour one of another, and seek v. 7. 18. And “he” (David") brought not the honour that cometh from God only! forth the people that were therein, and put John v. 44. them under saws, and under harrows of iron, Lest we be scattered, &c.] So the Lord and made them pass through the brick-kiln, scattered them abroad from thence upon the and thus did he unto all the cities of the face of all the earth, and they left off to build the children of Ammon. 2 Sam. xii. 31. The city, therefore is the name of it called Babel, bricks are fallen down, but we will build with because the Lord did there confound the lanhewn stones. Isa. ix. 10. I have spread out

guage of all the earth, and from thence did the my hands to a people that provoketh me to Lord scatter them abroad upon the face of all anger, continually, to my face; that sacrificeth the earth. Gen. xi. 8, 9. For lo thine enemies, in gardens, and burneth incense, upon altars O Lord, for lo thine enemies shall perish; of brick. Isa. Ixv. 3. Draw the waters for the all the workers of iniquity shall be scattered

. siege, fortify the strong holds: go into clay, Ps. xcii. 9.

He hath shewed strength with and tread the mortar, make strong the brick his arm : he hath scattered the proud in the kiln (alluding to the miserable ruin of Nineveh). imagination of their hearts. Luke i. 51. Nah. iii. 14.

yet

earth. And the Lord came down to see the city and the tower, 5 which the children of men builded. And the Lord said, Behold, 6 the people is one, and they have all one language ; and this they begin to do: and now nothing will be restrained from them, which they have imagined to do. Go to, let us go down, and there con- 7 found their language, that they may not understand one another's

unto me.

Let us

5. Came down, &c.] And I will go down from his youth. Gen. viji. 21. Why do the now, and see whether "they” (“Sodom and heathen rage, and the people imagine a vain Gomorrah"), have done altogether according to thing? He that sitteth in the heavens shall the cry of "it" (" Sodom"), which is come laugh; the Lord shall have them in derision.

Gen. xviii. 21. The third day the Ps. ii. 1. 4. He hath scattered the proud in Lord will come down in the sight of all the the imagination of their hearts. Luke i. 51. people, unto Mount Sinai (saith the Lord to 7 Let us go down.] See verse 5. Moses). Exod. xix. 11. The Lord is in his make man in our image. Gen. i. 26. And holy temple, the Lord's throne is in heaven; the Lord God said, behold the man is become his eyes behold, his eyelids try, the children as one of us. Gen. iii. 22. Also, I heard the of men. Ps. xi. 4. The Lord looketh from voice of the Lord saying, whom shall I send, heaven; he beholdeth all the sons of men : and who will go ? Then said I, here am I, from the place of his habitation he looketh send me. Isa. vi. 8. upon all the inhabitants of the earth. Ps. Confound their language.] He disappointeth xxxii. 13, 14. Am I a God at hand, saith the devices of the crafty, so that their hands the Lord, and not a God afar off? Can any hide cannot perform their enterprise; he taketh himself in secret places, that I shall not see the wise in their own craftiness, and the him? saith the Lord. Do not I fill heaven and counsel of the froward is carried headlong. earth? saith the Lord. Jer. xxiii. 23, 24. And Job v. 12, 13. The Lord shall have them in no man hath ascended up to heaven, but he derision. Ps. ii. 4. The Lord bringeth the that came down from heaven, even the Son of counsel of the heathen to nought, he maketh man, which is in heaven. John iii. 13. Neither the devices of the people of none effect. Ps. is there any creature that is not manifest in xxxiii. 10. And they were all filled with the his sight; but all things are naked and opened Holy Ghost, and began to speak with other unto the eyes of him with whom we have to tongues : Cretes and Arabians, we do hear do. Heb. iv, 13.

them speak, in our tongues, the wonderful 6 Behold, the people is one, &c.] Behold works of God. Acts ii. 4. 11. the man is become as one of us, to know good May not understand, &c.] By “these" and evil; and now lest he put forth his hand (" the descendants of Noah") were the Isles and take also of the tree of life, and eat and of the Gentiles divided, in their lands; every live for ever, therefore the Lord sent him forth one after his tongue. These are the sons of from the garden of Eden. Gen, iii. 22, 23. Ham, after their families, after their tongues, Go, and cry unto the gods which ye have &c. Gen. x. 5. 20. And they (his brethren) chosen; let them deliver you in the time of knew not that Joseph understood them, for he your tribulation. Judges x. 14.

And it came spake unto them by an interpreter. Gen. to pass at noon, that Elijah mocked them, and xlii. 23. The Lord shall bring nation said, cry aloud: for he is a God; either he is against thee from far, from the end of the talking, or he is pursuing, or he is in a earth, as swift as the eagle flieth, a nation journey, or peradventure he sleepeth, and whose tongue thou shalt not understand. must be awaked. 1 Kings xviii. 27. Rejoice, Deut. xxviii. 49. Destroy, O Lord, and divide O young man, in thy youth, and let thy heart their tongues. Ps. lv. 9. Lo, I will bring a cheer thee in the days of thy youth, and walk nation upon you from far, 0 house of Israel, in the ways of thine heart, and in the sight of saith the Lord; it is a mighty nation, it is an thine eyes ; but know thou that for all these ancient nation, a nation whose language thou things God will bring thee into judgment. knowest not, neither understandest what they Eccles. xi. 9.

Jer. v. 15. For he that speaketh in an The people is one.] See verse 1. These are unknown tongue, speaketh not unto men, but the three sons of Noah (Shem, Ham, Japheth), unto God, for no man understandeth him: and of them was the whole earth overspread. therefore if I know not the meaning of the Gen. ix. 19. And (God) hath made of one voice, I shall be unto him that speaketh a blood all nations of men. Acts xvii. 26. barbarian. 1 Cor. xiv. 2. 11. If therefore

Imagined, &c.] And God saw that the the whole church be come together into one wickedness of man was great in the earth, place, and all speak with tongues, and there and that every imagination of the thoughts of come in those that are unlearned or unbehis heart was only evil continually. Gen. lievers, will they not say that ye are mad ? vi. 5. The imagination of man's heart is evil 1 Cor. xiv. 23.

say:

8 speech. So the Lord scattered them abroad from thence upon the 9 face of all the earth : and they left off to build the city. Therefore

is the name of it called Babel; because the Lord did there con.

found the language of all the earth : and from thence did the Lord 10 scatter them abroad upon the face of all the earth. These are the

generations of Shem: Shem was an hundred years old, and begat 11 Arphaxad two years after the flood: And Shem lived, after he

begat Arphaxad, five hundred years, and begat sons and daughters. 12 And Arphaxad lived five and thirty years, and begat Salah: 13 And Arphaxad lived, after he begat Salah, four hundred and three 14 years, and begat sons and daughters. And Salah lived thirty 15 years, and begat Eber: And Salah lived, after he begat Eber, four 16 hundred and three years, and begat sons and daughters. And 17 Eber lived four and thirty years, and begat Peleg : And Eber lived,

after he begat Peleg, four hundred and thirty years, and begat sons 18 and daughters. And Peleg lived thirty years, and begat Reu: 19 And Peleg lived, after he begat Reu, two hundred and nine years, 20 and begat sons and daughters. And Reu lived two and thirty 21 years, and begat Serug: And Reu lived, after he begat Serug, two 22 hundred and seven years, and begat sons and daughters. And 23 Serug lived thirty years, and begat Nahor: And Serug lived, after

he begat Nahor, two hundred years, and begat sons and daughters. 24 And Nahor lived nine and twenty years, and begat Terab: 25 And Nahor lived, after he begat Terah, an hundred and nineteen 26 years, and begat sons and daughters. And Terah lived seventy

66

8 The Lord scattered, &c.] See verse 4. 9. mighty man, so are children of the youth. I will divide them in Jacob, and scatter them Ps. cxxvii. 3, 4. Thy wife shall be as a fruitin Israel. Gen. xlix. 7. When the most high ful vine by the sides of thine house, thy divided to the nations their inheritance, when children like olive plants round about thy he separated the sons of Adam, he set the table; behold, that thus shall the man be bounds of the people, according to the num blessed that feareth the Lord. Ps. cxxvii. 3, ber of the children of Israel. Deut. xxxii. 8. 4. That our sons may be as plants grown up He hath scattered the proud. Luke i. 51. in their youth, that our daughters may be as Upon the face of all the earth, &c.] In his

corner stones, polished after the similitude of (Peleg's) days, was the earth divided. These a palace. Ps. cxliv. 12. are the families of Noah's sons, and by these 12 See Luke iii. 36. were the nations divided in the earth after the 16 Eber.] See chap. x. 21. 25. And ships flood. Gen. x. 25. 32.

shall come from the coast of Chittim, and shall 9 Babel.] See commentary on verse 9, on afflict Eber, &c. Numb. xxiv. 24.

And unto May not understand.

Eber were born two sons; the name of the The face of all the earth, &c.] See commentary one was Peleg, because in his days the earth on verse 8. And (God) hath made all nations was divided, and his brother's name trus of men to dwell on all the face of the earth. Joktan. 1 Chron. i. 19. Acts xvii. 26.

18 See Luke iii. 33. 10 Shem, &c.] See verse 27. Unto Shem 22 Nahor.)

And Joshua said unto all the also, the father of all the children of Eber, people, thus saith the Lord God of Israel, the brother of Japheth the elder, even to him your fathers dwelt on the other side of the were children born. The children of Shem; flood, in old time, even Terah, the father of Elam, and Ashur, and Arpharxad, and Lud, Abraham, and the father of Nahor, and they and Aram. Gen. X. 21, 22. See 1 Chron. served other gods. Josh. xxiv. 2. xvii. 27, for the sons of Shem, and Luke iii. 24 Terah, &c.]

Which was the son of 34. 36.

Nachor, which was the son of Saruch, which 11 Begat sons and daughters, &c.] See was the son of Ragan, which was the son of Gen. i. 28; v. 4 ; ix. 7. Lo, children are an Phalec, which was the son of Heber, which heritage of the Lord, and the fruit of the womb was the son of Sala. Luke iii. 35. is his reward ; as arrows are in the hand of a

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