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our religious views, have at times suspected writers on missions of over-colouring their pictures; but we are persuaded that no one will attribute this fault to Dr. Livingstone. Men of science, men of the severest habits of investigation, will feel as they read these pages, that they have to do with a witness as honest as he is intelligent. We cannot but augur great good from such a book being in the hands of such men.
one point, that no mere profession of Christianity is sufficient to entitle the converts to the Christian name. They are all anxious to place the Bible in the hands of the natives, and, with ability to read that, there can be little doubt as to the future. We believe Christianity to be divine, and equal to all it has to perform; then let the good seed be widely sown; and, no matter to what sect the converts may belong, the harvest Take the following general testimony, will be glorious. Let nothing that I have p. 107:
said be interpreted as indicative of feelings inimical to any body of Christians, for I never as a missionary felt myself to be either Presbyterian, Episcopalian, or Independent, or called upon in any way to love one denomination more than another. My earnest desire is, that those who really have the best interests of the heathen at heart should go to them; and assuredly, in Africa at least, self-denying labours among real heathen will not fail to be appreciated. Christians have never yet dealt fairly by the heathen, and been disappointed.
'Many hundreds of both Griquas and Bechuanas have become Christians, and partially civilized through the teaching of English missionaries. My first impressions of the progress made were, that the accounts of the effects of the Gospel among them had been too highly coloured. I expected a higher degree of Christian simplicity and purity than exists either among them or among ourselves. I was not anxious for a deeper insight in detecting shams than others, but I expected character, such as we imagine the primitive disciples had, and was disappointed. When, however, I passed on to the true heathen in the countries beyond the sphere of missionary influence, and could compare the people there with the Christian natives, I came to the conclusion that, if the questions were examined in the most rigidly severe or scientific way, the change effected by the missionary movement would be considered unquestionably great. We cannot fairly compare these poor people with ourselves, who have an atmosphere of Christianity and enlightened public opinion, the growth of centuries, around us, to influence our deportment; but let any one from the natural and proper point of view behold the public morality of Griqua Town, Kuruman, Likatlong, and other villages, and remember what even London was a century ago, and he must confess that the Christian mode of treating the aborigines is incomparably the best."
The following observations are conceived in an admirably catholic spirit, and are full of practical wisdom :
"Protestant missionaries of every denomination in South Africa all agree in
"I would earnestly recommend all young missionaries to go at once to real heathen, and never be content with what has been made ready to their hands by men of greater enterprise. The idea of making model Christians of the young need not be entertained by any one who is secretly convinced, as most men who know their own hearts are, that he is not a model Christian himself. The Israelitish slaves brought out of Egypt by Moses were not converted and elevated in one generation, though under the direct teaching of God himself."
The disinterestedness of Dr. Livingstone in his great work, is beyond all praise; and we are happy to be able to state, from what we know, that his conduct in this respect is a specimen of what may be found in the history of a large number of his brethren of all denominations.
The following incident is most characteristic, p. 189:
"As I had declined to name anything as a present from Sckeletu, except a canoe to take me up the river, he brought ten fine elephants' tusks and laid them
opened to me without my asking, I had no hesitation in accepting what would en able me to fulfil my duty to my aged parent as well as to the heathen."
We have left the author almost entirely to speak for himself, in a few extracts, convinced that no better recommendation of the book can be given, and that no general resumé of its contents in such a space as we can afford would do justice to its extraordinary merits.
down beside my waggon. He would take | and a fresh source of income having been no denial, though I told him I should prefer to see him trading with Fleming, a man of colour from the West Indies, who had come for the purpose. I had during the eleven years of my previous course invariably abstained from taking presents of ivory, from an idea that a religious instructor degraded himself by accepting gifts from those whose spiritual welfare he professed to seek. My precedence of all traders in the line of discovery, put me often in the way of very handsome offers, but I always advised the donors to sell their ivory to traders, who would be sure to follow, and when at some future time they had become rich by barter, they might remember me or my children. When Lake Ngami was discovered I might have refused permission to a trader who accompanied us; but when he applied for leave to form part of our company, knowing that Mr. Oswell would no more trade than myself, and that the people of the lake would be disappointed if they could not dispose of their ivory, I willingly granted a sanction, without which his people would not at that time have ventured so far. This was surely preferring the interests of another to my own. The return I got for this was, a notice in one of the Cape papers that this man was the true discoverer of the lake!'"
Though there are few details of spiritual experience-the nature of the book not requiring them-the testimony to the power of the Gospel just at the outset of the narrative, is so full of beauty and manly feeling, so clear, so brief, so unaffected, yet so powerful, that we cannot but insert it.
"Great pains had been taken by my parents to instil the doctrines of Christianity into my mind, and I had no difficulty in understanding the theory of our free salvation, by the atonement of our Saviour; but it was only about this time that I really began to feel the necessity and value of a personal application of the provisions of that atonement to my own The change was like what may be supposed would take place were it possible to cure a case of colour blindness.' The perfect freeness with which the pardon of all our guilt is offered in God's book, drew forth feelings of affectionate love to Him who bought us with his blood, and a sense of great obligation to Him for his mercy has influenced, in some small measure, my conduct ever since. But I shall not again refer to the inner spiritual life which I believe then began, nor do I intend to specify with any prominence the evangelistic labours to which the love of Christ has since im
So many of our readers are feeling anxious to know what are Dr. Livingstone's intentions with regard to the future, that we feel it a duty to extract the following passage on that subject, p. 677:
"While I hope to continue the same cordial co-operation and friendship which have always characterised our intercourse, various reasons induce me to withdraw from pecuniary dependence on any society. I have done something for the heathen; but for an aged mother, who has still more sacred claims than they, I have been able to do nothing, and a continuance of the connexion would be a perpetuation of my inability to make any provi
sion for her declining years. In addition FAMILY GODLINESS. By the Rev. JAMES to 'clergyman's sore throat,' which partially disabled me from my work, my father's death imposed new obligations;
pelled me. This book will speak not so much of what has been done, as of what still remains to be performed before the Gospel can be said to be preached to all nations."
THIS is an Essay of great merit on a
most important subject. It was prepared | ing an analysis of subjects, and an index at the request of the Congregational of the authors quoted or referred to. Mr. Union of the West Riding, and read at Ragg's poetry has already gained for him their annual meeting of the Union held a well-deserved celebrity; and the preat Huddersfield in April, 1856. The sent treatise proves his capacity for deRev. Walter Scott, then President of voting his fine talents, and the fruits of Airedale College, moved the following careful reading, to the vindication of the resolution, which was seconded by the Christian faith from the attacks of scepRev. Joseph Tattersfield, "That this tical smatterers in science. He writes for Assembly is deeply sensible of the im- the many, in a luminous and impressive portance of the subject brought before its style, compressing the pith of numerous attention this morning, in the paper read volumes into a manual of the physical by the Rev. James Gregory; that its sciences, which exhibits the accordance cordial thanks be returned to him for of real science and true philosophy with his kindness in preparing that paper, and the Word of God; while, in the spirit of for the distinguished ability with which a believer who has known by experience he has performed his task; and that he be the miseries of scepticism, he meets the requested to place it at the disposal of doubter with facts, arguments, and manly the Executive Committee, with the view appeals to his mental and moral nature, of its being published for extensive and instead of arrogant assumptions of supepermanent usefulness in the third num- riority, or contemptuous menaces of the ber of the Congregational Register (of the consequences of unbelief. Union of the Riding)." This is, we are quite sure, commendative enough to secure the attention of our readers. We trust the extracts we have given will induce many heads of families and others to procure the pamphlet, and read it thoughtfully, for it cannot but largely benefit every family to which it shall be introduced.
In the First Part, Mr. Ragg treats of Natural Religion; and through several elaborate chapters shows how the material universe proves that all things are the productions of an independent Creator; and how the chemical constitution of unorganized matter, the distribution of elementary substances, the mysteries of vegetable life and physiology, the marvels of the animal economy, and the manifestations of instinct and reason, all exhibit the power, wisdom, and goodness of the Infinite Creator. He deals strongly and wisely with the shadowy theories which have ignorantly or perversely placed chance, necessity, nature, or development in the throne of the living God; and he demolishes both the ancient and modern attempts to account for the existence of natural and moral evil. We have never met, in a single volume, with a more masterly exposure of a great mass of errors; and, at the same time, a more clear, instructive, and satisfactory exhibition of the proved truths which underlie the revelation sent from God to man.
CREATION'S TESTIMONY TO ITS Gon; or, the Accordance of Science, Philosophy, and Revelation: a Manual of the Evidences of Natural and Revealed Religion, with especial reference to the Progress of Science, and Advance of Knowledge. By THOMAS RAGG, Author of "The Incarnation," "The Deity," "Heber," &c. 8vo, pp. 506.
London: Longman, Brown, Green, Longmans, and Roberts.
THIS volume is the sixth edition of a work which, in a duodecimo size, has passed through five editions in two years. Originally written for the Burnett prize, which was gained by the authors of "Christian Theism," and "God Revealed in the Process of Creation," but published before them, it has been gradually enlarged by additions arising from the recent advancements in discovery; and its usefulness has been increased by append
The second part sets out with a wellwritten condensation of the arguments for the possibility, probability, and moral necessity of revelation, as the only mode of attaining to such knowledge of God as can solve the perplexities in which man
fatherly kindness, of unutterable love!" p. 383.
The Christian will not fail, we think, to be refreshed by the warm-hearted eloquence in which Mr. Ragg expresses the sentiments of one who has worked his way through many perplexities to a fully convinced understanding of Christianity, and the ardour with which he contends for its vital truths, as a man who has felt their life-giving power, and labours to diffuse their blessings among his fellow-men. He who seeks knowledge of physical science will find a large collection of facts scattered through several chapters-some of them new, and occurring in the experience of the writer, who has familiarised himself with habits of observation as well as with the facts registered in books. The lover of philosophy will gather from the metaphysical reasonings, and from the examinations of well-known modern publications, which abound in these pages, the well-digested thoughts of a man who proves his right to teach. The youthful or the busy reader may take encouragement from Mr. Ragg's modest acknowledgment that this production, so full of excellences, and containing but slight indications of deficiency in early mental discipline, comes from one who started in life as a humble mechanic, whose means of culture have been limited to such as he could use without the guidance of a superintending mind, and who has never had opportunities for study but in those hours devoted by most men to rest and relaxation. We congratulate Mr. Ragg on having achieved so decided a 66 success in theological disquisition, and added to the many proofs of the congeniality between genuine poetry, accurate science, true philosophy, and earnest piety. We have read this book with unfeigned admiration of his diligence, acuteness, accuracy, power of close, consecutive reasoning, extensive and varied information, force and brilliancy of expression, and of the manifestly benevolent tone in which he aims at the highest welfare of large classes among our interesting industrial population.
is left by reason dealing with nature, and can satisfy the deepest instincts of humanity. The author fortifies his previous statements by a luminous deduction of a life to come, from the facts of the life which now is; and proceeds to illustrate the harmony of the deductions of reason, as far as they go, with the teaching of the Christian revelation. The evidences of the divinity of that revelation are lucidly laid out in some pertinent observations on miracles, prophecies, and the corroboration of early Scripture history by recent discoveries in Egypt, Nineveh, and other countries of the East. The sixteenth chapter is an able exposition of the premonitions of the triune God, and the longings for a heavenly teacher, which may be gathered from the masters of ancient philosophy; but, in showing how far the Christian system meets, while it transcends, these premonitions and aspirations, he fully proves that this system could not be the product of philosophy. His views of the contents of revelation-the things revealed-are marked by their freshness and their high healthiness:
"The whole life of Christ may be considered as a manifestation of deity. In his every uttered sentiment some revelation of the nature and character of God may be discerned; and, in his marvellous acts-the mighty signs and wonders' which attested his power over the elements of the physical universe-there was ever beaming forth the goodness of the Infinite to his suffering and dependent creatures. This is evident, if we only consider Him as a human being-a prophet of the Highest, endowed with a supernatural power for the confirmation of the doctrines He was sent forth into the world to teach. But when we lift the veil of His humanity, and see in this 'brother born for adversity,' this houseless sojourner upon earth's surface, another and a mightier Being-the Creator of the world upon whose face He wandered-the Maker of the creatures who despised and rejected Him-who voluntarily left the throne of His glory to seek the lost wanderer, and restore him to holiness and life, how marvellous then appears that act of condescension, of
DR. DAVIDSON, HIS HERESIES, CONTRADICTIONS, AND PLAGIARISMS. By Two GRADUATES.
London: Wertheim and Macintosh.
DR. DAVIDSON's volume of Horne's Introduction has called forth, in addition to numberless reviews, three able works in refutation of its errors-Thomson's Lectures on Inspiration; Kelly's Examination of Facts, Statements, and Explanations; and the pamphlet at the head of this notice. The present publication is not inferior in ability to its predecessors, but it is wider in the range of its observation, and far more severe in the spirit of its animadversions. Its authors are generally understood to be two Congregational Ministers, both educated at the Lancashire Independent College, and formerly pupils of Dr. Davidson.
Of any connexion with him, however, the pamphlet bears no indication. In vain do we search through it for any trace of gratitude for his past instructions; for any kindly feeling towards their former Professor; or for any disposition to put the most favourable construction upon his words, of which they are susceptible. A tone of severity pervades the publication from beginning to end. Its title is a sufficient index to its character. There is certainly abundance of the fortiter in re; we wish there was more of the suaviter in modo. The graduates fearlessly "speak the truth;" we wish that they had more manifestly "spoken the truth in love." We cannot divest ourselves of the impression that the spirit of the work is rather that of the counsel engaged for the prosecution, than the dispassionate, impartial air of the judge summing up the evidence and guiding the verdict of the jury.
Yet while we regret the harshness of the pamphlet, we are compelled to confess that few writers have less occasion to complain of this than Dr. D., for both in his Introduction and in his Notices of Works in the "Bibliotheca Sacra," he has written in most disparaging and contemptuous terms of authors, many of whom are held in the highest estimation for learning and piety. Though the pamphlet of the Graduates professes to be the production of two writers, there are indi
cations of one vigorous mind pervading it; and we cannot but commend the reverence for the authority of the Holy Scriptures, the strong attachment to Evangelical doctrines, the clear, forcible logic, and the nervous diction by which it is distinguished.
By far the greater part of the publication is devoted to the exposure of the Doctor's false views of inspiration. On these, as the foundation of his errors, we have already commented; and the pamphlet animadverts on his exaggeration of the difficulties involved in the question of inspiration: the extensive learning which he alleges is requisite to form an opinion on the subject; and the fewness of those who possess the necessary qualifications. Against the Professor's theory of inspi ration they urge three serious objections: it weakens our evidence for the authority of the Holy Scriptures; it gives us a much lower conception of the value of the sacred writings; and it confounds the Divine and the human in a way which altogether prevents their separation. The Graduates contrast the utterances of the Doctor in 1843, in his "Sacred Hermeneutics," with statements in this volume, and point out, in connexion with excessive dogmatism, remarkable vacillations of opinion. 1857 he strongly unsays what he then said, and the comparison indicates a progress towards rationalism, and shows how uncertain and unsafe a guide he is to theological students. An exposure is given of the Doctor's unfair use of various theologians on the subject of inspiration, and
searching and rigorous investigation is furnished of the leading objectionable passages as to the books of Scripture. We would especially refer to the comments on the Book of Jasher, and the miracle of the standing still of the sun; on the alleged errors of the Book of Chronicles; on the Solomonic authorship of the Book of Ecclesiastes; on the highly objectionable passages relative to the Psalms, both Messianic and imprecatory; on the assertion of a traditional element in the gospels; and of false reasonings in the writings of Paul, and in the epistle to the Hebrews.
Dr. Davidson's doctrinal heresies are