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down beside my waggon. He would take | and a fresh source of income having been opened to me without my asking, I had no hesitation in accepting what would en able me to fulfil my duty to my aged parent as well as to the heathen."

no denial, though I told him I should prefer to see him trading with Fleming, a man of colour from the West Indies, who had come for the purpose. I had during the eleven years of my previous course invariably abstained from taking presents of ivory, from an idea that a religious instructor degraded himself by accepting gifts from those whose spiritual welfare he professed to seek. My precedence of all traders in the line of discovery, put me often in the way of very handsome offers, but I always advised the donors to sell their ivory to traders, who would be sure to follow, and when at some future time they had become rich by barter, they might remember me or my children. When Lake Ngami was discovered I might have refused permission to a trader who accompanied us; but when he applied for leave to form part of our company, knowing that Mr. Oswell would no more trade than myself, and that the people of the lake would be disappointed if they could not dispose of their ivory, I willingly granted a sanction, without which his people would not at that time have ventured so far. This was surely preferring the interests of another to my own. The return I got for this was, a notice in one of the Cape papers that this man was the true discoverer of the lake!'"

We have left the author almost entirely to speak for himself, in a few extracts, convinced that no better recommendation of the book can be given, and that no general resumé of its contents in such a space as we can afford would do justice to its extraordinary merits.

Though there are few details of spiritual experience-the nature of the book not requiring them-the testimony to the power of the Gospel just at the outset of the narrative, is so full of beauty and manly feeling, so clear, so brief, so unaffected, yet so powerful, that we cannot but insert it.

"Great pains had been taken by my parents to instil the doctrines of Christianity into my mind, and I had no difficulty in understanding the theory of our free salvation, by the atonement of our Saviour; but it was only about this time that I really began to feel the necessity and value of a personal application of the provisions of that atonement to my own


The change was like what may be supposed would take place were it possible to cure a case of colour blindness.' The perfect freeness with which the pardon of all our guilt is offered in God's book, drew forth feelings of affectionate love to Him who bought us with his blood, and a sense of great obligation to Him for his mercy has influenced, in some small measure, my conduct ever since. But I shall not again refer to the inner spiritual life which I believe then began, nor do I intend to specify with any prominence the evangelistic labours to which the love of Christ has since im

So many of our readers are feeling anxious to know what are Dr. Livingstone's intentions with regard to the future, that we feel it a duty to extract the following passage on that subject, p. 677: "While I hope to continue the same cordial co-operation and friendship which have always characterised our intercourse, various reasons induce me to withdraw from pecuniary dependence on any society. I have done something for the heathen; but for an aged mother, who has still more sacred claims than they, I have been able to do nothing, and a continuance of the connexion would be a perpetuation of my inability to make any provision for her declining years. In addition FAMILY GODLINESS. By the Rev. JAMES to 'clergyman's sore throat,' which partially disabled me from my work, my father's death imposed new obligations;

pelled me. This book will speak not so much of what has been done, as of what still remains to be performed before the Gospel can be said to be preached to all nations."

London: Snow.

THIS is an Essay of great merit on a

most important subject. It was prepared | ing an analysis of subjects, and an index

at the request of the Congregational Union of the West Riding, and read at their annual meeting of the Union held at Huddersfield in April, 1856. The Rev. Walter Scott, then President of Airedale College, moved the following resolution, which was seconded by the Rev. Joseph Tattersfield, "That this Assembly is deeply sensible of the importance of the subject brought before its attention this morning, in the paper read by the Rev. James Gregory; that its cordial thanks be returned to him for his kindness in preparing that paper, and for the distinguished ability with which he has performed his task; and that he be requested to place it at the disposal of the Executive Committee, with the view of its being published for extensive and permanent usefulness in the third number of the Congregational Register (of the Union of the Riding)." This is, we are quite sure, commendative enough to secure the attention of our readers. We trust the extracts we have given will induce many heads of families and others to procure the pamphlet, and read it thoughtfully, for it cannot but largely benefit every family to which it shall be introduced.

CREATION'S TESTIMONY TO ITS Gon; or, the Accordance of Science, Philosophy, and Revelation: a Manual of the Evidences of Natural and Revealed Religion, with especial reference to the Progress of Science, and Advance of Knowledge. By THOMAS RAGG, Author of "The Incarnation," "The Deity," "Heber," &c. 8vo, pp. 506.

London: Longman, Brown, Green, Longmans, and Roberts.

THIS volume is the sixth edition of a work which, in a duodecimo size, has passed through five editions in two years. Originally written for the Burnett prize, which was gained by the authors of "Christian Theism," and "God Revealed in the Process of Creation," but published before them, it has been gradually enlarged by additions arising from the recent advancements in discovery; and its usefulness has been increased by append

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of the authors quoted or referred to. Mr. Ragg's poetry has already gained for him a well-deserved celebrity; and the present treatise proves his capacity for devoting his fine talents, and the fruits of careful reading, to the vindication of the Christian faith from the attacks of seeptical smatterers in science. He writes for the many, in a luminous and impressive style, compressing the pith of numerous volumes into a manual of the physical sciences, which exhibits the accordance of real science and true philosophy with the Word of God; while, in the spirit of a believer who has known by experience the miseries of scepticism, he meets the doubter with facts, arguments, and manly appeals to his mental and moral nature, instead of arrogant assumptions of superiority, or contemptuous menaces of the consequences of unbelief.

In the First Part, Mr. Ragg treats of Natural Religion; and through several elaborate chapters shows how the material universe proves that all things are the productions of an independent Creator; and how the chemical constitution of unorganized matter, the distribution of elementary substances, the mysteries of vegetable life and physiology, the marvels of the animal economy, and the manifestations of instinct and reason, all exhibit the power, wisdom, and goodness of the Infinite Creator. He deals strongly and wisely with the shadowy theories which have ignorantly or perversely placed chance, necessity, nature, or development in the throne of the living God; and he demolishes both the ancient and modern attempts to account for the existence of natural and moral evil. We have never met, in a single volume, with a more masterly exposure of a great mass of crrors; and, at the same time, a more clear, instructive, and satisfactory exhibition of the proved truths which underlie the revelation sent from God to man.

The second part sets out with a wellwritten condensation of the arguments for the possibility, probability, and moral necessity of revelation, as the only mode of attaining to such knowledge of God as can solve the perplexities in which man

p. 383.

is left by reason dealing with nature, and | fatherly kindness, of unutterable love!" can satisfy the deepest instincts of humanity. The author fortifies his previous statements by a luminous deduction of a life to come, from the facts of the life which now is; and proceeds to illustrate the harmony of the deductions of reason, as far as they go, with the teaching of the Christian revelation. The evidences of the divinity of that revelation are lucidly laid out in some pertinent observations on miracles, prophecies, and the corroboration of early Scripture history by recent discoveries in Egypt, Nineveh, and other countries of the East. The sixteenth chapter is an able exposition of the premonitions of the triune God, and the longings for a heavenly teacher, which may be gathered from the masters of ancient philosophy; but, in showing how far the Christian system meets, while it transcends, these premonitions and aspirations, he fully proves that this system could not be the product of philosophy. His views of the contents of revelation-the things revealed-are marked by their freshness and their high healthiness:

"The whole life of Christ may be considered as a manifestation of deity. In his every uttered sentiment some revelation of the nature and character of God may be discerned; and, in his marvellous acts the mighty signs and wonders' which attested his power over the elements of the physical universe-there was ever beaming forth the goodness of the Infinite to his suffering and dependent creatures. This is evident, if we only consider Him as a human being-a prophet of the Highest, endowed with a supernatural power for the confirmation of the doctrines He was sent forth into the world to teach. But when we lift the veil of His humanity, and see in this 'brother born for adversity,' this houseless sojourner upon earth's surface, another and a mightier Being-the Creator of the world upon whose face He wandered-the Maker of the creatures who despised and rejected Him-who voluntarily left the throne of His glory to seek the lost wanderer, and restore him to holiness and life, how marvellous then appears that act of condescension, of

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The Christian will not fail, we think, to be refreshed by the warm-hearted eloquence in which Mr. Ragg expresses the sentiments of one who has worked his way through many perplexities to a fully convinced understanding of Christianity, and the ardour with which he contends for its vital truths, as a man who has felt their life-giving power, and labours to diffuse their blessings among his fellow-men. He who seeks knowledge of physical science will find a large collection of facts scattered through several chapters-some of them new, and occurring in the experience of the writer, who has familiarised himself with habits of observation as well as with the facts registered in books. The lover of philosophy will gather from the metaphysical reasonings, and from the examinations of well-known modern publications, which abound in these pages, the well-digested thoughts of a man who proves his right to teach. The youthful or the busy reader may take encouragement from Mr. Ragg's modest acknowledgment that this production, so full of excellences, and containing but slight indications of deficiency in early mental discipline, comes from one who started in life as a humble mechanic, whose means of culture have been limited to such as he could use without the guidance of a superintending mind, and who has never had opportunities for study but in those hours devoted by most men to rest and relaxation. We congratulate Mr. Ragg on having achieved so decided a 66 success in theological disquisition, and added to the many proofs of the congeniality between genuine poetry, accurate science, true philosophy, and earnest piety. We have read this book with unfeigned admiration of his diligence, acuteness, accuracy, power of close, consecutive reasoning, extensive and varied information, force and brilliancy of expression, and of the manifestly benevolent tone in which he aims at the highest welfare of large classes among our interesting industrial population.


London: Wertheim and Macintosh.

cations of one vigorous mind pervading it; and we cannot but commend the reverence for the authority of the Holy Scriptures, the strong attachment to Evangelical doctrines, the clear, forcible logic, and the nervous diction by which it is distinguished.

By far the greater part of the publication is devoted to the exposure of the Doctor's false views of inspiration. On these, as the foundation of his errors, we have already commented; and the pamphlet animadverts on his exaggeration of the difficulties involved in the question of inspiration: the extensive learning which he

DR. DAVIDSON's volume of Horne's Introduction has called forth, in addition to numberless reviews, three able works in refutation of its errors-Thomson's Lectures on Inspiration; Kelly's Examination of Facts, Statements, and Explanations; and the pamphlet at the head of this notice. The present publication is not inferior in ability to its predecessors, but it is wider in the range of its observation, and far more severe in the spirit of its animadversions. Its authors are generally under-alleges is requisite to form an opinion on stood to be two Congregational Ministers, both educated at the Lancashire Independent College, and formerly pupils of Dr. Davidson.

Of any connexion with him, however, the pamphlet bears no indication. In vain do we search through it for any trace of gratitude for his past instructions; for any kindly feeling towards their former Professor; or for any disposition to put the most favourable construction upon his words, of which they are susceptible. A tone of severity pervades the publication from beginning to end. Its title is a sufficient index to its character. There is certainly abundance of the fortiter in re; we wish there was more of the suaviter in modo. The graduates fearlessly "speak the truth;" we wish that they had more manifestly "spoken the truth in love." We cannot divest ourselves of the impression that the spirit of the work is rather that of the counsel engaged for the prosecution, than the dispassionate, impartial air of the judge summing up the evidence and guiding the verdict of the jury.


the subject; and the fewness of those
who possess the necessary qualifications.
Against the Professor's theory of inspi
ration they urge three serious objections:
it weakens our evidence for the authority
of the Holy Scriptures; it gives us a much
lower conception of the value of the sacred
writings; and it confounds the Divine and
the human in a way which altogether
prevents their separation. The Graduates
contrast the utterances of the Doctor in
1843, in his "Sacred Hermeneutics," with
statements in this volume, and point out,
in connexion with excessive dogmatism,
remarkable vacillations of opinion.
1857 he strongly unsays what he then said,
and the comparison indicates a progress
towards rationalism, and shows how un-
certain and unsafe a guide he is to theo-
logical students. An exposure is given
of the Doctor's unfair use of various theo-
logians on the subject of inspiration, and
a searching and rigorous investigation is
furnished of the leading objectionable
passages as to the books of Scripture. We
would especially refer to the comments on
the Book of Jasher, and the miracle of
the standing still of the sun; on the al-
leged errors of the Book of Chronicles;
on the Solomonic authorship of the Book
of Ecclesiastes; on the highly objec-
tionable passages relative to the Psalms,
both Messianic and imprecatory; on the
assertion of a traditional element in the
gospels; and of false reasonings in the

Yet while we regret the harshness of the pamphlet, we are compelled to confess that few writers have less occasion to complain of this than Dr. D., for both in his Introduction and in his Notices of Works in the "Bibliotheca Sacra," he has written in most disparaging and contemptuous terms of authors, many of whom are held in the highest estimation for learning and piety. Though the pam-writings of Paul, and in the epistle to phlet of the Graduates professes to be the the Hebrews. production of two writers, there are indi

Dr. Davidson's doctrinal heresies are

bitter and sweet. We were tempted, reasoning à priori, to the conclusion which we afterwards found was sustained by an able article in the British and Foreign Evangelical Review, that the writer was in many instances a translator, and that the complexion of his pages was regulated by the various sources from which they were extracted.

The concluding portion of the pamphlet relates to Plagiarisms.

represented as consisting in passages on the Trinity; on the sufficiency of Scripture; on original sin; on the atonement; and on justification by faith. Many of these passages we have previously criticised. Some of them are erroneous; and the theory of justification by love we denounced as most unscriptural and perilous. Yet there is a singular idiosyncrasy characteristic of the Doctor, for which we are at a loss to account, for in other passages he concedes all that we could desire, and asserts his full belief in the doctrines " constituting the evangelical system." There seems much force in the solution furnished by one of his reviewers, that the Professor's intellectual sympathies appear to be in favour of heterodoxy, while his moral affinities are more in harmony with orthodox and evangelical religion. The contradictions of the volume form a prominent feature in it, and of these the Graduates present specimens in the conflicting statements relative to our Lord's argument with the Sadducees in support of the resurrection; passages respecting Jonah; the inspiration of the later prophets; and the types and parallels of Scripture. These discrepancies greatly surprised us when we first read the Doc-duced a reference to those portions of the tor's introduction. We could not understand how the same oracle could give forth such contradictory responses; how the same fountain could send forth waters both

The authors adduce several specimens from the Exegitische Handbuch, and from Cellerier's Manual d'Hermeneutique, from which copious but unacknowledged translations have been made. These are serious impeachments of the Professor's literary reputation, from which we cannot see how he can vindicate himself. It is with regret that we write thus of one, who, both from the Professor's chair, and in his previous writings, had rendered valuable service to biblical learning. We wish that, in the fulfilment of their task, the Graduates had made decided mention of the merits of the volume, had adopted a milder tone and more courteous language; and had, in connexion with their unsparing exposure of his errors, intro

work, which convey much valuable in. struction, and are calculated to be serviceable to the biblical student.


JOHN BROWN, D.D., Professor of Exegetical
Theology to the United Presbyterian Church,
Edinburgh. October. pp. 624.

Or the importance of clear and correct views of the doctrines and the reasonings of the Apostle Paul in this Epistle it is impossible to speak too strongly. Let a man well understand and cordially love the truths taught in this Epistle by the inspired Apostle, and he will find it to be a key both to the rest of the New Testament and to the books of the Old Testament. In our own day valuable aids to the study of the Epistle to the Romans have been rendered by not a few judicious and enlightened expositors. Among them we would make honourable mention of Dr. Hodge, of

America, of Mr. Robert Haldane, of Dr. Chal mers, in his four volumes of Lectures on this Epistle, and of Mr. Walford. We hoped that before this time, another exposition would have been added to them, from which we have very high expectations. It is that from the pen of the late Dr. Wardlaw. We regret that it was not published immediately after the publication of his life, as we have scarcely known any writer so highly qualified to be the expositor of this Epistle.

Dr. John Brown has laid the Christian public under great obligations, by his numerous and valuable publications for the defence or the elucidation of the great verities of the Christian faith. The work before us is worthy of the excellent author.

There are certainly advantages to be secured

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