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a great revolution must take place in their views, ere they can adopt them. They will ask Mr. Desprez, too, why, if the Apocalypse relates to Jews, was it addressed to Gentiles? On Mr. Desprez' hypothesis, it should have been sent not to the Seven Churches of Asia, but to the churches in Judea.
The views advocated by Mr. Bland are much more in accordance with those we have been wont to entertain. The peculiarity in his work consists in his seeking, in the outset, a key to the symbols of the book, and in his keeping strictly to the use of this key in his attempt to discover the meaning. According to him, the Apocalypse contains an anticipated history of the church, given in symbols. No interpreter is justified in "solving the same symbol in two or more different ways, in different parts of the book," unless, indeed, there be most satisfactory reasons for his so doing..
Much may be said for Mr. Bland's key. It seems an exceedingly good one, and he urges strong reasons for its use. We are not sure, however, that it is quite perfect. It does not always turn easily in the wards of this ancient lock, and occasionally, while he is using it, if it does not "grate harsh thunder" in our ears, it awakens echoes of dissent in our convictions.
We regard this volume, however, as an exceedingly valuable one, and as worthy of having a place in the libraries of all interested in apocalyptic research. Mr. Bland has evidently read much on the subject, but his mind is not encumbered with the views of others. He has thought out his subject patiently and carefully, and we think has at least done something to bring the principles of prophetic interpretation into a more satisfactory state. Those who read this book will be surprised to learn that the author has devoted himself to the stage. He styles himself "Dramatic Artist." The work, however, is sober and serious, and is written in an excellent spirit. We trust that Mr. Bland is a sincere inquirer after truth, not only in apocalyptic interpretation, but also in the path of life; and
pray that he may be guided by wisdom from on high.
We close our strictures with a short extract from p. 584.
"When, therefore, I find that the pages of the Apocalypse, in more places than one, point out the true church as a community standing apart from the politically established church-when again I find the first connexion of the Roman church and the Roman state represented as an event producing evil consequences,-when I find evidence that the first step in the descent of the true church from 'heaven,' to earth' (or from the religious to the political sphere) must take its date from an epoch rendered remarkable by the establishment of a British Puritan government, and the advent of a Nonconformist movement, I must not hesitate to declare that 'the bride, the Lamb's wife,' is not identical with any ecclesiastial organization at present in connexion with the secular powers, and therefore, must be a certain modification of some ecclesiastical body or bodies based on the voluntary or independent principle; in other words, some future new combination of the various Protestant bodies scattered throughout Christendom."
THE VOICE OF CHRISTIAN LIFE IN SONG; or, Hymns and Hymn Writers of many Lands and Ages. By the Author of "Tales and Sketches of Christian Life."
London: Nisbet & Co. HYMNS OF THE CHURCH MILITANT. London: Nisbet & Co. HIPPOLYTUS tells us that one of the portents of the last great apostacy will be, that singing of psalms shall cease. Evidently, therefore, "the time of the end" is not yet; if, that is, the ordinary laws of gradual change obtain: for nothing is more remarkable and gratifying than the peculiar prominence which, during the last twenty years, all sections of the church have given to church song. The Episcopal church has been aroused from its somnolent contentedness with Tate and Brady's doleful doggerel, to whom Fuller's remark about the authors of the old version is almost equally applicable-that they were "men whose
piety was better than their poetry, and they had drank more of Jordan than of Helicon "—and, according to its varieties of high or low church tendency, it has almost in every parish had recourse to collections of mediæval or evangelical hymns; each congregation stretching its hand beyond the strict pale of its own ecclesiastical fellowship to those with whom it has the most affinities. Wherever an evangelical minister preaches, the rich compositions of Watts, and Doddridge, and Wesley, and Montgomery are heard; whilst in almost every church where the clergyman is of the hierarchical school, some revival of medieval hymns is attempted. And it must be confessed that many of these have been translated and adapted with great felicity and beauty, and are calculated to be of permanent value to the church.
Even the Scottish Presbyterian churches are beginning to crave something more euphonious and varied than their rugged version of the Psalms, and the few paraphrases thereto appended; and one or two Presbyterian supplements have recently fallen into our hands. To Nonconformists, however, the chief glory of our modern hymnology belongs. Great, indeed, would be the void in the devotional lyrics of the church, if the compositions of Watts, and Wesley, and Doddridge, and Montgomery, and Conder, were blotted out. They still remain the mighty masters of modern church song; although in affirming this we are not unmindful of the precious contributions of Bishop Ken, and Jeremy Taylor, and George Sandys, and Herbert, and Toplady, and Heber, and Newton, and Lyte. The appearance of a genuine and good hymn is, as Montgomery says, as rare as a comet. And whether it be the timorousness engendered by a well-tutored conformity to Episcopal authority, or to a stereotyped ritual in a consecrated place, on the one hand,- —or the freedom of ritual emancipation, and the necessities of uncanonical meeting-houses and street corners, on the other, it is certain that the great majority of the hymns that have taken hold of the popular mind have been awakened to life upon Nonconforming lyres.
We rejoice, however, in higher recognitions than this. We cannot help feeling, as we look through the admirable volume before us, and trace the everwidening stream of church song from its inspired fountain, through the Greek and Latin churches, and through the dark and tangled mass of medieval superstition, to its fresh and glorious outburst of German song at the Reformation, and to the age of Watts and Wesley, how easy the heavenly solution of sectarian differences may be. Whatever religious men may say, they all sing alike. In theology they may differ; they are one in their religion. They stand aloof when mere notions determine their position; they come very close together when the impulses of the heart are followed. Sacred song is emphatically the utterance of the religious heart, and, whatever a man's theological notions, if he be a truly religious man, his prayer and his praise will awaken a sympathy in every other religious heart. The sweet singer of Israel may, with his dim Jewish light, celebrate his temple privileges, and glory in its sacerdotal service; and yet, because of his intense religiousness, his Psalms remain the highest utterances of the most enlightened and spiritual Christian hearts. So through the ages of the church, however wide the range of Christian song, however distant or different its singers,whether we sing a "Te Deum" with Ambrose, 'Jesu dulcis memoria" with Bernard, an "Ein feste burg ist unser Gott" with Luther, Come, let us join our cheerful songs" with Watts, "Rock of Ages, cleft for me" with Toplady, or "Jesus, lover of my soul" with Wesley,-whether it be with a king like Charlemagne, or a monk like Abelard, a bishop like Ken or Heber, or a Nonconformist layman like Conder,— in this they stand upon common ground, their polemical swords laid aside, the helmets of their warfare doffed, and, with uncovered heads and uplifted hands, they utter their common heart- worship. And these heart-utterances of theirs are marvellously alike; their sect is lost in their song; and it is only to imagine this perfected in heaven, to understand the song
and the brotherhood of the great multi- just discrimination. Translations of both tude before the throne. Greek and Latin, and German and even Swedish hymns, are given as illustrative specimens, some of them evincing considerable poetic skill. The style is somewhat rhetorical and rythmical, often passing into a kind of prose song-very pleasant and beautiful, and imbued commonly with the hue and harmony of its theme. We know of no book from which a broader and juster idea of Christian hymnody can be obtained. We have read and reread it with profit and pleasure. The "Hymns of the Church Militant" form an appropriate appendix to the "Voice of Christian Life,"
The authoress of the first of these volumes evidently feels this, and makes her readers feel it in every page. Consciously or unconsciously, it is the spirit in which the book is conceived, and which it aims to impart. It traces a common Christian life through every age and form of Christian song. The notices of hymns and hymn writers are broad and intelligent, and conceived in a spirit of catholic sympathy with whatever is good, wherever it may be found. The charity of the writer naturally takes the form of eulogy, but the eulogy is not without acute and
BRIEF NOTICES OF RECENT PUBLICATIONS.
A FUNERAL SERMON: Preached at Maberly Chapel, Kingsland, by the Rev. E. M. DAVIS, on the Occasion of the Death of the Rev. R. Philip. London: Jackson and Walford.
In this discourse, from the words "I am the Resurrection and the Life," the preacher unfolds, with much impressiveness, the doctrine of the resurrection. We extract the following passage on the immediate blessedness of believers after death :-" Absent from the body, they are present with the Lord. The doleful echo of their last groan is not expired on earth, when heaven begins to echo the first notes of their new and everlasting song. While trembling and weeping relatives are yet in doubt whether the struggle be all over, attending angels are winging their flight to Paradise with the emancipated spirit; and long before the coldness of death has spread over the body, that spirit has begun to glow with the warmth of immortality and the ecstasies of the beatific vision in glory." The discourse contains a brief notice of the life and writings of Mr. Philip, showing that he was a useful and honoured servant of Christ, who lived not in vain.
It is a fitting tribute to his memory, and is gracefully dedicated, by his successor, to the widow and the church over which Mr. Philip presided for thirty-one years.
| great experience, extensive information, and sound judgment. We are sure that a work from his pen, could he find time to write it, on the state and prospects of missions in Northern India would be most valuable, and would merit and receive a wide circulation.
A FAITHFUL SERVANT: HIS LABOUR AND REST. Being the Funeral Sermon, Memorial Sketch, and Extracts from the Correspondence of the late Mr. George Wilson, for nearly nineteen years a Deacon of the Church assembling in Craven Chapel, London. By the Rev. JOHN GRAHAM.
London: Judd and Glass.
THIS is a worthy tribute to the memory of one who was faithful in Israel, and who feared God above many. Mr. Wilson was a connecting link between the past and the present generation, and must have been well known to many of our readers for his disinterested and self-denying zeal in the service of Christ. May many be raised up who shall serve their generation as he served his!
This funeral sermon and memorial sketch of him, as well as the extracts from his correspondence, we have perused with great satisfaction. The little work containing them is well adapted for circulation, and will be read with interest far beyond the circle in which Mr. Wilson was known.
REVIVAL OF RELIGION: WHAT IT IS, AND HOW
London: Hamilton, Adams, and Co.
and hope it may obtain a wide circulation. | conviction of the world-The Divine education We recommend the perusal of it to all who of the church-A word in season to the are interested in the revival of religion. weary," &c. &c.
The book is written with great taste and judgment, and is well fitted for the purpose for which it is designed.
AN EARNEST EXHORTATION ΤΟ
CHRISTIAN UNITY. By the CHIEF OF SINNERS. London: Partridge and Co.
THE intention of the author of this work is doubtless excellent. Its publication, however, clearly shows that a good man is not always a judicious man. We marvel that the writer could give circulation to such specimens of profane swearing as we find in the notes at 321 and 323. PP. He surely forgot, when he inserted them, the Apostle's exhortation in Ephesians iv. 29.
LEAVES FROM A MINISTER'S PORTFOLIO. By the Rev. D. FRASER, A.M., Minister of the Free Church, Montreal.
London: James Nisbet and Co.
THIS little book contains no elaborate exposition or treatise. "I have grouped together (says the author) sundry short papers on religions themes, meditative and illustrative, which may prove suitable reading, as I trust, for a Sabbath afternoon or evening at home." The following are some of these themes:"Meditation-The soul asleep-The threefold
THE EDEN FAMILY; Showing the Loss of our
London Partridge and Co.
MR. DODSWORTH has become well known in many circles by his former work, intituled, "The Better Land; or, the Christian Emigrant's Guide to Heaven." This volume on "The Eden Family," which is "only another form of expression for the human family," contains chapters on "Our heavenly Father
Our terrestrial abode-Our Eden ancestorsOur desert exile-Our glorious delivererOur gracious comforter-Our wilderness pilgrimage-and Our paradise home." We do not always agree with Mr. Dodsworth in sentiment, nor do we always approve of his modes of illustration. There is so much in the book, however, that is excellent, and likely to be useful, that we can cordially wish for it as extensive a circulation as its predecessor. That has reached, we are told, 15,000 copies.
THE MEN OF THE MONTH.
1. JAMES FORDYCE, D.D., was a native, to be violent and overbearing in controof Aberdeen, but in his later years versy. He died in 1806, at the age of 73. minister of Monk well-street, London; he was a good man, and an accomplished and eloquent preacher. Died 1796, aged 76.
5. JONATHAN EDWARDS, born 1703. This eminent minister and most able Christian philosopher and divine died of the small pox, in his 55th year.
DR. ANDREW KIPPIS, a learned dissenting minister and writer of the last century, chiefly remembered for his edition of the "Biographia Britannica," died 1795, aged 70.
6. W. WORTHINGTON, D.D., a divine of the Church of England, a good man and a copious author, but whose writings are now but little known, died 1778, aged 75.
7. DR. THOMAS REID, the celebrated moral philosopher, died 1796, at the ad
3. ROBERT BARCLAY, died 1690, in his forty-third year. Barclay was a Quaker, and became one of the most indefatigable promoters, and one of the most able and courageous defenders, of his principles. His great work is the well-known "Apology for the People called Quakers.”
4. PETER PAUL VERGERIUS, died 1565. This remarkable man, after being commissioned by two popes to visit Germany on the subject of a general council, became a Protestant. He patiently endured the trials which his adoption of Reforma-vanced age of 86. tion principles brought upon him, and wrote against the papal system.
-BISHOP HORSLEY was an eminently learned man and a powerful writer, but restricted in his views on some questions, as that of religious liberty, and disposed
9. BISHOP GROSSETESTE, or GREATHEAD, a learned prelate, and a great name in the history of the English Church, for the resistance offered by him to papal abuses. He died in the year 1253, aged 78.
9. JUSTUS JONAS, a pious, useful, and much-honoured member of that noble body of men to whom, under God, we owe the Reformation; died 1554.
10. DR. DAVID RUSSELL, born 1779. He was a distinguished, able, and very successful minister of the gospel at Dundee. He died in 1848.
11. S. CLARKE, born 1675, at Norwich, and one of the most eminent divines of his age. He died in 1729.
12. THOMAS STAPLETON, professor at Louvain, and an Englishman, but a bitter controversialist and enemy of the Reformation, died 1598.
DAVID SIMPSON, author of the wellknown"Plea for Religion," and a useful minister of the English Church, born 1745. He died in 1799.
HUGH MILLER, the distinguished Scottish geologist, born 1802.
13. FRANCIS JUNIUS, the reformer, was a native of France, but spent much of his time in Belgium and Germany, died 1602, aged 57. Junius was a learned man, and his literary labours were of great importance.
15. OSWALD MYCONIUS, one of the Reformers, and professor of theology at Basle, died 1552, aged 64.
16. NICHOLAS RIDLEY, Bishop of London; HUGH LATIMER, Bishop of Worcester; martyrs, 1555.
HENRY MARTYN, the famous Christian missionary to the East, died 1812, at Tocat, before he had completed his 32nd year. This highly honoured, godly, and learned young man was born at Truro,
man of learning and ability, and, while professor at Leyden, attracted great attention by his opposition to Calvinism.
19. H. K. WHITE, the poet, died 1806, in his 22nd year.
25. DAVID BOGUE, died 1825. This excellent and useful man will be long remembered for his many labours as a professor, a minister, a writer, and the friend of missions.
26. ALFRED, King of England, died in the year 900. His writings were chiefly free translations out of Latin into AngloSaxon.
RICHARD HOOKER, author of the great work on "Ecclesiastical Polity," which has been the bulwark and the pride of the Church of England for many years, died 1600, aged 67.
27. B. GROSVENOR, D.D., died 1758, at the age of 83. In his day, Dr. Grosvenor was popular both as a preacher and as a writer, and his works ought not to be neglected.
DEAN KIRWAN, died 1805. This remarkable man enjoyed wonderful popularity as a preacher, and the effect of his sermons was sometimes amazing. He was originally a Romanist, but joined the Church of England. At his death, his age was 51.
28. ERASMUS. The witty, learned, and half-decided, but often useful Erasmus was born at Rotterdam, in 1467. He exercised great influence in his day throughout Europe, and some of his works are even now really valuable. His edition of the Greek Testament was the first ever published.
29. EDMUND CALAMY, the first of the name, an able and influential minister, and distinguished by great excellence` of character, died 1666, at the age of 66.
of Holland, died 1609. Arminius was a | aged 56.