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these scenes. If, indeed, men are re-
We cannot confine the charge of cruelty to the sepoys more than we can the charge of treachery. It is, to a degree little thought of in Europe, characteristic of the race. The religious systems, long prevalent in India, nourish a sanguinary, unfeeling spirit. The Mussulmans are taught from their earliest days that infidels are detestable, and that their destruction, when practicable, is to God a most acceptable sacrifice. Wherever Muhammadanism prevails history proves that lust and cruelty characterise its devotees. What shall we say of the mild Hindoo, who reveres life in every form, who may be seen carefully feeding ants and other insects; who looks warily before him lest he trample upon any living thing; whose great charge against the English is, that they are constantly sacrificing life; who repels the arguments of the missionary by pointing to slaughtered animals, as a proof that Christianity is a hard and cruel religion? Do we charge the Hindoo, the Brahmans especially, with cruelty, and assert that his cruelty is traceable to his religion? We do, without hesitation. According to Hindooism life is uncreated, it is eternal, of cremation, and so they scorch the
and is the same in all orders of beings. It has indeed dignified and undignified forms. But it is essentially the same in a god and an insect, and is constantly migrating from one form to another. If this theory seems to elevate life in general, it is unquestionably a woful depression of man's life in particular. The body is the mere dress of the soul, and when we are done with it, it is to be thrown for ever aside as a worn-out garment. Of its excellence, as bearing the high impress of divine workmanship, and its restoration from the corruption of the grave, the Hindoo has not the least conception. According to him it ought to be consumed, its ashes cast into the Ganges, and then it has reached its consummation. The noblest forms of life in his view to be found on earth, are those of the Brahman, the cow, the monkey, the peacock, and some other sacred animals. The sacredness is so great as to extend to their bodies, and an injury to them is unpardonable impiety. The Hindoos who have lately been engaged with such zest in murdering our countrymen and countrywomen, would shrink with horror from killing a cow or cutting down a monkey. The killing of a Feringee may be excusable, and sometimes even praiseworthy; but the killing of a cow is worse than the killing of one's mother, and is an inexpiable crime. Instances have occurred in Hindustan of Europeans being killed by maddened Hindoos, because they have shot down monkeys or peacocks. Such notions of life directly tend to inhumanity. Then the legends constantly circulating among the people ascribe to their deities acts of the direst cruelty. Shiva, the god of destruction, and Kalee, the goddess who delights in blood, are worshipped by millions. Can the worship of incarnate bloodthirstiness make people humane? Can minds ruled by such influences be other than cruel? The sights which are constantly witnessed in the land are also fitted to deaden every sensibility. The nearest friends sit by with amazing coolness while the bodies of their relatives are being consumed to ashes. The poor cannot well bear the cost
them into the Ganges. When the Ganges is distant, the body is thrown into the nearest stream, or watercourse, whether there be at that time water in it or not. The result is that bodies are to be constantly seen in all stages of decomposition, in the act of being devoured by
bodies of their friends, and then throw | dogs, jackals, and vultures. This most common spectacle cannot fail to have a fearful effect in blunting and hardening the heart of the people. We need not wonder then to find that the history of India is stained by acts as inhuman and cruel as have ever been committed on earth.
Reviews of Religious Publications.
THE SAINT AND HIS SAVIOUR; or, The
were to their age, we cannot understand. To us it appears purely silly to decry the pulpit, and at the same time describe the age as one of progress; for if the idea of progress pertains to man, then man in the pulpit may as fully develop his progress with his voice as at the desk with his pen. To deem the pulpit effete is virtually to say that human nature itself has grown old and weak, and that the mind of man has lost its power over mind. But this will never be true in one department of intellectual effort, and untrue in all others.
London: James S. Virtue, City Road. FOR some years past the press has been vaunting itself against the pulpit. The world has been oracularly advertised that the era of preaching was past, that the custom had grown effete, the race of great preachers become extinct, and the voice of evangelists and reformers, which once shook nations to their centre, would never more be heard. Hence the pulpit, we have been told, must give place to the productions of the pen. But preaching the gospel is God's ordinance, and He who imparted to man's mouth the marvellous endowment of speech, has given a mission to his own ordinance, which has not yet been completed, and which assuredly will never be superseded by any invention of man. It is abundantly clear that the press in vain essays to employ the persuasive, enchanting, and commanding power of the tongue. Let the pulpit but be occupied by teachers who know how skilfully to touch the human mind and heart, to move the inner springs of thought, and stir the depths of the soul, and the supremacy of the pulpit over every other mode of religious instruction and moral reformation will be re-established, against all rivals and impugners. Why any person should suppose that the present age cannot produce great preachers, and men as adaptedness of the hearers.
to the time, as any of their predecessors His doctrine is far from palatable to
Symptoms have manifested themselves recently, both in the metropolis and in the provinces, that there are men among us who can attract around their pulpits immense audiences, and thrill the hearts of thousands with the old truths which, like the light and air of heaven, will always refresh human hearts.
Among the men who are re-asserting and demonstrating the influence of the pulpit, our young preacher of the Surrey Gardens holds the first place. The press has tried its best and its worst to pull him down from the pinnacle which the public voice has unequivocally conceded to him. He has preached the gospel of Jesus Christ in his own peculiar way to myriads for many months past, but under whatever circumstances of inconvenience they may be placed, fresh crowds still press on, and nothing seems to abate the attraction of the preacher and the eager
soul. It is not, however, after the manner of Doddridge; but seems to be formed after Mr. Spurgeon's own personal experience. It enforces and applies all the doctrines of the high Calvinistic school, though without the abuse to which those doctrines are liable.
many; but it is undeniable, that the truth from his lips wins its way to the hearts of thousands. He often offends cultivated taste, and makes the ears to tingle with harsh words; but still his earnestness, simplicity, and eloquence, overcome prejudices and disarm enemies. Whatever may be thought of Mr. Spurgeon as a divine, a reasoner, an expositor of Scripture, or as a pulpit orator, judging him by high standards, yet his success is a great fact, and infidelity itself cannot deny it. His influence is extensively felt, not only among his own congregation, but throughout the provinces, wherever his occasional labours are directed. He has shown at least what can be done in and by the pulpit, and it is not improbable that his success will have a direct influence upon many other minds, probably of a higher order and richer culture. Our own expectation is, that the time is not distant when the pulpit will vindicate its divine mission, in a manner that shall outstrip all competitors, and silence all detractors. But we are not sure that Mr. Spurgeon will employ his pen as successfully as he has hitherto employed his tongue. Many of his pulpit addresses have been given to the world by the press; but none of them sustain the reputation of the preacher. They have, we believe, been mostly reported for him; and without impugning the correctness of such reports, it is enough to say that the reading of his sermons, like those of Whitfield, and most other popular preachers, leaves an impression vastly inferior to that produced by their delivery.
After having been very variously represented by the pens of others, it is not at all wonderful that Mr. Spurgeon should wish to give his views on theological subjects to the world in a permanent form. The work, however, he describes as repugnant to his feelings, and a burden under which he has groaned for two years past. It does not surprise us that it should be so, considering the éclat that attends his public utterances, and the quiet thoughtful toil necessary to the production of a book. The one he has at length sent forth is a delineation of the rise and progress of true religion in the
The dangers and difficulties of the inquirer after salvation are impressively set forth. The causes of failure and disappointment are pointed out, and the gospel method of acceptance is clearly exhibited throughout the volume. False founda. tions are uprooted, and false refuges exploded; while Christ Jesus is exhibited in the glories of his divine character, and the all-sufficiency of his mediatorial work. The illustrations are often quaint, frequently overdone, and sometimes offensive; but the pious reader will be gratified to find that Christ is preached, and from such preaching all may gather profit.
AN ESSAY ON THE ATONEMENT, including a Critical Examination of the Sacred Scriptures; together with the Sentiments of various Authors, both ancient and modern, relating to that subject. By the Rev. T. PETHERICK. Second Edition, 12mo, pp. 255.
Bath Binns and Godwin.
THIS is the republication of an Essay which appeared some years ago, and was reviewed by us, not at all, as it seems, to the author's satisfaction. We cannot say that his revision and enlargement of his Essay has contributed in any degree to our enlightenment on the momentous subject of his work. He has made no attempt to explain the special nature or bearings of the atonement upon the government of God. He has gone over the old and beaten track adopted by those divines who are denominated high or strict Calvinists. He has asserted and defended his own views of the subject in no qualified or cautious terms. Frequently his language is offensively dogmatical, and his mode of treating those who have taken a view of the subject opposed to his own, is both unfair and uncandid. Such men as Dr. Wardlaw, and all who
London: Ward and Co.
adopt his views of the unlimited extent | If Mr. P. is content to leave it there, we of the atonement, are represented as can so far cordially agree with him. handling the Word of God both craftily and deceitfully. Their teachings are not A TREATISE ON THE WILL. By H. P. only described as pernicious errors, but TAPPAN, D.D. New Edition. the men themselves are censured as defiGlasgow. cient in submission to the Divine authority of the Scriptures, and perverters of the truth, for the purpose of exalting their own reason and philosophy, or flattering the pride of fallen humanity. As to the THESE are both very able works, treatcritical qualities of the work, they appearing of points too abstruse and subtle for nowhere but in the title-page; and as to anything like satisfactory discussion iu his explanations of the Scriptures op- our pages. The former work, as is well pugnant to his doctrine, they are any known by readers acquainted with metathing but clear, fair, and satisfactory. physical literature, is intended to be an Those readers who seek for a calm and answer to the arguments of the renowned comprehensive review of the many con- Jonathan Edwards against the freedom of troversies maintained in former days, or the will. The latter, while it is mainly a rife in our own, on this great subject, will vindication of metaphysical reasoning seek it in vain in this volume. These are relative to the being of a God, contains not times for the bald asseverations of in the third part-where we have an acute opinion. No man can be allowed to inquiry into the doctrine of causation-a affirm with oracular authority that he has review of Tappan's objections to Edwards, discovered the mind of the Spirit on this and on that account we have coupled the great mystery of the Gospel. Strong books together. texts may be quoted by the defenders of contrary opinions, and each advocate may proclaim his own sincerity, conscientious- "Will is cause, says Professor Tapness, and piety; but in so doing, let him pan, and the volition or nisus the effect: not impeach his opponents for a deficiency between the cause and the effect nothing of the same qualities. We could quote intervenes. The will, therefore, produces from the present work many passages volitions directly without any volition or which violate the laws of Christian con- causative act; hence the doctrine, that troversy. If we could sympathize with the will produces its acts by means of an this author in his opinions to the utmost act, is false. Had the great transatlantic extent, we should yet feel bound to con- divine been alive, he would have replied: demn the spirit and style of his defence. It is quite true, Mr. Tappan, that the will The Gospel, as preached by Christ and his produces its own volitions or actions diapostles, presented to the world in some rectly without any act; but although this respects, according to our judgment, a is the case (a thing which I never devery different aspect from that which it nied), it does not therefore follow as a presents in these pages. After all, Mr. consequence that the will determines Petherick believes that none will be its own act. There is a mighty difference saved but those who believe the Gospel; between the determination of a thing, and and those who combat his view of the the production of a thing; and although atonement, believe the same thing, and no act may be required for the latter, yet both equally hold that divine influence it may be for the former. A volition, or is essential to make the sinner willing in nisus, must not only have existence, but the day of God's power. It is clear it must have existence in a particular from Scripture that the impenitent and time, if not in a particular space; it must unbelieving cannot be saved, and both at least have a determination in regard to parties must ascribe the bestowment of time. Now, although the will might Divine influence to the Divine sovereignty. | have produced the volition-given it bare
We cannot, perhaps, do better than extract a paragraph on this subject:
THE PHILOSOPHY OF THEISM; or, An Inquiry into the Dependence of Theism on Metaphysics.
existence--still the question regarding its determination remains untouched, viz. what caused the will to produce the volition, rather than at some other time? or in other words, what determined the will? Now, although the will may produce the former directly, without any antecedent act, yet, even according to your own opinion, it could not produce the latter (viz. determine itself) without an antecedent act. . . . If it be true, as Tappan himself abundantly asserts, that the will only produces action, effort, or nisus; then, if it determine its own acts, as well as produce them, it must do so by an act. . . . Tappan's error arises from not observing the essential difference between the production of an act and its determination. Hence, although he proves that the will produces its actions without an act, this never touches Edwards's argument, that if the will determines its acts, it must do so by an act."
Only men of metaphysical minds will enter into the merits of such a controversy. Happily the multitude are not perplexed with such difficulties; but there are some not only curious respecting them, but sorely tried by the aspect they present to their acute and inquisitive reason. Such persons will find aids to reflection in both these works.
THE PHILOSOPHY OF THE BIBLE; or, the Union between Philosophy and Faith. By the Rev. J. WHYTE MAILLER, M.A.
Edinburgh: James Hogg. London: Groombridge. 1857. We regret that we have been unable till now to notice Mr. Mailler's work, which is really a valuable addition to our treatises on "Natural Theology." The object of the author is to show that nature and reason confirm the doctrines of revelation. "There is no doctrine (he says) revealed in Scripture, the truth of which is not susceptible of logical proof, if the human mind could grapple with the magnitude of the subject. By this we mean that the whole Divine govern. ment is perfectly consistent in itself, and with infinite wisdom and enlightened reason. The general treatises on 'Na
tural Theology' have exhibited this harmony to a certain extent; that is, as far as the existence and attributes of Deity are considered (concerned?). Our present endeavour is to advance the inquiry into the nature of the Divine moral government, and the doctrines of redemption, and to show that philosophy by argument may confirm these vital parts of the Christian religion in the same manner as it establishes those more general truths regarding the Divine being."-P. iv.
The work is divided into three parts. In the first part, we have "the Dynamical Argument," in which Mr. Mailler proves the dependence, passivity, and creation of matter, in opposition to the deification of the world by pantheism.
In this part we have an interesting chapter on "causation," in which the author argues that matter is necessarily passive, and that God is the only source of power. "There is one single sentence in the Bible respecting the physical government of the world, which contains more true philosophy than all the theories of causation ever taught in the schools-'upholding all things by the word of his power.' . . . The efficient cause must coexist with the effect; hence the Almighty always upholds all things, and ever liveth, and ever worketh, as the supreme cause, to whom we must trace directly, without the interposition of physical factors, every result that transpires." (P. 39.) This entire chapter is well worthy of being perused and pondered.
In the second part Mr. Mailler proves the existence of a moral government, and deduces from it a powerful argument for the immortality of the soul. We have been much interested by the discussion contained in this portion of the work, on the nature and functions of conscience; and think that, in the main, the writer is correct in the view he advocates.
The third part discusses "the Judicial Argument." Here Mr. Mailler endeavours to show that all physical evils are the effects of sin, and to exhibit the moral influence they are designed to exert.
Mr. Mailler is decidedly evangelical in