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23. Him being delivered by the determinate counsel and foreknowledge of God, ye have taken, and by wicked hands have crucified and slain. v. 36. The God of our fathers raised up Jesus, whom ye slew and hanged on a tree.
10. Q. Was it necessary to our Redemption that Christ should die?
A. It was. Heb. ix. 16, 23. Where a testament is, there must also of necessity be the death of the testator.—It was therefore necessary that the patterns of things in the heavens should be purified with these; but the heavenly things themselves with better sacrifices than these.
For the wages of sin is death, Rom. vi. 23, and without shedding of blood there is no remission. Heb. ix. 22.
And therefore we could not have been delivered from death on any other terms than by Christ's dying in our stead. Matt. xxvi. 39. O my Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from me: nevertheless, not as I will, but as thou wilt.
Whereas, by dying, he has made a full satisfaction for our sins; has taken away the sting of death; and conquered him, who had the power of death, that is, the devil, Heb. ii. 14. Heb. ix. 13, 14, 26. For if the blood of bulls and of goats, and the ashes of an heifer, sprinkling the unclean, sanctifieth to the purifying of the flesh: how much more shall the blood of Christ, who through the eternal spirit offered himself without spot to God, purge your conscience from dead works, to serve the living God? So Christ was once offered to bear the sins of many; and unto them that look for him shall he appear the second time
without sin unto salvation. Romans, v. 6, 8. For when we were yet without strength, in due time Christ died for the ungodly. But God commendeth his love towards us, in that while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us. 1 Cor. xv. 55, 57. O death, where is thy sting? O grave, where is thy victory? Thanks be to God, which giveth us the victory, through our Lord Jesus Christ.
PROOFS SUBJOINED.-Isaiah, liii. 10. Yet it pleased the Lord to bruise him: he hath put him to grief: when thou shalt make his soul an offering for sin, he shall see his seed, he shall prolong his days, and the pleasure of the Lord shall prosper in his hand. 1 Pet. i. 8, 19. Whom having not seen, ye love; in whom, though now ye see him not, yet believing, ye rejoice with joy unspeakable, and full of glory. Forasmuch as ye know that ye were not redeemed with corruptible things, as silver and gold, from your vain conversation received by tradition from your fathers; but with the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb without blemish, and without spot. Rom. v. 6 to 10. For when we were yet without strength, in due time Christ died for the ungodly. For scarcely for a righteous man will one die: yet peradventure for a good man some would even dare to die. But, God commendeth his love towards us, in that, while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us. Much more then being now justified by his blood, we shall be saved from wrath through him. viii. 32. He that spared not his own Son, but delivered him up for us all, how shall he not with him freely give us all things. Col. i. 21, 22. And you, that were sometimes alienated, and enemies in your mind by wicked works, yet now hath
he reconciled, in the body of his flesh, through death, to present you holy and unblameable, and unreproveable in his sight.
11. Q. How was Christ's body disposed of, after he was dead?
A. It was decently and honourably buried, by Joseph of Arimathæa and Nicodemus, principal men among the Jews; and that according to the prophecies of God to that purpose. Matt. xxvii. 60. And when Joseph had taken the body, he wrapped it in a clean linen cloth. And laid it in his own new tomb, which he had hewn out in the rock: and he rolled a great stone to the door of the sepulchre, and departed. Mark, xv. 43 to 46. Joseph of Arimathæa, an honourable counsellor, which also waited for the kingdom of God, came, and went in boldly unto Pilate, and craved the body of Jesus. And Pilate marvelled if he were already dead; and calling unto him the centurion, he asked him whether he had been any while dead. And when he knew it of the centurion, he gave the body to Joseph. John, xix. 38, &c. Comp. Isaiah, liii. 9. John. And after this, Joseph of Arimathæa, being a disciple of Jesus, but secretly for fear of the Jews, besought Pilate that he might take away the body of Jesus: and Pilate gave him leave. He came therefore and took the body of Jesus. Isaiah. And he made his grave with the wicked, and with the rich in his death; because he had done no violence, neither was any deceit in his mouth.
12. Q. What became of his soul, while his body lay in the grave?
A. He therein descended into hell. Psalm xvi. 10. For thou wilt not leave my soul in hell; neither wilt thou suffer thine Holy One to see corruption.
Acts, ii. 31. He (David) seeing this before, spake of the resurrection of Christ, that his soul was not left in hell, neither his flesh did see corruption.
13. Q. What does the word hell signify?
A. It is diversely used in the Holy Scriptures. Sometimes it signifies the grave: 'sometimes the state of the dead: and sometimes (especially in the New Testament,) it denotes the place of the damned, wherein they are to be tormented for ever and ever.
PROOFS SUBJOINED.-Gen. xxxvii. 35. And all his sons, and all his daughters rose up to comfort him; but he refused to be comforted; and he said, For 1 will go down into the grave, unto my son, mourning. xlii. 38. And he said, My son shall not go down with you; for his brother is dead, and he is left alone: if mischief befal him by the way in the which ye go, then shall ye bring down my grey hairs with sorrow to the grave. 1 Sam. ii. 6. The Lord killeth, and maketh alive: he bringeth down to the grave, and lifteth up. Psalm xvi. 10. Thou wilt not leave my soul in hell; neither wilt thou suffer thine Holy One to see corruption. xlix. 15. But God will redeem my soul from the power of the grave.
Psalm ix. 17. The wicked shall be turned into hell, and all the nations that forget God. Matt. v. 22, 29, 30. But I say unto you, that whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment: and whosoever shall say to his brother, Raca, shall be in danger of the council: but whosoever shall say, Thou fool, shall be in danger of hell fire. If thy right eye offend thee, pluck it out, and cast it from thee; for it is profitable for thee that one of thy members should perish, and not that thy whole body should be cast into hell. And if thy
right hand offend thee, cut it off, and cast it from thee; for it is profitable for thee that one of thy members perish, and not that thy whole body should be cast into hell. x. 28. And fear not them which kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul; but rather fear him which is able to destroy both soul and body in hell. xxiii. 33. Ye serpents, ye generation of vipers, how can ye escape the damnation of hell? Luke, xii. 5, But I will forewarn you whom ye shall fear; Fear him, which after he hath killed hath power to cast into hell. 2 Pet. ii. 4. For if God spared not the angels that sinned, but cast them down to hell, and delivered them into chains of darkness, to be reserved unto judgment, the Lord knoweth how to deliver the godly out of temptations, and to reserve the unjust unto the day of judgment to be punished.
14. Q. In which of these significations do you here understand it?
A. In the first it cannot be taken for of the burial of Christ's body there was mention before; and a soul cannot go into the grave. Neither can it well be taken in the last; for Christ finished all his sufferings upon the cross. John, ix. 30. When Jesus therefore had received the vinegar, he said, It is finished: and he bowed his head and gave up the ghost; and had nothing to undergo in the place of torments.
15. Q. But might not Christ descend thither to triumph over the devil in his own place? Or to deliver from thence all such as should there believe in him.
A. This has been the opinion of many of the ancients; but, I think, without any sufficient arguments or authority from the Holy Scriptures to support it.