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great scandal; and directly contrary to the intention of this commandment.
6. Q. Do you then look upon all use of images in God's service to be unlawful ?
A. I do account it contrary to the prohibition of this commandment, and, by consequence, unlawful. And therefore, when Aaron first, and afterwards Jeroboam, made use of them for this purpose, we find how highly God resented it; and with what detestation it is condemned in the Holy Scriptures. Exod. xxxij. 7, 8, 21, 30. And the Lord said unto Moses, Go, get thee down, for thy people which thou broughtest out of the land of Egypt have corrupted themselves : they have turned aside quickly out of the way which I commanded them: they have made them a molten calf, and have worshipped it; and have sacrificed thereunto, and said, These be thy gods, O Israel, which have brought thee up out of the land of Egypt. And Moses said unto Aaron, What did this people unto thee, that thou hast brought so great a sin upon them ? And it came to pass on the morrow, that Moses said unto the people, Ye have sinned a great sin: and now I will go up unto the Lord: peradventure I shall make an atonement for you.
1 Kings, xii. 30. And this thing became a sin: for the people went to worship before the one, even unto Dan. xiii. 34. And this thing became sin unto the house of Jeroboam, even to cut it off, and to destroy it from off the face of the earth. Psalm cvi. 19, 20, 21. They made a calf in Horeb, and worshipped the molten image. Thus they changed their glory into the similitude of an ox that eateth grass. They forgat God their Saviour, who had done so great things for them.
Proofs subjoined.—Lev. xxvi. 1. Ye shall make you no idols, nor graven image, neither rear you up a standing image, neither shall ye set up any image of stone in your land, to bow doun unto it: for I am the Lord
God. Deut. iv. 16. Lest ye corrupt yourselves, and make you a graven image, the similitude of any figure, the likeness of male and female. Amos, v. 26, 27. But ye have borne the tabernacle of your Moloch and Chiun, your images, the star of your god, which ye made to yourselves, therefore will I cause you to go into captivity beyond Damascus, saith the Lord, whose name is the God of Hosts.
7. Q. What say you to the practice of the church of Rome in this particular?
A. It is scandalous and intolerable: there having never been greater idolatry committed among the heathen, in the business of image-worship, than has been committed in that church, and is by public authority still practised by it; especially in the ceremony of their Good-Friday cross-worship.
8. Q. Do you think they are so foolish as to worship the cross; or is it idolatry to worship Christ in presence
of the cross? A. If we may either believe their own words, or judge by their actions, they adore the cross as well as Christ; and both alike, and with the same worship. As for the new pretence of worshipping Christ in PRESENCE of the cross, it is a mere delusion contrived only to cheat ignorant people: and carries just as much sense in it as if you should ask, whether it were lawful to say your prayers in presence of a post; or to write a letter in the presence of a candlestick: the nonsense of which there is no one so dull as not to discover.
9. Q. What is the positive duty required of us in this commandment ?
A. To worship God after a manner suitable to his spiritual nature. John, iv. 24. God is a spirit, and they that worship him, must worship him in spirit and in truth; that is to say, with sincerity, love, and purity of heart; with the inward devotion and fervour of the mind, without which the outward exercises of prayer and adoration will be of no worth.
10. Q. How has God enforced these commandments ?
A. He has done it after a very singular manner; by declaring, 1st, That he is a jealous God, Exod. xxxiv. 14; and will not suffer his glory to be given to another; neither his praise to graven images, Isa. xliii. 8. But, secondly, will visit this sin not only upon those who commit it, but upon their posterity also, to the third and fourth generation. As on the other side, thirdly, to those who are careful to worship him as they ought to do, he will shew abundant mercy in this present time; and in the world to come, give them life everlasting.
PROOFS SUBJOINED.—Deut. viii. 19. And it shall be, if thou do at all forget the Lord thy God, and walk after other gods, and serve them, and worship them, I testify against you this day, that ye shall surely perish. Psalm cxv. 13, 14. He will bless them that fear the Lord, both small and great. The Lord shall increase you more and more, you and
11. Q. Can it consist with the justice of God to punish one person for the sin of another?
A. No, certainly; nor does God here threaten any such thing. But God, who is the great Lord of the whole world, may so punish a man for his sins, that the temporal evil of it shall reach not to himself alone, but to his posterity also. As in the case of hightreason, the father by forfeiting his honour and estate, brings the ill consequence of his crime upon bis family, as well as upon himself; and the prince, by exacting the penalty of the law, may justly be said to visit the children for the offence which their fathers committed.
12. Q. How then do you understand this part of the commandment?
A. God had, in general, promised to the Jews temporal blessings, to encourage their obedience; and had denounced present evils against them to keep them from sinning. But to set a particular mark of his indignation upon the sin of idolatry, he thought fit to declare, that if they offended in this matter, he would not only severely punish them himself, but would deliver them up into the hands of their enemies, who should oppress both them and their children after them. Whereas, if they continued firm to his worship, though otherwise they should be guilty of many lesser crimes, yet he would not cast them off from his favour; but on the contrary, would bless both them and their posterity all their days. This I take to have been the literal meaning of the present denunciation; and how exactly it was made good to them, their history sufficiently declares to us.
Proops SUBJOINED.- 1 Kings, xi. 33, 34. Because that they have forsaken me, and have worshipped Ashtoreth, the goddess of the Zidonians, Chemosh, the god of the Moabites, and Milcom, the god of the children of Ammon, and have not walked in my ways, to do that which is right in mine eyes, and to keep my statutes and my judgments, as did David his father. Howbeit I will not take the whole kingdom out of his hand: but I will make him prince all the days of his life, for David my servant's sake, whom I chose, because he kept my commandments and my statutes : but I will take the kingdom out of his son's hand, and will give it unto thee, even ten tribes. xiv. 22, 23, 25. And Judah did evil in the sight of the Lord, and they provoked him to jealousy with their sins which they had committed, above all that their fathers had done. For they also built them high places, and images, and groves, on every high hill, and under every green tree. And it came to pass in the fifth year of king Rehoboam, that Sheshak, king of Egypt, came up against Jerusalem. xv, 29, 30. And it came to pass, when he reigned, that he smote all the house of Jeroboam; he left not unto Jeroboam any that breathed, until he had destroyed him, according unto the saying of the Lord, which he spake by his servant Ahijah, the Shilonite: because of the sins of Jeroboam which he sinned, and which he made Israel to sin, by his provocation whereby he provoked the Lord God of Israel to
anger. 2 Kings, xxii, 17. xxiv. 3. Comp. xxi. 3. Because they have forsaken me, and have burned incense unto other gods, that they might provoke me to anger with all the works of their hands: therefore my wrath shall be kindled against this place, and shall not be quenched. Surely at the commandment of the Lord came this upon Judah, to remove them out of his sight; for the sins of Manasseh, according to all that he did- For he (Manasseh) built up again the high places which Hezekiah his father had destroyed; and he reared up altars for Baal, and made a grove, as did Ahab, king of Israel; and worshipped all the host of heaven, and