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We would gladly have given our author of these Memoirs. In this extracts rather from the body of the chapter are shewn the consequences work, but as all the quotations are of introducing the political principles given in the original languages, which of Austria into the cabinet of the must be intelligible only to a small part King of France, and of a French comparatively of our readers, we opposition averse to these foreign po.. musi deny ourselves that pleasure till litics. That the preponderance of our Author in a future edition, as we either of these principles has pro. bope, will favour the Public with a duced glorious or disastrous reigns of translation.
the kings of France, is proved by
Austrian and Spanish league against
TICAL MEMOIRS of the Reign of same system in his government, notLewis XVI. from his Marriage to withstanding the opposition of the kis Death: founded on a Variety of queen-mother, and the queen-conauthentic Documents, furnished to the sort; and Lewis XIV. pursues the Author, before the Revolution, by many same measures with great success in eminent Statesmen and Ministers'; producing the silence and submission and on the Secret Papers discovered, of all oppositions, and in obtaining after the 10th of August 1792, in the brilliant conquests from the Austrians. Cosets of the King at Versailles and The House of Austria no longer the Tuileries. By JOHN LEWIS reigns in Spain, but is succeeded by SOULAVIE, the elder, Compiler of the Bourbons. Upon the demise of the Memoirs of Marshal Duke of Lewis XIV. the Duke of Orleans is Richlicu, and of the Memoirs of the appointed regent; he forms an alliDate of St. Simon. Translated from ance with the House of Austria, and the French. In Six Volumes. Ac- is opposed by the Spaniards, who companied with Explanatory 'Tables raise a confederacy against him. Unand 113 Portraits. pp. 2566, 6 vols. der Cardinal de Fleury, France reSvo. boards. 21. 85. Robinsons. turned to its ancient system, and de
prived Austria of Naples, Lorraine, TOL I. To this volume is pre- and Silesia. Maria Theresa, distracted
fixed, on one quarto lear, 19 by her losses, resolved to form a miniature etchings of the following union with a monarchy so successful portraits Lewis XVI. Maria Anto- in its plans of destruction. By her nietta. The Dauphin. Madain, the ambassador, and the influence of Makiag's daughter. "Monsieur. Count dame de Pompadour, one of the misd'Artois. Madame Elizabeth, the tresses of Louis XV. she effects a reKing's Sister. The King's Aunts. Ma- volution in the politics of France, and dame Louisa. Duke of Orleans, the forms a treaty and alliance, offensive father. Prince of Condé, Prince of and defensive, between France and Conty. Ganganelli, Pope Clement Austria. The Dauphin, father to XIV. Braschi, Pope Pius VI. Queen Lewis XVI. opposes this alliance, bis of Hungary. Emperor Joseph II. party is secretly joined by the King
This volume concludes with the. of Prussia, in the opposition. Lewis death of Lewis XV. and contains XV. is assassinated, and the Duke of nineteen chapters, with observations Choiseul persuades him that this blow upon some important events in the was concerted between the Dauphin, politics of France.
the King of Prussia, and the Jesuits, Chap. I. is introduced with the on which account Louis XV.is greatly state of France and Austria; before alarmed, and easily influenced to the marriage of Lewis XVI. with throw himself into the arms of the Maria Antoinetta of Austria ; and a Court of Vienna. The organization political sketch of the aggrandise- of the Austrian party at the court inent of France under the dynasty and in the cabinet of Versailles is of the Bourbons, and the relative succeeded by the portraits of the Duke decline of the House of Austria, ex- of Choiseul, and of the Duke of ditracted froin the papers of the Dau- guillon, enemy of the former, and phin, preserved in ihe port-folios of secret agent or the Dauphin. ChoiLewis XVI. This sketch is continued seul coecludes a second treaty with to the marriage of Lewis XVI. by the the House of Austria, in which he
engages to furnish Maria Theresa with works. The author writes, no demen and money to dethrone Frede- scription can convey an adequate ric II. which distracts the Dauphin. idea of their magnificence. The most
Chap. II. inforins us of the Duke celebrated feasts of Louis XIV. were of Choiseul's reasons for the destruc- not to be compared with those of the tion of the society of Jesus, and all young Dauphin's wedding. At a sethe Jesuits, as agents of the Dauphin. cond display of fireworks was an awLewis XV. receives warning of a se- ful massacre of twelve hundred percond assassination. Choiseul's reasons sons, supposed to be the effect of for disgracing in the Parliament, by. party rage. The following observaa legal act, the Duke of Aiguillon, iion was found among the King's chief of the Anti-Austrian party. The papers ; ' that the vexation of those Jesuits accused of poisonings and as- who had thrown obstacles in the way sassinations, executed or aitempted. of his marriage, broke out into rage The Duke of Choiseul instigates Vol- on the day of the rejoicing; and that taire to write against them, and ef- it was of essential importance to cofects their abolition in 1762.
ver what passed on that day with an Chap. III. The Dauphin grieves at impenetrable veil, and not to suggest the ruin of the Jesuits; he loses his “the least hint of the dreadful acts partizans, and is with his consort intended, but not accomplished.' poisoned, it is supposed by the order This marriage highly displeased the of the Duke of Choiseul. 'The Queen party of the late Dauphin; and the dies in the same manner as her son Jesuits, who were well skilled in inand daughter-in-law. These things trigue, and even amid the ruin of produce murmurs in France.
their colleges were formidable, exChap. IV. contains reflections on cited opposition against the Duke the punishment of General Lally. of Choiseul, who on his part, seeing
Chap. V. explains the motives of the moment of a final crisis approach, the Duke of Choiseul for ruining the redoubled his exertions against the Duke of Aiguillon, and the means party of the Jesuits, the Archbishop he adopted. The origin of the affairs of Paris, and Aiguillon. The last, that annihilated the Parliaments. The by the influence of Madame du Barry, contest between the Duke of Aiguil. eventually rises into power, and the lon and the two Chalotais. The Duke of Choiseul is, by a lettre de insurrection of the Parliament. The cachet, banished to his country seat, critical situations of the Dukes of accompanied with a threat of worse Choiseul and Aiguillon. The latter treatment in case of any further misacquires the favour of Madame du conduct. Barry; the former negotiates the Chap. VI. Portrait of the Duke of marriage of the Dauphin, afterwards Choiseul, written by Lewis XVI. Lewis XVI. with an Archduchess, in with a review of his administration, order to maintain the Austrian sys- and the result of his proceedings. tem, and the Abbé Vermont is sent Chap. VII. Portraits of the Dauto Vienna to instruct her in the cus- phin and Lewis XV. written by Choitoms of France. Our author writes, seul during his exile at Chanteloup. that this Abbé, instead of informing Chap. VIII. After the exile of Maria Antoinetta that the queens of Choiseul, his system of administration France were happy in the two last is destroyed, together with the ma. Teigns, by contenting themselves with gistracy of the kingdom. Madame living piously and pleasing their hus- du Barry, a profligate woman, and bands, gave her lessons of incon- the King's mistress, is employed to sistency and dissimulation, and some influence the King. say of immorality. Her mother gave Chap. IX. describes the ministry her lessons to regulate her conduct, of Aiguillon, who resolves to follow from wbich she never deviated, and the ancient political plan of the cabirecommended to her by name such net of France, and of the late Daypersons as were in the interest of phin, whose principles are extracted Austria for her favourites, design from the papers of his son Lewis XVI. ing by these means to sway the ca- Aiguillon accelerates a revolution in binet of Versailles. The marriage of Sweden in favour of the King and Louis XVI. and Maria Antoinetta the French party, adopting the maxwas celebrated with great pomp, ex- ims of the late Dauphin, Assist and pensive feasting, and brilliant fire. protect the "wcak ;-humble the strong.
Chap. X. represents the princi. " pox, and my situation is very critipal causes of the first partition of • cal on account of my age and other Poland. The conduct of Catherine Il. distempers: I must not forget that towards Poland. Russia quits alli- "I am the MOST CHRISTIAN KING, ance with France and Vienna, and " and the OLDEST SON OF THE attaches herself to the King of Prussia; 'CHURCH: I am in my sixty-fourth Austria being alarmed, seeks also the year; in a very short time, perfriendship of the court of Berlin. haps, we must be separated for The three courts unite against Poland,
Tell the Duke of and divide it. The cabinet of France • Aiguillon what I say to you, that expresses its resentment against Aus- 'should my disorder increase, he tria; and the Duke of Aiguillon pre- may concur with you in such measents a memoir to the king's council, sures as may enable us to part withtending to break with that court. • out scandal and publicity.'” vol.i.
Chap. XI. Upon the partition of p. 144. Poland, the party of the Duke of The dreadful end of this monarch Choiseul attribute that event to the is thus described : “ During the negligence of the Duke of Aiguillon, eighth and ninth day the disorder who resents this conduct by analyzing increased : the King saw every part the ministry of the Duke of Choiseul, of his body falling to pieces, or in a of which he proves the partition of state of putrefaction. Forsaken by Poland to be the result.
his friends, and by the crowd of Chap. XII. Choiseul in exile em- courtiers who had so long cringed ploys his pen to injure the character before him, he found no consolation of his rival and successor, the Duke but in the filial piety of his daughof Aiguillon, accusing him, and ex- ters..
The King, naturally culpating himself from the charge of of a religious turn, and fearful of the designing his ruin.
judgment of God, expressed his terror Chap. XIII, describes the state at the idea of his fate in another maxims of the two Dukes, with the world. At times, his language was characters of their wives.
that of hope; but it was succeeded Chap. XIV. The termination of the by the avowals of fear and horror, reigo of Lewis XV. whose death was which aggravated the dreadful sympoccasioned by bis connection with a toms of his distemper. Death, then, young girl, who had just taken the became his only prospect; and he small-pox, which disordershe commu- talked of nothing but the abyss of nicated to the King at the Parc aux Cerfs, fire, which, he exclaimed, was on the a place not only countenanced, but point of being opened, as a punishfrequented by tbát prince. The King ment for a life that, from first to last, being laid upon a bed of sickness, it is had been luxurious in the extreme. observed : “ All that remained for He lived to contemplate the dissoluthis prince, during his shocking and 'tion of his most handsome frame. mortal distemper, was to shew some His arms and thighs were converted signs of repentance, in order to ex- into purulent matter : .. cite respect for a few minutes; but yet on some occasions, he still exthe views of the factions which dis-pressed his hope in God: but soon tracted the state were obstacles to he was chilled with sear at the rethese demonstrations of repentance membrance of his habitual vices; required by the religion of Louis XV. and vowed anew to edify his subjects, As the King could not receive the should his health be restored : vows sacraments without confession, and similar to those he had made at degradation of Madame du Barry, Metz. He was seen to beat his those who had used her influence to breast; was heard to call for a cruraise themselves into power, objected citix and for holy water, which he to the King's receiving it; but such sprinkled on hiinself and on his bed, as had been driven from power were to expel from it imaginary demons. earnest in enforcing it: at last the He sent money to the churches of King, finding he had the small-pox, St. Sulpice, Notre-Dame, and the remembering he had the same dis- Capuchins, for masses to be celeorder before, and convinced of his brated for the recovery of his health ; danger, sent for Madame du Barry, and he every day caused the shrine and addressed her in the following of the patroness of Paris to be opened. words : “My dear, I have the small. He had lived in perpetual alterna
tives of libertinism and devotion; gave audiences to ambassadors, and and death seized him in the cruel al- received respects from the courts ternative of hope and despair. whose interests they espoused. Fre
“ Before the king expired, the two deric II. speaking on this subject diseases jointly had changed his body some months before his death, said, to an infectious carcase. The stench • At 40, my brother Lewis, after the that exhaled from it proved fatal to example of his predecessors, will the servants who performed the last ' no longer sleep with his wife, as she duties. None but the nightmen of 'will then be fretful and old. He Versailles had the courage to place will have a mistress; but depend him in a leaden coffin, without balın • upon it, this Pompadour will not be or aromatics. It was necessary, to ' an Austrian; from inclination and wrap up this coffin in bran, and to • manners she will be warlike, and a enclose the whole in a double wooden Prussian. On this occasion, it will case; then to carry off the whole by 'be my successor's turn to become stealth, and to seal the front stone or 'the most useful ally of the mistress entrance to the tomb of St. Denis. ' of the most Christian king.' Such was the disease, and such the Chap. XVII. briefly describes the end of Lewis XV. the last king of licentious characters of the court, the Bourbon race who has been al- low state of the finances, and weak lowed to die in his bed." p. 149– condition of the kingdom at the 151.
death of Lewis XV. Chap. XV. presents to us the Chap. XVIII. details the state of character of Lewis XV. in which we he clergy, and religious opinions ; learn, that notwithstanding the sub- of polite literature, arts, and sciences; sequent debaucheries of this prince, and of morals and the national chawhen the Cardinal wished to give racter. In this chapter the negligence, him, as a mistress, the Countess of and in many instances the debaucheMailly, in order to enslave a prince ries of the clergy, are related; the in whom he had no confidence, such prevalence of the new philosophy, was his love and esteem for the Queen, and disregard to religious worship, that Mailly was under the necessity are represented as prevailing univerof throwing out every lure. This sally in France. historian reports, he used frequently Chap. XIX. contains remonto say to Madame de Pompadour; strances of the clergy to Lewis XV. • Iimpose on my own conscience;' and for the suppression of infidel publishe, sest he should slip through her cations, and the worship of the Prohands, removed from his library the testants, as inimical to order and sermons of Massillon and Bourda- happiness. loue, in the perusal of which he took The remaining pages contain state much delight. This is followed by papers and observations illustrative a retrospect of his reign and his poli- of the subjects specified in the chaptical principles. For his conduct to- ters. wards his protestant subjects, he VOLUME II. is embellished with assigned as a reason that they che- etched portraits, on one sheet, of the rished republican principles, and following persons, Emperor Leopold. were enemies to the hierarchy and Francis. Don Carlos, King of Spain. maxims of the French monarchy. Charles IV. Ferdinand IV. King of The remaining contents of this chap- Naples. Christian VII. King of Benter relate his amours, the characters mark. George III. King of England. of his five titled mistresses, and his Washington. Catherine II. Empress opinion of mankind, He observed, of Russia. Paul I. son of Peter III. that the race of mankind is a nox- Emperor. Stanislaus, King of Poland. ious race.
“ I have not yet met with Frederic II. King of Prussia. Fredeone man who united refineinent with ric William II. Gustavus III. King integrity,” was his reply when ques. of Sweden. Gustavus Adolphus. Jotioned upon the subject by a cour. seph I. King of Portugal. Maria, tier.
Queen of Portugal. William, StadtChap. XVI. represents the influ- holder. Victor-Amadeus-Maria of ence of women on revolutions and Savoy, King of Sardinia. Charles the general affairs of Europe, in- Emanuel. Don Ferdinand, Duke stanced particularly in the influence of Parma; and his son, King of of the nistresses of Lewis XV. who Etruria.
This volume commences with a preliminary discourse, containing a XXVII. OBSERVATIONS, the Result statement of events during the reign of a Tour through almost the whole of Lewis XVI.
of England, and a considerable Part Chap. I. states the character of the of Scotland, in a Series of Letters. By dynasty of the Bourbons, from Henry
MR. DIBDIN. 410 Part 1. 55. IV. to Lewis XVI. and what advan- Goulding and Co. Walker. tages were produced by its influence in civilization, and extending knowvirtues and courage of the princes, gether two handsome volumes, emwith their defects.
bellished with forty plates, in aqua. Chap. II. describes the natural tinta, from pictures in oil, painted history of the House of Bourbon, and by himself. This first part contains attributes the imbecility of mind and three views, viz. Rochester Castle, character, and its degeneracy, to in the approach to Hastings, and Darttermarrying exclusively with those of mouth Harbour, and two vignettes, their own family and religion. representing Children going to be
Chap. III. gives the character confirmed, and Bakers at the Victualand portrait of Lewis XVI. who is ling-office, Plymouth-the two last described devoting his whole atten- by Miss Dibdin. tion to the welfare of the people ; This part contains some introducand regulating the public measures tory letters, with our traveller's acby humanity, for under his prede- count of Kent, and some part of Suscessors the French were sent to the sex. As the work, being published Bastile in crowds; but he, in 1789, in parts, will not admit of analysis, set open the state-prisons, in which we can only give an extract, which were found eleven prisoners, whom we shall take from the latter part of he wished to save from punishment; the fifth letter, and consider it as fair he abolished vassalage, and the in- a specimen as we can offer to the human punishment of the torture, public. and with paternal solicitude pene- “ Sandwich is a mile and a half trated even into the hospitals and from the sea, eight miles from Marpublic prisons, to explore and as- gate, twelve from Canterbury, ten suage, as much as possible, the misery from Dover, and five from Deal. As of the distressed.
to the conjectures concerning this From the time of Henry IV. the place anciently, I shall for the above Cottages had never been visited by reasons let them entirely alone, and any of our crowned heads; a motive only mention what occurred to me or humanity led Lewis XVI. thither. as its characteristic, when I visited To discover a virtuous and indigent it; and as light and shade constitute family, he considered as a fortunate the effect of a picture,--so nothing incident,' and he never failed to re- could display a more striking contrast lieve it.
than Margaie and Sandwich. He was an exception to his prede- “ One appeared to me all dissipacessors in conjugal affection and fide- tion, the other all sobriety; and upon lity; this historian writes, he never enquiry I found the cause to be this: loved any but his consort.
Margate is composed of inhabitants, He was not fond of flattery, as who, like members of a gaming-house, appears from his prohibiting the pub- after they have made their markets lication of a work, entitled Paneg yric of others, are obliged to look warily on Lewis XVI. composed by a man after one another; and thus distrust of letters on whom he had bestowed occupying the place of confidence, a favour ; and in another instance: good fellowship makes no part of Lewis XIV. tore out the preface to their character. Sandwich, though the Numismatical History of his I believe, for my duty is to be faithReign, because it comprised an enco. ful, it derived in a great measure its mium on the engraver and designer, opulence from smuggling, is inhabited annexed to that on the King ; and by a set of people, the members of Lewis XVI. restored the encomium whose families have so often intermar. in a manner the most honourable to ried, that the town is not only one comthe artists.
munity, but, as far as the law can ali. (To be continued.). thorize it, they are all relations; there.