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larva killed, by those living in our villages, as well as those on farms, if they wish to secure a plenty of good, sound fruit. As by the most careful search, we shall not be able to kill all the larva, I would advise imprisoning the moths in our cellars until they perish for want of food, after they are transformed. Let every one devise the best means he can to effect this. In mild weather we must have ventilation through our cellars, but can we not place gauze over the open windows, and mosquito netting or wire doors at the main entrance? Sometimes the moths may be seen flying to our windows at the approach of evening, trying to get out. They may be readily known by the large, dark and nearly round spot on the wings. It would not be much out of the way to advise the destroying of all moths from the small white carpet miller to the larger ones, as they are parents of worms which do us much damage in various ways. Our best entomologists believe that about half of the worms leave the apple before it drops, the other half drop with the apples. Pasturing with hogs or sheep has been tried. They will get about half of the worms, but, as a rule, hogs can only be used during the summer months, when grass is plenty, not late in the fall or winter, as they are very destructive to the trees. Sheep are still worse late in the fall, and during winter. We know a number of neighbors who have had over half of their orchards destroyed in this way.

Bands around the body of the tree are very useful in destroying the larva. The rough bark should be carefully scraped from the tree and then a band, about four inches in width placed around the body. It should be long enough to lap a few inches, and be drawn up with some firmness in the middle and be fastened with a tack. These bands can be made of cast off clothing. Some use old newspapers so doubled as to have four thicknesses and tacked in the same manner as the old clothing. The tack should be removed and the band carefully rolled back, the worms killed as they are seen and then replaced as before. This should be done twice a week during July. In one season in July, I killed one hundred and thirty-six codling larvas under a flannel band on one full bearing tree which stood six rods from the trough where hogs were fed. Some propose to leave the bands on ten days or more without examination. When so left some worms would form chrysalids and hatch and the millers commence laying eggs in sound fruit.

Old woolen cloths placed in the forks of the trees will entrap many of the larva, and should be examined often. After the middle of August the bands need not be examined until towards winter, when they should be taken off, the worms killed and the bands burned.

As at first stated, we should be careful in assorting our fruit in October, and take as few wormy apples as possible to our cellars; destroy the larva in April in the cellar; imprison the moths there during the months of May and June; put bands around trees all of July, killing the larva often; watch carefully and destroy the second brood in September and October.



The winter of 1874–5, unlike that of 1872-3, injured the bodies and limbs of our fruit-trees in this section, while east and further south the destruction was mainly in the root. This enables me to again mount my hobby with greater facility and more assurance. Among other suggestions made by F. R. Elliot before the American Pomological Society in September last, was the following. "The growing of trees from grafting or budding upon roots of seedlings grown from refuse seed of apples or pears from the cider mill is no better towards the improvement and reliability of varieties than that of growing stock or mankind from hap-hazard meetings. Selections of all future life must be made from pure and hardy stock, free from contamination, to secure advance by growing in the vegetable as well as in the animal. All the records of growth and longevity in orchards may be traced to the stock upon which they have been worked. It is the same in the vegetable, as in the animal kingdom; if the native, healthy character is not kept up by the knowledge of the proprietor and manager, then decay must exhibit itself in a large percentage of the stock." From this want of knowledge of the origin and hardiness of the stock, comes the wholesale destruction of trees in our orchards.

Our great losses in the severe winter of 1872-3, from root-killing

taught us a lesson which we hope will be beneficial. Now, what is the testimony from much milder climates? The South Haven Pomological Society, of Michigan, appointed a committee to investigate and report upon the cause of the root-killing of fruit trees in the winter of 1874-5. The following replies were drawn out in response to their circular. The secretary of the Warsaw Horticultural Society, of Illinois, says: "No root-killing with us until the past winter. Small trees universally killed; not much difference on light or heavy soils; difference generally owing to exposure; places exposed to the northwest winds the worst; peach, apple, and osage plants, yearlings, and some two or three year old trees, most generally killed." D. R. Waters, of Spring Lake, Michigan, says: "I am of the opinion that trees on dry soil suffered most; trees were not generally favored with a mulch of snow. All root-killed trees leaved out, and some of them, especially on ridges, blossomed when the same varieties where uninjured were blossomless. I will call your attention to the experience, in planting an orchard, of my friend, Thomas Petty, Esq. In purchasing his trees four years ago he received and planted as a valuable variety of the peach, fifty almond trees. During the four years these trees have stood in the ground, he has found but two borers in them, although they have been carefully examined twice a year in common with his other trees, and while the peach trees on every side had been root-killed, not one of the fifty almond trees had suffered. As a remedy against rootkilling and borers also, does not this experience suggest to nurserymen that it might be valuable to bud the peach on the almond stock, and would not this also be another guard against the yellows?" A lengthy report might be given of the destruction of nursery-stock by the winter of 1874-5, but the following will be sufficient. The New York Tribune, last summer, stated that $160,000 worth of stock was killed in the nurseries within three miles of Danville, New York, the previous winter. It has also been stated on good authority that 200,000 trees were root-killed in one nursery, and that too, hundreds of miles south of my location, which I am advised to leave. Where shall I go? Perhaps we may be able to overcome all our difficulties and stay where we are.

In giving a history of the origin of our improved fruits, Downing says: "Transplanted into a warmer aspect, stimulated by a richer soil, reared from selected seeds, carefully pruned, sheltered

and watched, by slow degrees the sour and bitter crab expands into a Golden Pippin; the wild pear loses its thorns and becomes a Bergamot or a Beurre; the almond is deprived of its bitterness and the dry and flavorless peach is, at length, a tempting and delicious fruit."

Now to arrive at this perfection of fruit has there not been a corresponding loss of vigor and hardihood of the tree? This seems to be indicated in the case of the almond, already given, also of the fact that seedling crabs in my ground escaped injury in the winter of 1872-3, while trees of the same age grafted on apple roots and standing side by side, were almost universally killed. These facts, with many others which might be given, carry conviction to my mind that we must resort to seeds of hardy varieties, to get stock to graft and bud upon, and having secured this, even if the roots will stand the pressure, we shall find our work only half done, for the bodies and forks of nearly all of our own hardiest standards will fail us, through bark bursting etc., and we must resort to the crab or something equally hardy for the body and limbs well above the farks, into which we can safely bud or graft the hardy, standard varieties. A year ago I exhibited some trees and read an article giving some of my experience. The following testimony of E. G. Mygatt, of Richmond, Illinois, bears upon the same point. He says: "We are fully satisfied that varieties which root-kill in severe winters will bear uninjured a very low temperature as top-grafts in hardy trees. Last winter, we had about two hundred each of Fameuse and Ben Davis, as nursery-trees, nearly four years old. Nine-tenths of both kinds were root-killed, while we had at the same time several top-grafts of Ben Davis, Willow-Twig, Baldwin, Twenty-Ounce, and Wagner, from one to four years old, in hardy trees, not one of which were killed." While the above testimony is highly satisfactory, I will say that with me, the Fameuse and Golden Russet, two of the varieties he recommends to top-graft into, would not do. Here those kinds kill too frequently to be depended upon, and we are compelled to resort to the crab or something equally hardy for this purpose. Much that I have written is the observation and experience of others, but is to such an extent confirmed by my views that I prefer to give them instead of my own. Many other facts might be stated of the same tenor but I will wait further developments.



THE APPLE-WORM OR CODLING-MOTH.-Carpocapsa pomonella Linnæus. Of all fruit-destroying insects the codling moth is the most injurious, from an economical point of view, to the fruitgrowers of Wisconsin. Scarcely an orchard in the State is free from its ravages, and doubtless more than half the apples that reach maturity here are "wormy." Its habits are well known, as are also efficient methods of destroying it. Its universal prevalence is the result of almost universal negligence. The following cut and description are from the "First Annual Report of the Noxious and Beneficial Insects of Missouri," by C. V. Riley, State Entomologist:

Fig. 1.

"The figure represents it in all its states, and gives at a glance its natural history: a represents a section of an apple which has been attacked by the worm, showing the burrowings and channel of exit to the left; b, the point at which the egg was laid and at which the young worm entered; e, the full-grown worm; h, its head and first segment magnified; i, the cocoon which it spins; d, the chrysalis to which My it changes; f, the moth which escapes from the chrysalis, as it appears when at rest; g, the same with wings expanded." The worm when young is whitish, with usually an entirely black head, and a black shield on the top of the first segment. When full-grown it acquires a flesh-colored or pinkish tint, especially on the back, and the

head and top of first segment become more brown, being usually

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*The following notes are compiled at the request of the secretary of the Horticultural Society, F. W. Case, Esq. They are mostly taken from the excellent annual reports of C. V. Riley, State Entomologist of Missouri, although Harris' Insects Injurious to Vegetation, Packards Guide to the Study of Insects, and Fitch's Reports of Injurious and Beneficial Insects of New York, have also been used. The cuts are the property of the society, drawn by Riley. It is hoped these notes may be of some use in calling the attention of fruit-growers and farmers to the habits of a few insects that are injurious, and to methods of destroying them, and so lead to the adoption of means for diminishing one prolific source of loss.

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