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tions, he was in total opposition to them. fant Don Carlos by the title of Charles V. He had then but one course to follow, The difference of the sway which the and that course was rigorously pointed brothers would exercise must be so very out by duty. He was to protest in the trifling, that we hardly think it worth the Council, and if his protest occasioned no choice of the Constitutionalists. Charles change of policy, to retire." The French V. could not devote himself with more people, it may be remarked, take little in. mischievous zeal to the ruin and degradaterest in this party war, and appear to be tion of the kingdom ; certainly he could perfectly indifferent as to whether M. de not manifest a more unrelenting hatred Villele keeps his place or not. In the to the Liberals. The bad faith with which Chamber of Deputies, the accounts of the the amnesty is executed, has compelled expenditure of the French army in Spain those who previously anticipated no mohave been discussed. The contract made lestation to seek refuge at Gibraltar. King with the Intendant General, M. Ouvrard, Ferdinand found himself so overpowered was particularly remarked upon ; M. de by applications from persons whose comVillele admitted the burdensome nature ing within its operation was disputed, of this bargain, but observed, that the that he gave all such persons a public noGovernment were compelled to accede to tice thenceforth, to apply to the tribunals, the terms of Ouvrard for the supply of not to him. the army ; and contended, that the com. PORTUGAL.- The King of Portugal, plete manner in which the contract had in addition to his proclamation for the been performed by the Intendant-General, convocation of the ancient Cortes of the had greatly facilitated the termination of kingdom, has published an amnesty for the campaign. It is calculated that M. all political offenders from 1817, to the Ouvrard made a profit of nearly a million end of July 1821. Those who have been sterling, during the six months' campaign banished, are allowed to return home, and in the Peninsula,

those who have been condemned to any SPAIN.-The news from Spain of late other punishments, will have their sentenis only a repetition of what has been al. ces immediately annulled. Phe widows, ready repeated twenty times--the hatred descendants, and collateral relations of of the French, and the desire to get rid of those who have suffered capital punishthem, among the monks and the military ments, may have the judgments reversed, -the crowded prisons and the distress and succeed to the property, of whatever of the provinces from scarcity. Ferdinand description. This amnesty is not marred amuses himself with making promotions by a single exception, and must, in cone in his guards, and attending the proces. junction with the other recent Acts of sions of the church. He returned with John VI., produce great satisfaction the Queen and the Princesses, from the among his subjects. The military orders summer palace at Aranjuez to the capital, issued during the usurpation of Miguel on the 19th June. Their Majesties, 'du have been rescinded. Some of the Gene. ring the whole journey, passed between ral Officers, who made themselves very files of French and Spanish troops. Be. conspicuous under the Constitutional sys. fore hazarding his royal person among his tem, have been dismissed from the army. subjects at Madrid, however, he deemed Notwithstanding these popular mea. it expedient to issue a decree, command. sures, however, and which the King has ing all those who had not been resident adopted since freed from the trammels in it for the last six years, employed in of his wife and son, it appears, that both trade or a known occupation, to depart he and his Ministers are in the most pe. from it forth with, as they could not in rilous alarm from the Portuguese army, any respect be considered citizens; and and the faction to whom it has been sub. after he had done this, suspended the exe. servient; a faction composed of a set of cution of the measure, from the appre. fanatics, not more averse to constitutional hensions of what might be its conse freedom, than hostile to the rights, proquences. The evil results of such a system perty, and even lives, of those whom they of governing do not require to be pointed oppose. His Majesty has, in consequence, out.

applied to the British Government for the Ferdinand was no sooner returned to aid of 6000 troops, in order to keep his Madrid, than he issued orders for the in. own soldiers in subjection. The King stallation of the Juntas of Purification. relies on the assistance of Britain as an The Constitutionalists thus continue to old ally; and the questions which are now suffer his persecution, though we learn being discussed in the British Cabinet, that, to a body of them, who had return. are, whether, on the ground of their old ed from France, he is indebted for the alliance, offensive and defensive, they are capture of General Capape, who was tra bound to comply with this request ; or versing the country, proclaiming the In setting the question of obligation aside,

whether, in views of general expediency ed master of the field of battle, and the and policy, they are not justified in so Turks had fled in every direction. Al. doing.

together, the affairs of the Greeks are Prussia.- Now that plans for the going on in the most prosperous style. reduction of national debt are spoken of The military chiefs are submitting to the or carrying into execution in so many General Government, and the deliverance countries, his Majesty of Prussia has a- of the classical soil is every day rendered dopted a course—a whimsical one-to less doubtful. The Grecks have made effect the same end. Instead of a regu.

great progress lately in knowledge and larly operating sinking-fund, a lottery is literature. Five newspapers are now to be drawn twice a year, to determine published in Greece, viz :—Two at Mis. what public bonds shall be paid off. The solunghi, one at Hydra, one at Athens, holders of the numbers drawn will then and one at Psara. receive the full nominal amount of their principal. The scheme appears to have

ASIA. had a favourable effect on the public se.

New South WALES.Improvements curities, which rose to the unprecedented price of 95, before the official publica.

of every description are multiplying in tion of the Royal ordinance. His Ma.

this colony; a stage-coach, for instance,

with four horses, runs daily between the jesty has also been employed in a less gracious duty, that of repressing the pe.

towns of Sydney and Paramatta, and a

handsome two-horse spring caravan, fit. tition of his Rhenish subjects. It seems

ted up for passengers, also runs between that the communes were in the habit of

these places. They were paying so well, joining together to strengthen their re

that a second caravan was preparing to presentations, which are sometimes laid before the Government “ with signatures

run between Sydney and Paramatta, a

third between Paramatta and Liverpool, filling entire sheets of paper.” This

and a stage-coach betweeen Paramatta course has given great offence to his Ma.

and Windsor, so that travellers could pro. jesty, who, by a Cabinet order, has for

ceed in daily stages to all the well-settled bidden it altogether ; in future, each com. mune is to petition for itself alone.

parts of the colony. The outlet of a GREECE.--All the accounts, received

much larger river than any yet discover

ed, has lately been found in Moreton through various channels, are favourable

Bay, about the latitude of 28. It flows to the cause of independence in this country. Greek valour has again suc.

through a rich, well-wooded country ; it

has usually from three to nine fathoms cessfully defended the passes of Thermo.

water; and as it comes from the scuth. pylæ. The contest was one of the most obstinate by which even this sanguinary

west, in the direction of the Macquarrie struggle has been distinguished.

The

marshes, it is supposed to be the outlet Pacha was encamped at Larissa, whence

of the Macquarrie River. The discovery he proceeded to force the passes. The

cannot fail to prove of immense advanGreeks defended them with the most de.

tage to this colony, more especially if termined fortitude, and, notwithstanding

it turn out to be the outlet of the Mac. a series of attacks of the most desperate

quarrie. fury, finally repulsed their assailants with considerable loss. The Pacha fell back

AFRICA. upon Larissa, where it was understood CAPE COAST.-It now appears, from he was waiting the arrival of some rein. the dispatches of Major Chisholm, which forcements from Romelia. This event arrived at Earl Bathurst's office on the is of the highest importance to the Greek 17th June, in charge of Captain Laing cause. Dervish Pacha is not only the of the Royal African Colonial Corps, that Turkish Generalissimo, but confessedly the reports of Sir Charles M'Carthy's deone of the best Captains in the Turkish feat and death, which reached this coun. army. His defeat, therefore, will pro. try in the beginning of May, were essen. duce the most decisive effects through tially correct, though they did not put out all the provinces of Greece. In or- us in possession of the particulars of the der to ensure the greatest advantages engagement, or of the previous move. from this repulse, Prince Mavrocordato, ments of Sir Charles's army. The disthe President of the Greek Government, patches are dated Cape Coast Castle, marched with a body of picked troops March 16, and consist of a relation hy against the Turks under Omer Vrione. Major Chisholm of the preparations The corps of Constantinc Bozzaris have made for opposing the Ashantees,-of had an engagement with the troops un. some notice of the views which led to der the Pacha of Scutari. The Greeks the sending off of two divisions of the were again victorious. Bozzaris reinain. army, one for the Assin and the other for

the Akine country, as well as the cir. Vera Cruz. He is, it is said, charged cumstances which occasioned that divi. with unlimited powers to enter into a sion which Major Chisholm commanded

treaty of friendship and alliance with to be disjoined from the body under Sir Great Britain. The Valorous also brought Charles, with the exertions made by him dispatches from Mr Licnel Harvey, his to rejoin upon receiving instructions to

Majesty's Commissioner sent to that that effect, and of the usual favourable country, to ascertain whether its governmention of those officers who by their ment was in such a condition of perma. conduct have merited that distinction. nency as would warrant our Government This document was dictated by Major in acknowledging it as an independent Chisholm from a sick-bed. The account. state. It is not known what are the reof the engagement is given in a letter to presentations made by Mr Harvey, but Major Chisholm, from Captain H. J. from all the information obtained, it apRicketts, who was present in it and es. pears, that, although for a time longer caped, which letter is dated Cape Coast, that country may be divided by factious February 26. It is impossible, in our parties or revolutionary movements, it is narrow limits, to insert these documents; for ever separated from the mother coun. bat indeed they add little to what was try. There is not, nor has been for some previously known. The mischance ap time, a single soldier of Old Spain in the pears to have been entirely owing to the country. The Castle of Ulloa is still held unaccountable and criminal disobedience by a small Royalist force, but it may be of Mr Brandon, the Ordnance Store- easily subdued, if it were at all a con. keeper, to the repeated orders of the la. quest of much moment. The Ambassa. mented Governor, respecting the supply dor is come to this country to give our of ammunition ; in consequence of which, Government the strongest assurances of that needful article was exhausted almost the determination of his country to mainimmediately after the commencement of tain its independent state, of its ability the engagement. That this officer is to resist all external enemies, and of dehimself among the sufferers, hardly qua. sire on the part of the present Governlifies, in any great degree, the bitterness ment to cultivate the most friendly intiof the indignation which his intolerable

macy with Great Britain. negligence excites against him.

COLOMBIA.-By the way of Jamaica

a document of considerable importance AMERICA.

has been received from Colombia, nameUNITED STATES.-The system of re

ly, the message of the Vice-President striction in commerce which England has Santander, sent to the Colombian Con. begun to lay aside, other nations appear gress on the 6th of April. In this pa. to be taking up or confirming. The Ta. per we have a general view of the state riff-Bill, which has for some time been in of the Colombian republic. The Con. dependence before the Congress of the gress is first congratulated on the triumph United States, has been passed into a law. of the republican arms, and the complete The Tariff goes so much into detail, that restoration of tranquillity by the estab. we cannot pretend to analyse it; but the lishment of independence. The State of general character is that of a protection Peru and Mexico is then noticed, and to native manufactures, and a discourage the necessity of sending succours to the ment to importation. It amounts to this, former country, for the purpose of wholly that the Americans are willing to pay clearing the South American Continent dearer for American productions than of the enemy, is pointed out. The most for English. This would be a wise and marked gratitude is expressed to the politic principle, if their manufactures President of the United States for his dewere in so thriving a state as to afford a claration in favour of the general indeprospect of outstripping those of foreign pendence of America, and his intimation nations, but we suspect that it is far that he would consider any attack against from being the case. The American it the same as if directed against the statesmen wish to anticipate the natural United States. The message alludes to growth of manufactures in their coun the policy of Britain in the following try ; and the consequence will probably terms.be, that, nationally speaking, they will “ The Executive had dirccted its re. pay dearer for manufactured articles than lation to Europe, with Great Britain if they had continued to receive them particularly, whose politics appear fafrom England.

vourable to the cause of South America, MEXICO.-An Envoy Extraordinary and whose commercial relations have Don Jose Mariano Michelena) from the been more extensive and active. The Congress of Mexico to the Court of St. sympathy of the opinion of the British James's, has arrived in England from public and its Government inspire the VOL. XV.

0

Executive with the most flattering hopes. favour this, becanse the great Generals I am sorry that I cannot communicate who support the pretensions of Spain 10 you what may be the ultimate resola. there are Constitutionalists, and it would tion of the Government of his Britannie seem these Chiefs were not disinclined Majesty with respect to the republic, to throw off their allegiance to Spain, and A commission from the English Go maintain their power in Pera. Bat bevernment is now actually in this capital, fore such a negotiation could be carried infrom whom we have received satisfactory to effect, Canterac appears to have got inproofs of the interest with which our telligence of a squadron coming to assist Stute inspires the mind of the magnani- bim from Spain, and there the matter mous people of England. The security dropped. A scandaloas transaction is which it has given us against the rue

the meanwhile changed the state of affairs mour that France will assist in the war at Lima ; a black regiment, consisting of which Spain intends to begin anew, to

twelve-hundred men, Baenas Ayrean reduce us to her obedience, places us in troops in the Peravian service, had long a situation of not fearing such an occar. been neglected in their pay. This regi. sence. The Executive, as well as the ment was marched into Callao to garriRepublic, have highly estimated their de. son the place, and on the 3d of February clarations, and I can assure the Congress, the men and non-commisioned officers that, in the progress of the negociation mutinied, secured their officers and the which may come on the carpet, I will Governor of the Castle, and thus got comnot lose sight of the dignity of the Go plete possession of the Fort. The muti. vernment, nor of tbe interests of the Co neers were beaded by a serjeant of their kombian people.

If the union of the own corps, and their first demand of the physical and moral power of the inde Government of Lima was for 100,000 pendent States of America, the order and dollars in money, and vessels to convey regularity of our association, respect to them to Buenos Ayres. This was rethe law, uniformity of opinion, the pro

fused ; a negotiation was attempted, but gress of learning, and the adherence of failed ; and the insurgents having libera. the Governinent to the path prescribed ted about ten Spanish officers, a Colonel by our fundamental law's, ought to weigh Casa-Riego took the command, and the in the political balance of nations, we Spanish flag was hoisted at the forts on ought to hope, with entire confidence, IIth February. All vessels were prohi. that neither Great Britain nor the other bited from leaving the port, and one or Powers will disavow the power and mo

two that escaped during the night were ral force which the republic of Colombia sired at incessantly, until without reach of has acquired to put herself upon a level the batteries. In the meantime, British with them. I am determined to take goods were allowed to be embarked from advantage of any favourable opportunity Callao, ou paying a small duty to Casato extend our relations with other powers, Riego, though considerable pillage took whose friendship can be of suflicient in place, and British vessels remained under tchest and utility to the republic.”

the protection of his Majesty's ship Fly The other parts of the message relate in the harbour. The Royalist General 10 the internal affairs of the Republic, Rodil, being at Yea, no great distance and the necessary arrangement of its af. from Lima, Casa-Riego sent him a disfairs, greatly deranged by the revolution, patch, informing him of what had taken and the war consequent on it. The es. place, and he having been joined by Gen. tal Lisbing proper seminaries of education Monet, with two thousand men from seems to be an object in which the Co. Jauga, marched on Callao and Lima, and lombian rulers are intent, though at pre took possession of both on the 27th of sent they rather lack the means of ear. February. Previously to this, Admiral rying their intentions into effect. Great Guise, of the Patriot frigate La Prueba, reforms are meditated also in the admi. who was blockading Callao, made a gal. nistration of justice, the collection of the lant attack on the Venganza and ano-* revenue, and the finance departments of ther vessel of war in the ports, and in the Republic. To complete this, time the hands of the insurgents, and he sucwill be required, as the new Government ceeded in entirely destroying both. This has, in many cases, to begin de novo to event is not considered as likely to operate organize the civil institutions of the coun much in favour of the Royalist cause ultia try.

mately, for, to retain possession of the PERU.-Some time ago, it was be. castles, they must weaken their main lieved, that a cessation of hostilities was force, and the fate of the country will upon the point of taking place in Peru. not be decided by who has possession of The news of the overthrow of the Con. Lima, but by a general engagement. stutionalists in Spain was expected to On the 21st or 22d of February Con

gress was dissolved, Torre Tagle depo. consul to Peru, who was to go to his des. sed, and Bolivar proclaimed Dictator. tination over land. One of the first fruits The Colombian forces in Peru amount. of Mr Parish's establishment at Buenos ed to 950 ) man. fae Peravians, under Ayres has been a regulation for the more La Mar, were rather more than 3000. easy communications of the packets. The The total amount of the Spanish forcés captains are allowed to land the mails in Peru is not 13,000 men, and they are without waiting for the visit of the porte widely scattered over that immense coun. officer. The postage is reduced one. try. The head-quarters of La Serna were third. The consul-general is allowed a at Cusco, where he had only 500 men. box in his office for the receipt of British Canterac was at Tarija with 4500; Val- letters, which he may deliver to the cap. dez at Arequipa with 4000; Olaneta had tains without the intervention of the gene20:30 under him; and there were at Ica ral post-office. The British packets are 1600. Such are the details of the last exempted from port duties. A mail is advices from Lima, and so far they are to be dispatched for Chili three days after more favourable to the Royalists than to the arrival of a packet, and is to convey the Patriots.

the dispatches to the public agents of the BUENOS AYRES.- Whatever may be King of England in Chili ami Peru free the state of things in Perü, there are of expence, the consul-general at Buenos some facts communicated from other Ayres putting them into a separate bag, parts of America, which, taken together, and sealing it. On the 1st of April, Don seem to contain materials of gratifying Juan G. de las Heras was elected Goverinterest. Among these may especially nor, by twenty-six votes out of thirty-six. be mentioned the friendly reception of It was said that the Charge des Affaires the British consul, Mr Woodbine Parish, of Colonbia was authorised to negotiate by Don B. Rivadivia, minister of Foreign a loan at Buenos Ayres for Peru, of 3 or a faits for the republic. Mr Parish, on 500,000 piastres, under the guarantee of the following day, presented Mr Rowcroft, General Bolivar.

PROCEEDINGS IN PARLIAMENT.

HOUSE OF LORDS.- April 2.—The diminishing the emoluments of the Estabia Marquis of Lansdowne moved the second lished Clergy (to a serious extent in popu. reading of the Bill permitting the cele lous towns), but as severing a very en-bration of Marriages between Unitarians, dearing connection between them and the by their own Minister, and in their own Dissenters among their parisbioners. The Chapels. The Archbishop of Canterbury Earl of Harrowby and Lord Calthorpe voted for the second reading, with the defended the Bill. The Bishop of London, understanding that the bill should be open in voting that the Bill should go to a to modification in the Committee. He Committee, did not pledge himself to give voted for it, because he was willing to it any farther support. Lord Holland concede, whatever was reasonable to the supported the Bill. The House divided scruples of the Unitarians. The Lord on the second reading, which was carried Chancellor opposed the motion, because, by a majority of 2. if the principle were recognised in this April 5,- The Silk Duties Bill went case, indulgence must be extended to all through the Committee, and was reported other sectarians, and a beginning would without any amendment. Petitions against be thus made to the utter subversion of it were presented by the Lord Chancellor the Established Church. The Earl of from two silk-weaving districts in London, Liverpool objected to the Bill in its pre- expressive of the fears of the petitioners, sent shape, because it went to permit that the value of houses and other pro. marriages, celebrated according to its par. perty in those places would be greatly ticular forms, where one of the parties deteriorated, in consequence of the injury might be a Member of the Established which the bill is calculated to inflict on Church. The Bishop of Chester detailed the numerous population engaged in the at some length the particular passages of silk manufacture. the Matrimonial Liturgy, which were said 6.- The Silk Duties Bill was read a to offend the consciences of the Unitarians; third time and passed. and, in doing so, demonstrated the utter 8.-State of Ireland. The Earl of futility of the scruples which were the Darnley, pursuant to notice, moved for groundwork of the Bill before the House. the appointment of a Committee, to inHe objected to the measure, not only as quire how far the measures lately adopted

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