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men are poor. But how can this be? Why because the few have been so much better managers than the many. There really is no good to be done without good management, and, with it, an industrious and healthy man, may generally keep himself above want. If you were to double the wages, still the bad managers and the careless spendthrifts would be poor.
Generally speaking, a workman in a manufactory is a great deal better paid than a farming labourer; and at times, when any particular manufactory is very flourishing, great wages are given for workmen. Then the master thrives, and the men too. But, if the master is wise, he kpows that trade will not always be so good, and he takes care of his money instead of spending it, and then he is able to go on in times when trade is bad. But those who have not taken care of their money when times were good, will break when times are bad... · But it is just the same with the workmen as with their masters. Some of these workmen know very well that trade cannot always be equally good and flourishing, so that when wages are bigh, they take care to lay by their money; they carry some every week to the Saving Bank, and thus get together a little property; so that, when trade falls off, and wages are low, they can still go on very well, because they have a little store. laid by for them. They bave sense enough to see that this is but right and fair. When trade is bad, the master cannot afford to give the same wages as when trade was good. The employer himself feels the difference of the times as much as the men, and no reasonable man would expect that he should pay as much when his gains are small, as he does when they are large. It is but right and fair that those who had received large wages in consequence of the briskness of trade, should be content to have them lowered when trade is dull and flat. It might save a good deal of mis
understanding, if a master, when he first engaged a workman, were to have it fairly understood between them how they were to proceed. The master might say, “I want hands, and I now engage you at so much a week; but the time may come, when trade is dull, and I shall not want so many hands, or I shall not be able to give the same wages.” .Nobody could dispute the reasonableness of this. But the plan seems to have been, when wages are high, for the workmen to waste their time, and spend their money; and then, when times were bad, they were ready to turn out and riot, and commit every kind of injustice and wickedness.
In good times, many of these workmen will waste two or three whole days at tbe beginning of the week, and earn nothing; and then will just set to work when half the week is gone. During all this time, too, a great deal is spent in drinking, and then they wonder that they are poor; and, when times are bad, they lay all the blame on their employers, and are full of murmurs and complaints, for the distress which they have brought upon themselves. If I happen to earn rather more than common one week, I don't think that I am obliged to spend it that week, but I keep some of it against a time when I can earn less. This is a sort of prudence that common sense might teach every one of us. If I chase to lay aside this common prudence, I have no right to ex, pect that others should maintain me, and so go like a beggar to ask for parish help. Neither have I a right to waste all my money, and then expect that my employer should pay for my folly.
But I use my common sense and reason; and I look around me and see that every one who hopes to thrive in the world does so, and I do not grumble that I am obliged to do the same. Thus I keep constantly out of debt, and out of difficulties ; I bave always something in band, and I have great reason to be contented and thankful. Having my worldly
affairs in good order, I have no anxieties about them, and my mind is kept peaceful and undisturbed, so that I can reflect on those things which concern us all, as travellers to another world; and to which I am taught to look with that humble hope which the Gospel holds out to us through the merits of our Saviour. A subject which too many in my station most sadly neglect, but which belongs to us in all stations, and for the neglect of wbich no worldly employments can afford the smallest exease.
A WORKING MANUFACTURER., :
Letter from a father to his Son, an Apprentice Boy. ::My Dear Boy, I HAVE already given you a little account of Edward the First, and Edward the Second, and we must now, therefore, come to Edward the Third. This prince was only fourteen years old when he came to the throne; and his wicked mother, and her favourite Mortimer, endeavoured to keep all power from him, and to manage every thing themselves. Edward, however, would not long submit to this, and he therefore attacked the Queen and her lover in Nottingham Castle, and seized them both. Mortimer was con demned by the parliament, and hanged. The Queen was confined for life to the Castle of Risings, with a pension of three hundred a year. The king every year paid her a visit of ceremony, but she was never respected by any one during the rest of her life, which continued about twenty-five years. · Edward the Third was an ambitious and a brave king. He set about conquering Scotland, which his father had lost; and, in one of his battles, at Halledown-hill, he is said to have left thirty thou. sund of the Scotch dead on the field. . .
He likewise attempted to get the kingdom of France, and he pretended, that tbrough his mother, he was the rightful heir to the throne. He accordingly went over to France to fight for the kingdom. You have, perhaps, heard of the great battle of Cressy. This great battle was fought by Edward the Third, or, I may rather say, by bis son, Edward the Black Prince, for the king did not actually engage in the battle, but took his station on a hill at some little distance, with a body of men, in case his belp should be wanted. It is said, that, in this battle, the English bad only thirty thousand men, whilst the French bad a hundred and twenty thousand. The English bad indeed the advantage of position, and it is said, besides, that the sun shone in the faces of the French and dazzled their eyes; and, moreover, that there had been a shower of rain which relaxed the bowstrings of the French, whilst the English had kept their bows in cases. I don't know bow all this might be, but it seems that the English gave the French a complete beating. I mentioned the king's son Edward, the Black Prince ; he was called the Black Prince, because he generally wore black armour. If you were ever to go to Windsor Castle, you might see the very armour which this prince wore. There was one part of tbe battle of Cressy, when the young prince was fighting so desperately, and rushing into such great dangers, that some of his officers thought that he never could escape; they accordingly went up to the king, and begged him to come to the assistance of the prince. The old king saw plainly that his son was winning the battle, and be therefore refused to come. “Tell the prince,” he said, " that the honour of this day shall be all his own." This speech added such courage to young Edward, and to the soldiers, that they quickly carried all before them, and gained a most complete victory.
- land, in France, when you cross the sea from Dover. Edward was very anxious to get possession of Calais, that he might have a place in France where he could land his men, and thus might, with more ease, conquer the country. He accordingly surrounded Calais with his army; but the brave citizens made a long and bold defence. For a whole year, all the attempts of Edward to take the town were vain. The citizens, during this time, were suffering 'dreadful hardships for want of food, and it was indeed hunger that obliged them to surrender at last. When they did submit, Edward was so angry with them for holding out so long, that he at first threatened to put every one of them to death. He was, however, afterwards content with having six of the principal citizens brought out to execution with halters about their-necks. These brave men would every one of them have been hanged, (for nothing but their good conduct), had not the queen of England herself fallen on her knees before the king, and intreated bim to pardon them. The king listened to the mild intreaties of queen Philippa, and set these excellent citizens at liberty. .'
Whilst Edward was in France, the Scotch taking advantage of his absence, made an attempt to invade England with a large army, commanded by their king, David Bruce. This was at a time when the queen, whom we bave mentioned before, was in England ; and she, without delay, set off herself with an army to oppose them ; she met them at Neville's Cross, near Durham ; she aitaoked them, won the battle, and took the king of Scotland himself prisoner.
The black prince shortly afterwards fought another great battle in France, the famous battle of Poictiers, here he took John, king of Franoe, prisoner :-so that there were two kings, at the same time, prisoners in England.