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A DISSERTATION ON THE MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS OF THE WELSH.
latter centuries, the Pibrach is more generally used in the highlands of Scotland than in any part of England or Ireland; and te has a moft extraordinary influence, even at this day, on the native highlanders, in the
; time of action. The victory of Quebec, in 1960, is attributed by then to the inspiring effect of the Pibrach'. The term Pibra'ch implies the Armapipe, from its being blown with the arm.
The Tabwrdd, Tabret, or Drum, was anciently an instrument of mirth, used upon festivals, public dancings, and at celebrations, to accompany other instruments. Subsequently it was used in war, to direct the soldiers in their march, attack, tetreat, &c.; for which purpose a larger drum was used chan the tabor. This instrument is said to be an Oriental invention.
The old English march of the foot was formerly in high estimation as well abroad as with us ; its cha. ta&teristic is dignity and gravity, in which respect it differs greatly from the French ; which, as it is given by Mersennus, is brilk and alert. Sir Roger Williams, a gallant Wellh soldier of queen Elizabeth's time, (and who has therefore a place among the Worthies of Loyd, and Winstanley,) had once a conversation on this subject with Marshal Biron, a French general. The Marshal observed, that the English march beaten on the Drum was flow, heavy, and luggish: “that may be true," answered Sir Roger," but, now as it is, it has traversed your master's country from one end to the other !."
The last, which perhaps should have been mentioned before, is the Corn Buelin, or Bugle-Horn. This instrument was usually made in the form of a semi-circle, and received its general appellation from its being the horn of the Bugle, Buffalo, or wild Ox, an animal formerly common in this ifland. In the reign of King Howel; there were three principal Horns belonging to the Royal palace; the account of them I fhall extract literally from the ancient Welsh laws : Tri Chorn Cyweithas y fydd i'r Brenin,
Three focial Horns are allotted for the use of the King, ac a ddylant vód yn Vuelin:
and those should be of the Buffalo : vix. Ei Gorn Cyvedd, a yvo y Brezsin o bonaw;
His banqueting, or drinking Horn; the War Hora a'i Garn Cychwyn, o va yn ei gyweithas yn walted; of his retinue, which was always in readiness ; and < Chorn Helo yu llaw y Pencynydd:
the Horn of the Chace, in the hands of his chief A phunt yw gwerth pob un o honunt."
huntsman: And the value of each of them was Leges Wallica, pp. 266. 311. a pound.
“Ora y Pencywydd ynanrhaith gan Deulæy Brenin,
If the master of the hounds went out on a foraging neu gan LA, caned ei Gorn pan vi iawn iddo, adewifed expedition, with the family of the King, or with his cidion o'r anrbaith."
army, he blew his Horn when it was necessary, Leges Wallice, p. 43.
for which service he was to choose an ox from the military booty.-
· The Bagpipe seems to have long been in use, and probably « Rhegain garm rhyw gwn gormes, invented about the same period as when the bellows was added “ Rbuglgroen, yn rhoi gwlaw a gwres.". to the Regal, or the pipes of the Organ. Toward the clofe of A Poem on Thunder by David ab Gwilym;fee p. 81 of his Wort. Nero's
reign, he vowed he would bring on the stage, a (Hydro- 3 King Arthur ; and, Henry the Vtb, both conquered France. xlam, Choraulam, and Utricularium.) Water-Organ, a chorus of The above bon-mot is recorded in one of those entertaining Flutes and Bagpipes.- Suetonii Tranquilli, Lib. II. Cap. 54.-And little books written by Crouch, under the fi&titious name of Hughes's Translation of the fame : vide Nero. This is the earlie' Robert Burton, entitled Admirable Curiofitics, Rarities, and Won. mention of any thing of this kind, that I can find. Also, acoders of England, Scotland, and Ireland. cording to the Supplement to Montfaucon's Antiguitics, tranlated The following poetical effusion on the Drum, by Scott, is so by Humphreys, Vol. 111. Book V1II. Chap. 1. which says, the pretty and descriptive, that I cannot forbear introducing it here: Latin name of the Bag-pipe is Tibia Utricularis, and in Greek is I hate that Drum's discordant sound, doravnos. It farther mentions a bas-relief of this inftrument Parading round, and round, and round: in the court of the palace of Prince San&o Creta, at Rome; To thoughtless youth it pleasure yields, and a similar one under the arms of a shepherd, in the cabinet And lures from cities, and from fields, of Cardinal Albani. One thing more I shall notice respecting To sell their liberty for charms the Bag-pipe, which in French is sometimes called Mufetic Of tawdry laçe, and glittering arms; Gallica, and Cornamuse Bourdone ; the latter term evidently And when ambition's voice commands originated from the Welsh Byrrdon, and whence the English To march, and fight, and fall in foreign lands word Burden, or Drone is derived. When any thing is got I hate that Drum's difcordant found, into general circulation, this old proverb is.commonly ap- Parading round, and round, and round;
To me it talks of ravag'd plains, « Ev & acth hynny ar Gyrn, a Phibay."
And burning towns, and ruin'd (wains, j.e. "That is become the note of the Horns, and Pipes.". And mangled limbs, and dying groans,
Genefis XXXI. 27.Exodus XV. 20.-Fudges XI. 34. And Widow's tears, and Orphan's moansa Pfalme EXLIX. 32–Virgil's Georgics. Lib. IV. 6. And p. And all that Mifery's hand bestows,
To fill the catalogue of human woes." 11
plied to it :
85 of this work.
A DISSERTATION ON THE MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS OF THE WELSH. 118 He likewise founded his signal Horn in hunting, to animate the hunters and the dogs, and to call the latter together. The master of the royal hounds had the same power of protection within the found of his Horn, while he was hunting, as the Chief Bard pofseffed while performing on his Harp'. When his oath was required in a court of justice, he swore by his Horn and his Leashes *. By the old Welsh hunt. ing laws it was decreed, that every person carrying a Horn was obliged to know the Nine Chases; and that, if he could not give a proper account concerning them, he should lose his Horn s.
This instrument had lids occasionally at the ends of it, and was the cup out of which our forefathers quaffed mead, for which they valued it as much as for its cheering and warlike found. The merry Horo was sometimes a subject of the Cambrian Muse. There is a charming spirited poem in the Rev. Mr. Evans's Specimens of the Welsh Poetry?, and versified by the Rev. Richard Williams', entiled Hirlas Owain, from a large drinking Horn used at feasts in his palace, and composed by the Bard Owain Cyveiling, Prince of Powys, about the year 1160, and immediately after his great victory over the English at Maelor, which will give my Reader some idea, how our famed ancestors used to regale themselves after battle, in the days of Yore.
Hirlas ), or the drinking Horn of Owen Cyveiliog, Prince of Powis. UP-ROSE the ruddy dawn of day,
Let then their haughty lords beware The armies met in dread array
How Owen's just revenge they dare, On Maelor Drevred's 10 field;
And tremble at his fight.Loud the British clarions found,
Fill the Hirlas Horn, my boy, The Saxons, gasping on the ground,
Nor let the tuneful lips be dry The bloody contest yield.
That warble Owen's praise; By Owen's arm the valiant bled;
Whose.walls with warlike spoils are hung, From Owen's arm the coward fled
wide his gates are flung Aghast with wild affright;
In Cambria's peaceful days.
* From Christmas until the month of February, the Master of out of the horns, and the bowls. He was also allowed a hornful the Hourds ought tobe with the King when ever he thinks fit. from the King, another from the Queen, and the third from And, from the first week of the month of February, he ought the Master of the Horse, out of the wafsail of the followers, to take his dogs, his horn, and his leafhes, to go a hunting of which was styled Gwirawd yr Ebysdyl, or the Walail Cup of the Roes during the fpring; and from that time until the the Apostles; whom they probably invoked at the time of drinkfeast of St. John, at Midsummer, he ought to hunt the roes. ing.
Leges Wallice, pp. 47 and 48. From the ninth day of October it is right for him to go to This custom was in frequent use in old times. The Danes hunt the wild Boars, and from that time until the first of invoked the highest powers to affilt the mighty draught: Help November. Leges Wallica, pp. 40 and 41.
Got unde Maria.–And the Saxon ULPHUS, when he con. · Leges Wallice, p. 42.
veyed certain lands to the church of York, quaffed off the * See the preceding page 27.
horn, Deo et St. Petro. Ulphus's curious horn is still pre• Leges Wallice, p. 40.
served in the catheral at York. (See the Archeologia, pubs See the Welsh Hunting laws at the end of Dr. Davies, lished by the Antiquarian Society, Vol. III.
On less and Richard's Welsh Dictionaries.
serious occasions, on festival days, the horn was emptied at “ Corn Canu pieufo bynnag, dwygeiniawg a dál.” Leg.Wal.p. 274. one tip, and then blown to shew that there was no deceit. i. e. A common sounding Horn of every denomination,
Pennant's Journey to Wales, p. 287. was valued at two pence.
In former days, Mead was the Nectar of the Ancient Bric • In the royal palace of the Ancient Britons, the Patron of tons, and the Bards often celebrate it. Prince Llywarch Hên the Family received a hornful of the best liquor from the hand says, in one of his Poems, “ In veddw vedd Trên." of the King, another from the Queen, and the third from the i. e. The mead of Trên made me jovial. Steward of the household. Leges Wallice, pp. 16 and 17. “ Cyn myned máb Cynan y dan dywawd,
! The Comptroller of the Household was allowed the length of his Ceffid yn ei gyntedd Vidd a Bragawd." Meilir. : middle finger of fine ale, and up to the middle joint of the fame Before the fon of Cynan was laid under the fod, finger of bragget, and up to the firstjoint of mead. Leg. Wal.p.23. The Mead, and Bragget were liberally received in his hall. The Master of the Royal Hounds was allowed three hornfuls "Gwlad Powys
mamwys y medd." Dr. 7. D. Rhys's Gramr. of mead in every banquet ; that is, one from the King, ano- The region of Powys, the mother of mead. ther from the Queen, and the third from the Comptroller, or “ Croyw vir, cryv védd, the Patron of the Family. Leges Wallicæ, p. 39.
« Cóv yw cyvedd. ”
S. Vycban, 1790. The Cup bearer ; his province was to keep the mead cellar, Pleasing is the remembrance of the clear ale, and strong and whatever it contained, complete ; also, to serve out the mead in the banquet. liquor, and distribute it to every one according to his right. There is a place in Anglesey called Llannerch y Módd, or the He was entitled to a lawful wassail from every feast in which Lawn of Mead. See the Mead Song by Taliesin, in p. 21. Also, there was mead ; that is, as much as the vellels that served the Welsh formerly used Clary-wine,& hlulberry-wine. Seep. 21. would contain of ale, and half their fill of bragget, and the ? Specimens of Welsh Poetry, p. 7. third of mead. Leges Wallicæ, pp. 45 and 46.
8 Page 288, of Pennant's Wales. The royal Porter had a vellel in the hall for receiving his 9 Hirlas, the epithet of the Horn, from bir, long, and glás, wassail, the comptroller and all the cup-bearers with him, on blue, or azure. the three primary festivals, viz. Christmas, Easter, and Whit- "Mavlor is a part of the counties of Denbigh and Flint, funtide, complimented him, by giving waffail into his vessel'according to the modern division,
THE POEM OF THE HIRLAS HORN, OF OWEN CYVEILIOG.
This hour we dedicate to joy;
That shineth like the sea ;
The Sons of Liberty.
Fill the horn ; 'tis
prey. Rivals in the feats of war, Where danger callid, they rush'd from far
i Till shatter'd by some hostile stroke, With horrid clang their fields were broke; Loud as the foaming billows roar, Or fierce contending windson Talgarth’s-stormy shore.
Fill the gold-tip'd horn with speed, (We must drink, it is decreed.) Badge of honour, badge of mirth, That calls the foul of music forth ! As thou wilt thy life prolong, Fill it with Metheglin Itrong. Gruffudd thirsts, to Gruffudd fill, Whose bloody lance is us'd to kill; Matchless in the field of strife, His glory ends not with his life : Dragon-son of Cynvyn's race, Owen's shield, Arwystli's 'grace. To purchase fame the warriors flew, Dire, and more dire, the conflict grew; When flush'd with mead, they bravely fought, Like Belin's warlike sons, that Edwin's downfall wrought. Fill the horn with foaming liquor, Fill it up, my boy, be quicker ; Hence away, despair and sorrow! Time enough to figh to-morrow. Let the brimming goblet smile, And Ednyved's cares beguile; Gallant youth, unus'd to fear, Master of the broken fpear, And the arrow-pierced shield, Brought with honour from the field. Like an hurricane is He, Bursting on the troubled sea.
Fill the horns with rofy wine,
Brave Moreiddig claims it now, Chieftain of an ancient line, Dauntless heart, and
brow. To the warrior it belongs, Prince of battles, theme of songs ! Pride of Powys, Mochnant's boast! Guardian of his native coast !
Areyftli, the name of one ofthe cantreds of Powgs. * Garthan, the name of a fort or castle, some where near the Severa. • Probably this alludes to the famous battle of Bangor-y-Gwygyr, in Flintshire, fought A. D. 633. : Talgarth, near Machynllaeth, in Montgomeryshire.
THE HIRLAS HORN OF OWEN CYVEILIOG, PRINCE OF POWYS.
But, ah! his short-liv'd triumph's o'er,
Their drink was Mead, their hearts were true, Brave Moreiddig is no more!
And to the head their shafts they drew; To his penfive ghost we'll give .
But Owen's guards, in dread array, Due remembrance, while we live;
Refiftless march along, and makethe world giveway. And in fairy fiction dress’d, Flowing hair, and fable vest,
Pour the sweet transparent Mead, The tragic Muse shall grace our songs,
(The spear is red in time of need,) While brave Moreiddig's name the mournful strain And give to each departed spirit prolongs.
The honour and reward of merit.
What cares surround the regal state, Pour out the horn, (tho' he desire it not,)
What anxious thoughts molest the great, And heave a figh on Morgan's early grave;
None but a prince himself can know, Doom'd in his clay-cold tenement to rot,
And Heav'n, that ruleth kings, and lays the mighty low. While we revere the memory of the brave. Fill again the Hirlas Horn,
For Daniel fill the horn so green, On that ever glorious morn,
Of haughty brow, and angry mien; The Britons and their foes between,
While the less'ning tapers shine, What prodigies of might were seen!
Fill it up with gen'rous wine. On Gwestyn's plains the fight began;
He nor quarter takes, nor gives, But Gronwy sure was more than man !
But by spoils and rapine lives. Him to refift, on Gwestyn's plain,
Comely is the youth, and brave; A hundred Saxons strove in'vain.
But obdurate as the grave. To set the noble Meirig free,
Hadst thou seen, in Maelor fight, And change his bonds to liberty,
How we put the foe to flight ! The warriors vow'd. The God of day
Hadft thou seen the chiefs in arms, Scarce darted his meridian ray,
When the foes rush'd on in swarms ! . When he beheld the conquerors steep'd in gore,
Round about their prince they stood, AndGwestyn's bloody fight, ere highest noon was o'er.
And stain'd their swords with hostile blood.
Glorious bulwarks! To their praise Now a due libation pour a
The prince devotes his latest lays.To the fpirits of the dead,
Now, my boy, thy task is o'er, Who, that memorable hour,
Thou shalt fill the horn no more. Made the hostile plain their bed.
Long may the King of Kings protect, There the glittring steel was seen,
And crown with bliss, my friends elect; There the twanging Bow was heard ;
Where Liberty and Truth reside, There the mighty press’d the green,
And Virtue, Truth's immortal bride! Recorded by the faithful Bard.
There may we all together meet, Madoc there, and Meilir brave,
And former times renew in heav'nly converse sweet! Sent many a Saxon to his grave.
I was fortunate in meeting with one of these celebrated Horns at Penrhyn, near Bangor, in Caernarvonshire, formerly the spot where Roderick Molwynog, Prince of Wales's palace stood, and afterwards the seat of the Griffiths's. By the initials, and a crest on the Horn, I find that it belonged to Sir Rhys Gruffydd, and subsequently to his gallant son Sir Piers Gruffydd, a distinguished naval officer, who shared in the honour of defeating the Spanish Armada, and other valiant actions ; he was living in 1598. This Horn
; was found many years ago in removing some rubbish close to the tower of the old house?; from the top of which, probably, it had been dropped or loft, because every chief Lord of a district, formerly possessed a similar Horn, which occasionally was blown from the highest turret of his house, as a signal to call around his vassals in a case of danger. I made a correct drawing of it, which I have caused to be engraved in the trophy of the musical instruments in p. 89, where the Reader will see it hanging on the top of the
* The present owner of Penrhyn is now Lord Penrhyn, who married a descendant of Archbishop Williams, and by which marriage he came to that estate. Trumpets were first founded before the English kings, by order of Offa, in the year 790,
A DISSERTATION ON THE MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS OF THE WELSH.
triple Harp. The original is the most elegant antique I ever saw; it is tipt with sculptured silver, and decorated with a beautiful filver chain".
In the time of the princely Bard Llywarch Hên, about the year 560, the Bugle Horn was then in equal estimation, both to excite heroism, as well as for a mead cup, which appears by the following fragments : r Corn a'th roddes di URIEN, Urien, loudly found the Horn that I
gave thee, Ai arwest aur am ei én,
with the golden rim about its brim; Chwyth ynddaw o’th ddaw angen.
found it when thou art put to extremity.
From Llywarch Hen's Elegy on his Sons. Anoeth bydd brawd yn cynnull,
It will be a cruel task for a brother to circulate the bugle.horn.
It grieves me to think of convivial banquets,
drinking horns ! 'tis doubtful,
stript of her ornaments, deprived of a general In Aber-Lleu lladd Urien!
that had no rival : at Aber-lleu was Urien llain !
From Llywarch Hën's Elegy on Urien Reged, King of Cambria. St. Patrick, the Briton, who was educated at Glastonbury Abbey, and being illustrious for his fanctity, was sent to Ireland, in the reign of Laogaire, son of Nial the great, about A. D. 432, to convert the Irish to Christianity. Giraldus farther relates, “ that St. Patrick had a Horn, which was not of gold, but of brass; that Horn was afterwards brought to Wales from Ireland ; but, what is remarkable of that Horn is this, that, by applying the opening of the larger end to the ear, one may hear a sweet-founding noise emitted through it, like the melody which is usually sent forth by the naked Harp gently touched ?."
The Bugle Horn appears also at a very early period among the Gauls; for, Cæfar, in the account of his wars, says, " there is an animal in the Hercynian Forest called the Uri, (or Buffalo,) and they who kill the greatest number, and produce their horns in public as a proof, are in high reputation with their countrymen. The natives preserve them with great care, tip their edges with silver, and use them instead of cups on their most solemn festivals 3.”
The Udgorn, or Trumpet : God himself vouchsafed to give dire&ion to Moses for the making of that inftrument; saying, “ Make thee two Trumpets of silver; of a whole piece shalt thou make them ; that thou mayest use them for the calling of the assembly, and for the journeying of the camps *.” Among the Hebrews, the privilege of sounding the Sephar, or Trumpet, in religious ceremonies, was reserved to
• The dimensions of the Horn are the following: the dia- Hereditary Steward of the two royal manors of East and Wet meter of the semi-circle 13 inches and 1. The whole line of Leake, in Nottinghamshire, Escheator, Coroner, and Clerk of the the femi-circle 2'1 inches and 1. The diameter of the drink- Market, of the honour of Tutbury; the fecondof which offices, ing end 2 inches and The diameter of the blowing end viz. Escheator, is now in a manner obsolete.” Blount's Ancient rather above . And it contains about half a pint.- Tenures, by Beckwith, pp. 186, 303 ; fecond edition. • Giraldus's Topography of Ireland, Chap. XVI.
Alan Sylvestris received the Bailiwick of Wirral forest by the Amongst some papers of the late Mr. Edward Llwyd, the delivery of a Horn. See Cheshire, in Camden's Britannia. antiquary, dated 1706, I find the drawing of a brazen horn The Pufey family in Berkshire have a Bugle Horn which which was found at Belliniwr, near Carick-fergus, about 20 formerly was presented to one of their ancestors by King years before ; two others were found at the same time. This canule, the Dane, about the year 1019; and by which inftruhorn was then in the custody of Mr. Malcolm of Bellimagan, at ment they still hold their lands. There is a print of that Antrim, in Ireland ; it resembles a fow.gelder's horn, but has curious Horn in the Archeologia, published by the Antiquano aperture in the smallest end, and probably the cap was on, rian Society, Vol. III. p. 13; as well as of the Borsal Horn, as there is a ring at the point. It was two feet long, and of in p. 1 ; and Lord Bruce's Horn, in p. 24 of the same volume. a curve shape.
Likewise, I am informed, there is a Bugle Horn belonging In Staffordshire, formerly, there was a white Hunter's Horn, to the chapter or church of Durham; and another at decorated in the middle and at each end with silver, gilt ; to Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. See allo the Gentleman's which also was affixed a girdle of fine black filk, adorned with Magazine for January 1752. buckles of filver, in the middle of which is placed a coat of The lager Horn, or hunter's music of Ruffia, used by the arms, fupposed to be that of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, grand Master of the Hunt to his Imperial Majesty, is made about the year 1390. That horn was the instrument by which of thin brass, and in form resembling the Tuba of the anthe Escheator and Coroner, through the whole honour ofTutbury, cients, that is, itraight, excepting a small part of the blowin the county of Stafford, and the Bailiwick of Legke, held his ing end, which is bent nearly in a right angle. office. Mr. Samuel Foxlow of Stávely, in Derbyshire, now enjoys Cæfar's Commentaries, Book VI. 26. the post abovementioned, by this tenure, and in virtue of his * Numbers, Chap. X. &c. Numbers XXIX. v. 1, & XXXI. being in possession of the faid Hunter's Horn. The offices con- Diodorus Siculus says, the Gauls had Trumpets after the Bar. veyed by the Horn were those of feodary, or bailiff in fee; i... barian manner; Book V. Chap. II.