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grows only in warm countries and not in tions on the stations and extension of plants.
life gives it a far greater value.
When a tined to grow in the deepest shade, grow sufficient number of meteorological obluxuriantly in our gardens, if we place them servations shall have been made on the in similar situations. But the laws of na-most diverse parts of the earth's surface, ture are inexplicable to us, according to so that we may have an accurate knowwhich certain plants can grow only in hot ledge of the Isothermal,* Isotheral, and countries, others in cool shade, and others Isochimenal lines in their whole course, again only in marshy soil; equally inexpli- we shall be able positively to determine, å cable to us are the causes' from which the priori, whether a plant can be transplantvarious groups of plants predominate in dif- ven one, or whether this attempt would
ed from its natural station to another gferent parts of the globe, and are often con- be fruitless; a subject which is evidently fined to nariow and very defined limits. of great importance. We are most espeThus we see the many forms of Cactus cially deficient in a knowledge of the grow in the warmer parts of the temperate mean temperatures at great elevations on and in the torrid zone of America, but we extensive mountain chains, in order to also see these plants ascend in that continent determine what plants may be made to the high mountains, and there grow in a of this is evident, and I will adduce only
grow in those countries. The importance climate resembling that of the Alpine region one example. The great tracts of the of our Lapland, though we do not find in plain of Chequito, round the mountain the latter country a single plant of that ex- lake of Titicaca, is very populous, and traordinary form.
numerous fine towns have been built at The preceding extracts are taken from that great elevation. But wood is wantthe introductory pages of the work, which ing, in that country, where an eternal is divided into a few general heads as fol- spring prevails, where the fertility of the
soil and ample stores of mineral riches lows:
might contribute to the happiness of man. First section, “On the circumstances of We have indeed no notices whatever of climate as the causes of the production and the mean temperature in those parts at propagation of plants.". In this section the an elevation of 12,700 feet, but, from the author treats of the influence of the winds few observations which I myself made on and hydrometeors against the regular dis- the spot, and some others of Messrs. Penttribution of warmth, on the mean heat of a the fir, the birch, and the alder would
land and Rivero, it might be inferred that place, on its influence on the vegetation ; on flourish. What vast advantage must the the elevation of the line of vegetation in introduction of great woods bring to those different latitudes, which, in general, coin-countries where now every stick, every cides with the line of eternal snow; of the stem, every board, is among the riches of influence of the warmth of the soil on the a family ; where the fisherman is obliged vegetation; of the warmth in spring on to trust himself to the stormy lake in a which the development of the leaves and miserable boat made of rushes woven toflowers depends ; effect of the moisture of gether !" the atmosphere and the earth on the existence of plants; on the effects of the currents tion of plants on the surface of the earth,
The third section treats “ Of the distribuin the air and water in distributing plants with especial regard to the physiognomy of over different regions, &c. Second, “ On
nature." the circumstances by which the soil influ
We regret that our limits will
not allow us to make such extracts from this ences the production and propagation of plants." Dr. Meyen treats, ist. of aquatic part of the work as we should wish to do, plants , under the heads of marine plants
, but there is one point on which it may be fresh water plants, subaqueous plants (sub- the conclusion of his first section he indi
proper to state Dr. Meyen's opinion. At mersæ), floating plants (liberæ or natantes), lake plants (lacustres), &c. &c. 2d. Sand cates, nearly in the same terms as preceding plants likewise under several heads, accord writers, the share that the winds, and wa ing to the influence of the soil in respect to its geological composition, its aggregate character, its nature, its state of cultivation.
* Terms introduced by A. von Humboldt, To this section are added further observa--L.
meaning lines of equal mean winter temperature.
ters, and currents, have in the distribution of been made, especially in this country, plants, by conveying the seeds to remote re- have proved incontestibly that nature is gions of the globe; but in this third section still able to create as well imperfect ani
mals as lower plants, without eggs and
seeds; only organic matter, water and "If we take as proved what is intima. air, the indispispensable conditions of all ted in the precerling observations, that, animal formation, are required to call into with the increasing warmth on the earth's existence, with sufficient warmth the orsurface, not only the number of species ganic conformation. If these inferior but the number of individual plants, be- creatures are once called into existence, come more apparent, we shall recognize they propagate themselves by egg or seed, herein one of the laws by which creative till in the end they again vanish, when the nature has distributed the whole mass of external circumstances which called them plants over the surface of the earth. into being are withdrawn.
It has long These simple results alone might oppose been placed beyond all reasonable doubt, all ideas of the diffusion of organic be that intestinal worms may be pro duced ings by migration. There is, however, a without eggs, and the accurate numerous multitude of other facts which cannot pos- observations of modern times respecting sibly be explained by the migration of the occurrence of worms in the innermost plants. The Phelim Alpinum, the Botri- parts of the eyes, as well of men as anichium Lunaria, and many other plants mals, are too positive to be contested by perfectly resembling those that "grow hypothesis however ingenious. This is among us, are found likewise on the not to defend anew the doctrine of geneislands of Terra del Fuego, though they ratio originaria. The opponeuts of this are wholly wanting in the intermediate doctrine have always alleged the flying zones and regions. How should the about in the air of the sporules of fungi, seeds of those plants have migrated from wherever the production of fungi in inclous to those most remote parts of Ameri- sed receptacles has been spoken of; but ca? The climate is the same as among not to mention that this assertion is not us; and in the subarctic zone, why do we founded on observation, for nobody has not recognize what is so evident, that in ever seen these sporules flying about, countries so distant from each other, na- though they are large enough, we now reture has produced forms nearly or per-ject all such objections, since M. Detrofectly alike, because those countries are chet has discovered that the formation of under nearly or perfectly indentical cir- filamentous fungi may be induced, accelcumstances? In the diffusion of organic erated and stopped by chemical substanbeings over the earth nothing perhaps is ces.—Observati ns sur l'Origine des Mmore easily recognized than the general rissures.-Annal. des Sciences Nat. 1837, law, that nature, under similar circum- tom. i. 30—38.)” stanees, has always produced similar or perfectly identical creatures.'" * * The regions of Alpine plants on differ
We have no space to enter on this subject,
to which we have called the attention of our ent mountains are to be considered as islands in the great atmospheric ocean; readers; because we believe that the arguhundreds, nay often thousands, of miles ments in favor of equivocal generation are distant from each other, they have many generally considered as fallacious. The plants quite identical, and most of their last 150 pages of Dr. Meyen's work are deplants are at least extremely similar. voted to a highly interesting and instructive How should these plants have come from essay on the history of the principal plants the top of one mountain to that of ano-cultivated for the food, convenience, and grather, where the same climate prevails, while these plants are not to be found tification of man; which are the objects of on the plain, or even on the lower emi-commerce and the foundation of the wealth nences that lie between. Such notions of of nations. We cannot flatter ourselves with the migration of plants must be wholly the hope of seeing the whole of this work given up now we have such a vast translated, but we really think that this esaccumulation of facts respecting the oc- say would be, of itself," a welcome addition currence of plants.
to our literature. “ The accurate observations that have
The first volume of a “History of the
Insurrection in Poland, in 1831," in the The Paris paper La Paix states that in Polish language, by Felix Wrotnoski, has the first six months of the present year, appeared in Paris. there have been printed in France 3413 works in French, English, Spanish, Por
The second volume of the Turkish and tuguese, German, Italian. Turkish, Arabic, French Dictionary, by J. D. Keifer and T. Latin, Greek, and Hebrew; also, 571 en- X. Bianchi, is just published. The first gravings and lithographs, 13 new maps
volume appeared in 1835. and plans, and 8 musical works.
We observe that Victor Hugo's celebraThere will be speedily published in Pa- ted novel, “ Notre Dame de Paris," has ris, the commencing numbers of “ La Ar- reached the 11th edition. meria real de Madrid, ou le Musée d'Artil
M. P. C. T. Desrochers has undertaken lerie Espagnol, containing eighty plates, engraved on copper and steel or litho
Biographie des Marins Français congraphed, representing the arms of Pelagi- 800 Notices historiques, and a Precis of
temporains," a work which will contain us, the 'Cid, Pizarro, Ferdinand Cortes, contemporary maritime events. It will and other famous Spaniards, after drawings by M. Gasper Sensi
, and the text by ing two sheets.
be published in 18 numbers, each containM. Achille Jubinal. The work will form 20 livraisons, each containing four or five
The first number of " Galeries artis. Plates, and one sheet of text in folio. A work similar in plan and extent, is about tiques de Versailles," by Charles Farey, to be commenced, with the title of Le Mu
has just appeared.' It will contain 203
plates, by the most eminent engravers of sée d'Artillerie de Paris.
France, and be completed in 104 numbers,
forming two volumes. Shortly will appear in two vols. 8vo., with maps and plans, “ Historie de Charles
The sixth edition of Thiers' “ Historie XIV. (Bernadotte) Roi de Suède et Nor- de la Revolution Française” is publishing vège,” by Touchard Lafosse.
in numbers, with 50 plates, engraved on
steel. A “Picturesque Tour of North and South America,” containing a digested narra The first livraison has appeared of tive of the discoveries and observations “ Dictionnaire classique des Sciences natuof all the principal travellers in that por- relles,” by M. Drapiez, a work intended to tion of the world, from the time of Colum- embody all the facts contained in the dicbus to the present day, has been com- tionaries of natural history already pubmenced in numbers, under the superin- lished with all the discoveries since made. tendence of M. Alcide d’Orbigny. It will The whole will consist of 48 livraisons. be published in the same style as the four of which will form a volume, and an “Picturesque Tour of the World,” and atlas of coloured plates in the same numcontain about 300 engravings.
ber of livraisons.
The 20th and last livraison has just ap- example, the Bagharata-Pourana, and the peared of" Les Polonais et les Polonaises Code of Laws of King Waghtang V. de la Rerolution du Novembre, 1830,” con The first part of the Geography of Asisting altogether of 100 portraits, with a boulfeda, Arabic text, from the Paris and biographical illustration to each portrait, Leyden manuscripts, published at the exby Joseph Strazzewicz. There are two pense of the Asiatic Society, and edited editions of the work, in folio, and in oc- by M. Reinaud and the Baron Mac Guckin tavo.
de Slane, has just appeared. The work
is printed in 4to. A Narrative of a Voyage to Iceland and Greenland, performed in 1835-6, in the Re The first volume of “La Russie pittorcherche corvette, commanded by Capt. esque," by J. Cynski, is completed. The Trehouart, is announced. It is to form whole work is to consist of 144 numbers, six volumes, 8vo., with a folio Atlas of 250 forming four 4to. volumes. A number applates, and to appear in parts.
pears every ten days. The recent travels in the East of Count A "Voyage archéologique et pittoresque Alexandre de Laborde, and Messrs. Beck-dans le Department de l'Aube, et dans l'aner and Hall, are to be recorded in a splen- cien Diocèse de Troyes, by A. F. Artaud, is did work, by the title of "Voyage en Ori- announced to appear in 36 monthly parts. ent,” to be edited and published by Leon de Laborde, author of the Voyage en Ara Mignet, who has succeeded to Raynoubie. It will be embelished with 180 plates, ard's place in the French Academy, and and consist of 36 parts, forming two folio who holds the very lucrative situation of volumes.
director of the archives of the ministry for
foreign affairs, is engaged upon a History The royal library in Paris possesses a of the Reformation, which is to extend to great number of extremely valuable orien- ten volumes. This would appear to be a tal manuscripts, which have never been bold undertaking for an author who has translated and published either in France never been in Germany, and has not even or in Europe. The National Institute com- the slightest knowledge of its language. prehends oriental scholars, than whom none are better qualified to render those treasures available; and the royal printing offiee possesses the most complete col
GERMANY. lection of foreign types that exists in the world. These united means only awaited Wigand, of Leipzig, has just published the royal patronage to produce a typo- the first original tragedy ever written graphical and literary monument surpass in the Servian language. It is entitled ing every other of the kind.
A prince, Milosch Obilitj," and is founded on the who, before he ascended the throne, was battle of the Amselfeld, in 1389, in which president of the Asiatic Society, could not Sultan Amurath was defeated by Milosch fail to take such an enterprize under his Obilitj. A German translation is prepaprotection. A royal ordinance, issued in ring, with the assistance of the author. 1834, commanded the publication of a collection, comprehending the text and trans The same publisher is printing, in the lations of the most important oriental Servian language, the “History of Servia, monuscripts in the royal and other libra- during the Years 1813 to 1815, inclusive, ries. A commission of literary men, ap- by Simeon Milutinowitsch.” a translation pointed by the keeper of the seal, and con- of which is preparing, with the author's sisting of Messrs. Silvestre de Sacy, Qua- co-operation, by Dr. A. Dietzmann. tremère, Eugene Burnouf, and Fauriel, has been engaged, under the presidency Wigand is also printing, in Servian, the of M. Lebrun, director of the royal print- second and third volumes of a “Collecing office, in selectieg such manuscripts tion National Songs,” the first volume of as should be included in that collection. which was published at Pesth, in 1833. Among the works already fixed upon are1. The History of the Persian Mongols, Leske, of Darmstadt, has announced a by Raschid Eddin, edited, translated, and geographical and statistical account of accompanied with notes, and a memoir of Servia and its inhabitants, with the title of the life and works of the author, by M. “ Fürst Milosch und seine Serben,” by F. Quatremère. 2. The Proverbs of Meida- Possart. ni, Arabic text, translated and illustrated with notes by the same scholar. 3. The The second part of Dr. Edward EichShah Nameh, or Book of Kings, by Fir- wald's “ Reise auf dem Caspischen Meere dusi, translated by M. Mohl, a German. und in den Caucasus,” containing the hisThe first-mentioned of these works has torical account of the author's travels in just appeared in a folio volume. Some the Caucasus, has just appeared in an 8vo. others have already been fixed upon; for volume of 900 pages.
A new periodical work, devoted to the by Albert and Otto Vogel, and the smaller East, has been commenced by Dieterich, by Thompson. It is to be completed in of Göttingen, with the title of “ Zeitschrift about fifteen parts of eight sheets each; für die Kunde des Morgenlandes.” It will one to be published every four or at most be conducted by H. Ewald, C. von der every six weeks. Gabelentz, J. G. L. Kosegarten, Ch. Lassen, C. F. Neumann, E. Rödiger, and F. The German translation of Sismondi's Rückert, some of whose names at least "Inquiries concerning the Constitutions of are well known in this country as eminent Free Nations,” by Schäfer, has been prooriental scholars. A number of the work hibited in Saxony, in Prussia, and in will be published every two months. several other German States. Lamennais'
works, entitled “ Affaires de Rome,” is The society for the circulation of good also forbiden in Prussia, as well as all Catholic books at Vienna, has published German translations of it. The “Portthe first volume of a German translation folio," published in London, is likewise of Artaud's History of Pope Pius VII., re- proscribed in that country. viewed in our present number.
Voss of Leipzig has undertaken the pubMax & Co. of Breslau, have announced lication of the Collected Works of Im. that they have in the press a “History of manuel, to be edited by professor K. Philosophy, from Kant to the present time,'' Rosenkranz and F. W. Schubert, of Köby Dr, C. J. Braniss, in 2 vols. 8vo. nigsberg. They are to form 12 octavo
volumes, and to appear at the rate of four Brockhaus, of Leipzig, will speedily to six per year. publish "The Baths and Spas of Germany and Switzerland,” by K. C. Hille, illustra Günther, of Lissa, has announced a ted with maps and plans, in two pocket work which is likely to interest all military volumes.
men, by the title of “ The Dress of
the Soldier considered with relation to Professor H. Steffens is preparing for Health,” by Dr. J. C. H. Metzig, physician publication a collection of Gebirgs-Sa- to the Prussian army. It is said that this gen," in one 8vo. volume.
work will treat of various ailments arising
from faulty dress, and exhibit results A translation into German, of Lieute which would scarcely be suspected, in an nant-General Danilewskis's “ Account of 8vo. volume. the Campaign in France, in the Year 1814,” by Karl von Kotzebue, will soon ap Lucius, of Brunswick, advertises the pear, in two volumes 8vo., with 23 maps publication of “Fermer the Genius, a and plans.
novel, by L. Tieck, translated into Eng
lish, with philosophical notes, and an esA work illustrative of the “German War say on the author by Ferd. Markwort, anof Liberation," in 1813–15, is preparing. cient teacher of modern languages of the It will consist of from 8 to 12 numbers, College at Chartres.” each containing three engravings on steel, and one sheet of text, in royal 8vo.
Breitkopf and Härtel have given notice
that the “ Hauslexikon," or complete MaThe Verlag der Klassiker at Stuttgart nual of Domestic Economy for all classes, has commenced the publication of the will certainly be completed in eight voThousand and One Nights, now first trans- lumes, by Easter, 1838. The 36th part, lated into German from the Arabic origi- which concludes the sixth volume, has apnal text, by Dr. Gustav Weil, edited by peared. August Lewald, illustrated by 2000 engravings. The work is to appear in weekly The firm of Scheible, has published the numbers, at the low rate of one groschen first part of " Gemälile von Nord America (11d.) each, and to be completed in two in allen Beziehungen," by Tr. Bromme, to years.
form 3 volumes, and be illustrated with
maps and several hundred engravings; The same establishment has undertaken also, the first part of Beschreibung des the publication of “ Shakspeare's Dra- Konigreichs Sachsens,” to form 1 volume, matic Works,” in German and English, in with 200 views and maps; and the first three volumes, illustrated with 1000 scenes part of “ Beschreibung des Oesterreichisand vignettes, engraved on wood by the chen Kaiserstaates,” to be completed in two most eminent artists in Europe.
8vo. volumes, with 400 views engraved on
steel, and maps. The house of Baumgärtner, of Leipzig, has also commenced an illustrated edition A letter from Berlin states that Madame of our great dramatist, “printed from the von Arnim, author of “Briefwechsel Götext of the most renowned editors, under the's mit einem Kinde," reviewed about a the superintendance of Dr. J. G. Flügel,” year ago in this journal, has ventured with 270 engravings on wood; the larger | upon a very hazardous undertaking, no.