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ly placed on Dr. Priestley's reprefentations, even in cafes of the plaineft fact."
To determine whether this fevere conclufion be well founded, let the candid inquirer carefully attend not only to thefe letters, but to all which has lately been written on the fubject; particularly, to Priestley's hiftory of early opinions, and his letters to Dr. Horfeley, together with Dr. Horfeley's tracts and difquifitions, and the 2d volume of Jamiefon's excellent vindication.
The author concludes his letters by faying, "If I have advanced what is untrue, my ignorance or my wickedness can eafily be detected;" and by the following valuable quotation from Dr. Priestley's letters to Dr. Horseley;
"Above all, let TRUTH be our great object. Our readers will easily perceive whether it be fo or not: we fhall fooner deceive ourselves, than them. And leaft of all can we impofe upon that great Being, who is the God of truth, who fecretly guides all our purfuits, and whofe excellent purposes will be anfwered by them, with whatever views we may engage in them."
Κρίνει φάος το μελλον. ΕURIP.
The Principles of Eloquence, containing Hints to Public Speakers, by T. KNOX. Alfo, Jerningham's Efay on the Eloquence of the Pulpit in England, printed for B, and J. Homans, No. 50, Marlborough ftreet, Boston, 1805. David Carlile, printer, Cambridge freet.
In the first part, or principles of eloquence, are the following particulars worthy the attention of public fpeakers.
OF SPEAKING. How to make yourself heard without any difficulty; how to ftrengthen the voice. Faultering; how to get rid of it. Of bellow
ing, or speaking too loud; to be avoided. Mumbling, or speaking too much to yourself; to be corrected. The voice to be made foft, and agreeable to the ear. Never fpit or hem while speaking, Of varying the voice. How to cure yourself of a monotonoustone. Rules for varying the voice. To great a volubility to be avoided. Speaking too flow. To vary the voice according to the subject-according to the paffions. Efteem or admiration, how to exprefs them. Contempt, how to exprefs it by the voice. A grievance complained of, how to be expreffed. Exordium, Narration, Confutation, and Peroration, what tone to be used. FIGURES OF RHETORICK,
What tone to be used in speaking fome of them, Exclamation, Swearing, Profopopoeia, Apoftrophe, Epimone, Parrhefiæ, Climax, Antithefis. Breath, how to manage it; long breath neceffary; how to acquire it. Claufes of a period; how to manage them. Short periods; paufes after them different from thofe after long ones. Subfequent period lower, than the clofe of the preceding one. Period that requires great force of voice. How to manage the fentences immediately preceding. Pronuncia tion. To keep your voice up to the end of a fentence. ACTION.
Hints refpecting action to thofe, who wish to fpeak gracefully in publick. How to use the hands in action. Ufe no action at the beginning of your fpeech. Never clap your hands. Action mostly with the right hand instances where the left alone may be used. To place the right hand on the breaft: if left handed how to manage. Action from the left ta the right. When action advifa
ble, to begin it when you begin to fpeak. Motion of your hands to fuit the thing spoken of. Action muft fuit the figures ufed. hands feldom or never higher than the eyes. Your arms not to be ftretched out fideways from your body; but a certain distance. Raife your hand in swearing, exclamation, &c. Not to use too much action. Some actions not to be attempted by the hands. When you talk for another perfon, what action to use. Perfon; how it ought to be managed. The head; the face; the eyes, how to regulate their motion. How to draw tears from your own, as well as your auditor's eyes. Of lifting up your eyes, or cafting them down. How to manage the brows, mouth, lips, fhoulders.
These rules are juft, and written in a perfpicuous and laconick ftyle. A fingle example may be fufficient.
Period that requires great force of voice. How to manage the fentences immediately preceding." "When you have a period to pronounce, that requires a great elevation of the tone you must moderate and manage your voice with care upon those periods, that just precede it; left by employing the whole force of it upon thefe, you exhaust yourself, and exprefs this languidly, which requires more vigor and vehemence. An Effay on the Eloquence of the Pulpit in England. This Effay, written in England, and adapted to the state of pulpit oratory in that kingdom, may perhaps lofe fome degree of its pertinency and force, when read in this country; but fo fimilar are the defects of chriftian eloquence in the two countries; fo juft are the opinjons in the effay, and fo perfuafively are they expreffed, as to render it valuable to every clergyman in New England. No man we truft can read the firft fentences without being ftrongly impressed.
The effects produced by the eloquence of Gregory, Nizianzen and others are mentioned; and several methods are fuggefted to give variety, and intereft, and effect to a gospel fermon; as an appropriate text, the introduction of a ftriking anecdote, seizing fome local circumftance, an abrupt diverfion of the difcourfe to another object, clear, concise, and forcible reafoning, addrefied to the heart, and inftances of fortitude, not ftamped with the image of religion, to mark its spurious features.
The author wishes for one re
him into the fociety of the apoftles? Shall I affociate him with the army of among the confeffors? Where, where the martyrs? Shall I affign to him a feat fhall I place our tutelary faint?
As he pronounced these words a man fuddenly cried out," Rev Father, as you appear to be at a lols how to dif if you pleafe, in my feat, for I am gopofe of your faint, you may place him, ing away." "This indecorous repri mand was of more service to the declamatory panegyrift, than the perufal of Quintilian's inftitutes.
BRITISH AND FOREIGN BIBLE SOCIETY.
Ar a numerous and respectable meeting, held at the London Tavern, March 7, 1804, Granville Sharp, Efq. in the chair; a fociety was formed for the fole and exclufive purpose of promoting the irculation of the Holy Scriptures in the principal living languages. The following is an outline of the plan of the fociety.
"1. A fociety fhall be formed, with this defignation: THE BRITISH AND FOREIGN BIBLE SOCIETY; of which the fole object fhall be to encourage a wider difperfion of the Holy Scriptures.
"2. This fociety fhall add its endeavours to thofe employed by other focieties for circulating the fcriptures through the British dominions; and fhall also, according to its ability, extend its influence to other countries, whether chriftian, mohammedan, or pagan.
3. Each fubfcriber of one guinea annually, shall be a member.
"4. Each subscriber of twenty pounds, at one time, shall be a member for life. A fubfcriber of five guineas per annum, hall be a governor; and a subscriber
The ftyle of this effay is not without fome faults; but is fprightly and entertaining. The lovers of orthodoxy with it more diftinguishing; but it ar dently recommends warm and pathetick preaching, which is a valuable part of the Pulpit Ora tor. The volume we doubt not will be useful to all publick fpeakers, whofe habits are unconquerably fixed.
In the object propofed by this fociety, every fincere chriftian of every name, may cordially and confiftently unite. A liberal fubfcription has already begun, which amounted in a few days to about one thousand pounds.
It gives us much pleasure, say the editors of the Chriflian Obferver, (Jan. 1805) toftate, that a gentleman well known in the republick of letters, and who has effentially ferved the caufe of religion by his writings, has prefented, to The Britifs and foreign Bible Society, a very val uable collection of the Holy Scriptures in foreign languages, which he has been employed for many years in forming. We trust that his example will stimulate other gentlemen who may be poffeffed of copies of the bible in foreign languages to make fimilar difpofitions; a circumftance, which would tend greatly to facilitate the benevolent defigns of this important institution.
At a fubfequent general meeting, held at the London Tavern, May 2d, 1804, a report of the committee was read, purporting that they had been occupied in opening communications with various perfons of influence in different parts of the United Kingdom and of the Continent, for the purpose of obtaining important intelligence, of augmenting the funds of the fociety, and otherwife promoting its interefts. A plan of the fociety was then unanimoufly adopted. The chief refolutions, differing from those given above, were the following:
"The committee shall confift of thirty fix laymen; of whom twenty four who fhall have moft frequently attended, fhall be eligible for reelection for the enfuing year. Six of the committee fhall be foreigners refident in London or its vicinity; half the remainder shall be members of the church of England; and the other half members of other denominations of chriftians.
Every clergyman and diffenting minifter who is a member of the fociety, fhall be entitled to attend and vote at all meetings of the committee.
"The treafurer and fecretaries for the time being, fhall be confidered as members of the committee.
"No perfon deriving any emolument or profit from the fociety, fhall be entitled to fit or vote in the committee.
"The committee fhall conduct the bufiness of the fociety; appoint all offiVol. I. No. 3.
THIS fociety was inftituted in the year 1800, by members of the established church, and is conducted in ftrict conformity to her doctrines and discipline. It was inftituted not with the defign of interfering with other focieties, embarked in the fame cause, but of cooperating with them. While, therefore, the society for promoting chriflian knowledge has confined its miffionary exertions to a part of the eastern dominions, where they now employ feveral excellent Lutheran minifters; and while the fociety for the propagation of the gfpel in foreign parts has extended its labours chiefly to the British plantations in North America, it appeared, that there was abundant room for the prefent inftitution, the precife object of which is expreffed in the title.
No English clergymen having engag ed themselves to the fociety as miffionaries, the committee opened a correfpondence with the continent, where they
procured two young men, who, after a courfe of previous training, having received ordination in the Lutheran church were accepted as miflionaries by the fociety. Their names are Melchior Bennier, a German, and Peter Hartwig, a Pruffian.
Thefe millionaries refided fome time in England, with a view of perfecting themselves in the English language; and acquiring alfo, by means of fome African youths, educating in England, the rudiments of the Soofoo language, which is fpoken over a confiderable portion of the continent of Africa; and in which, by the exertions of the Rev. Mr. Brunton, the fociety has already been enabled to print fome uteful tracts. This laft mentioned circumftance, together with the vicinity of the Soofoo country to Sierra Leone, determined the fociety to appoint the flation of thefe millionaries among the Soofoos: in April, 1804, after a fuitable addrefs had been delivered to them, they embarked on board a veffel for Sierra Leone, one of them, (Mr. Hartwig) having previously married with the confent of the fociety.
vine authority. This important fervice has been achieved in the most fatiffactory manner, by one of their highly refpected members.
The treaty of peace between the two countries having renewed the means of perfonal intercourfe, it was concluded, that a deputation to France was of great importance, not only in determining on the best mode of printing and circulating the New Testament and the ef fay, but alfo in procuring fuch information on the state of rel gion in that country, as would enable the fociety to form a judgment on the best means of promoting the interefts of true religion there. The refult of this vifit is generally known, and has produced a hope that the proteftant cause may foon rise from its ruins. The directors have now the pleasure to announce, that the New Teftament, the effay, the affembly's catechifm, and fome tracts, are printed, and now in circulation in France, and will fhortly be fo in Italy The neceflity of publishing the scriptures in thofe countries is proved, from the great difficulty which the deputation found in procuring a fingle copy of them at Paris; and they are informed that this is equally the cafe in Italy.
The deputation having fully afcertained that an energetick and evangelical miniftry would be likely to be well attended and well fupported in France, they conceived that the establishment of a proteftant church at Paris would be productive of the most beneficial effects. The Rev. Mr. Tracy, who was then there, was requested to continue on the fpot, to fuperintend the publications, and to make inquiries, respecting a fuitable church. Information has been obtained, which proves the almoft unlimited extent in which the fcriptures and proteftant writings may be circulated.* At Besencon, in the fouth, and at Arras, in the northi, where till lately, no proteftants were to be found, applications for proteftant ministers and churches have been made, and figned by 12,000 perfons at the former place, and nearly as many at the latter; and although many churches have already been given to the proteftants, 900 congregations arc ftill deflitute, both of churches and paftors. Even in Belgium, the fame difpofition appears: