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if the scholar reflects for a moment on the even where the phrase is not metaphysical, superior power of the German language, he appears in every page of the German trans. will not be surprised that such should be the lation; and for this the English translator result. The opinion of Wieland on this sub. has nothing to give but some pretiy, poetical ject we have given in a note below, and his common-place, or he must draw the eneropinion so entirely coincides with our own, getic compound out into a long and weak that we have very little to add to it. We periphrasis. It deserves to be remarked shall merely direct attention to one circum. also, how much the German richness in di. stance not expressly alluded to by Wieland, minutiveness affects the beauty of poetical viz. “ thai Knebel is not only more clear in language. In explaining the Anaxagorean the difficult passages of his author, but he is doctrine of Homcorneria (book i.), Knebel more pregnant in all the metaphysical passa. has in this respect far the advantage of his ges.”

.” 'Phis the richness of his language bas original. Wiihin the space of a few lines done for him, and it is doubiless an improve. we have Knöchlein," and " Tröpflein," and ment upon the original, without leading in “ Pünktchen,” and Fünkchen," all most ex. any respects to a change in its essential pressive and most appropriate. But it is in character. The remark of Wieland about a metaphysical language chiefly that German “ beautiful periphrasis'' is all-important, and poetry so far transcends the capacityof every most heartily do we coincide with it. Some other; and, for, example, by the skiltul use men in translating Æschylus would make of the two roots“ U; and “ Grund," and him as smooth as Gray, and as full of point their compounds, Knebel has been enabled as Pope. This is 10 change Mirabeau into Sir to produce a total effect in his translation Robert Peel, or something yet more absurd. which we miss even in Lucretius. The sim. The system of improving a rough old Roman mortal seeds” of Creech is a poor surrogate by the smoothness of modern rhymes, and for the dauernder Grundstoffof Knebel, plastering over a granite rock with the gold. and even the “æterna materies” of Lucretius leaf of drawing-room versification, is too is weak. But what shall we say to “Urstoff,common among our translators, and alto. and “ Urelemente,” and “ Uranfänge," and gether to be reprobated. But it is never Uranfängliche Theile der Dinge," and theless possible in some accessory minutiæ Ursprungstheile,and Urkraft,” and to improve upon an original, without sinning Uruesen," and the numberless other mem. against the integrity of his natural character. bers of the family of Ur in which the German A translation of Lucretius into Greek by an language abounds? And does not Busby's ancient Epicurenn poet, if well executed, “senseless seeds' appear senseless when set would certainly, so far as philosophical lan- against " die blinded Körper des Urstoffs," guage went, have been a great improvement which Knebel has so accurately at once and upon the original, and yet the rude, rough so happily given for the “primordia cæcagrandeur of the Lucretian style might have of Lucrerius. Drummond has here been preserved. Even so in the German less atoms,” which is perhaps better than translation, the language necessarily brings seeds. Creech has “unseen atoms,” which with it a deeper pregnancy of philosophical is perfectly consis'ent with the philosophy of expression, and yet the character of the poet Lucretius, for he speaks of the atoms as in. remains unchanged. The fine swell of the visible; but does not "cæcus" seem to imply compound words, (e. g. in the line,

unseeing” rather than "unseen ;" and, in

the doubtful meaning of a peculiar phrase, is Das schiff. tragende Meer, und die früchte-it not alwavs better to leave it as it is, than, gebärende Erde,"

by translation, to smuggle in perhaps a false easy ; but to make a translation, such as yours less to show in detail the superiority of the

commentary upon it? But it would be end. appears to me to be, which, with conscientious accuracy, characteristic truth, and sure taste, German translation in all points of metaunites the freedom and ease of an original com- physical language. Besides the compounds position, is a work of no common merit. notwithstanding your faithfulness, you have

of Ur just mentioned, we have in the first

book several in one thing certainly improved upon the origi

pregnant compounds ofGrundnal. You are far more clear and intelligible in such as GrundelementGrundursache" the difficult passages. Lucretius had to work " Grundmalerie”—“ Grundkrasi---besides with a hard and knotly language, and in the "Grundstof" mentioned before, and that ex• Here you have immeasurably the advantage of cellent plural Stoffe." ditticult abstractions of the Epicurean philosophy. cellent word " Sloff"? itself

, and its no less exhim, and let me add that, when all commentary It is not our intention to enter minutely is vain, a certain happy divination seems to have into the merits of Knebel's translation. That accompanied and enabled you to penetrate the mysteries of the Epicurean philosophy, and to would require a separate article. We may, evolve the true meaning of your author.” however, be allowed to test one very simple




passage, (and it is not a passage studiously

DRUMMOND. sought out for the purpose of panegyrizing - And yet he sung in never-dying strains Knebel,) as it occurs in some of the most no. Of night's dark realms and Acherusian fanes, ted translations. Among the English trans. Where nor our bodies nor our souls can lations we have not seen Evelyn's andGood's.


But shades alone of wonderous paleness LUCRETIUS.-Book i. p. 121.


Whence to his fancy Homer's sceptre rose, « Etsi præterea tamen esse Acherusia templa Immortal bard! th' effusion of his woes Ennius æternis exponit versibus edens, Down his pale cheeks a briny torrent ranQuo neque permanent animæ neque corpora Rapt as he sung the universal plan.”

nostra, Sed quædam simulacra modis pallentia

miris; Now this seems, and actually is, a very Unde sibi exortam, semper florentis Homeri easy passage, so far as the gross scope of Commemorat speciem lacrymas effundere

the meaning is concerned. But it is in his salsas

fine and delicate touches that the hand of a Cæpisse, et rerum naturam expandere dictis.”

naster is discerned ; and here we think KNEBEL.

Knebel has carried off the prize from all his “ Dennoch gedenket auch er in seinen unster. competitors. In the first place, with regard blichen Versen

to the “ Acherusia templa,” unless our La. Acherusischer Räume, wohin nicht Körper tinity sadly deceives us, Knebel is right in noch Geist dringt ;

keeping to the general expression “ Raüm2," Sondern nur Schattengebilde von bleichem instead of giving us the particular idea of schaurigen Ansehn.

a modern temple built with hands. The Dorther, sey, wie er sagt, des ewig blühenden

augurs, as every school-boy knows, used to Homerus

the regions of the heavens "templa," Schaltengestalt ihm erschienen, die heisse Thränen vergossen,

and this is exactly what the Germans express Und ihm habe der Dinge Natur in Worten by Himmelsraüme." It seems extremely eröffnet."

doubtful whether Lucretius uses templa'

here in any other sense than this ; and in ano. MARCHETTI.

ther passage in the same book, where the • Bench'ei nei dotti versi affermi ancora

phrase, "cæli tonitralia templa" occurs, we Che sulle sponde d' Acheronte s' erge.

rather think Knebel is again right in transla. Un Tempio sacro agli infernali Dei, ting “Des Himmels Donnergewölbe.At Ove non l' alme, o i corpi nostri stanno all events, Creech's " stately palaces" is Ma certi simulacri in ammirande

something far too definite (besides not being Guise pallid' in velto, e quivi narra

true) for the Latin " templa." Marchetti Dell' immortale Omero essergli apparsa

ruins the whole mythology of the passage, by L'imagine piangendo, e di Natura A lui svelardo i piu riposti arcani."

converting it into “a temple sacred to the

infernal gods;" and if Knebel be right, as CRCECH.

we imagine both philology and mythology “Though he in lasting numbers does express teach, then Busby and Drummond must

But the most nice distinc. The stately Acherusian palaces, Which neither soul nor body e'er invades,

tions follow. We have three “anima," But certain pale and melancholy shades;

* simulacrum," and "species ;-) the two From whence he saw old Homer's ghost latter expressions the same thing, and the arise,

former a different thing. All the transla. An august shade! down from whose reverend tors, except Busby, have the common sense

eyes, While his learned tongue Nature's great body” expressed by" anima" and "cor.

to retain the natural opposition of " soul” and secrets told, Whole streams of tears in mighty numbers pus;" Busby wishing, as he often does, to rolled.

take a flight above the vulgar, " has given us

“ fitting ghost," and thereby confounded all Busby.

the nice distinctions of the original. The “ Wild Acheron in never-dying lays,

word " simulacra” and “ species," answer. And the Acherusian temples, he displays. ing to the Greek “ cidwdov," are very difficult His daring strains those unknown realms to render in modern phrase. 6 Shade" is disclose

the best and perhaps the only word that Where not the flitting ghost, nor body, goes, we have ; for “ ghost" (which Creech But certain pallid shades; from thence he

uses) is full of modern associations, and Great Homer's form arise with sacred awe ; has far too much of the German “ Ge. August he stood-big tears began to flow spenst in its constitution. The Barba. While Nature's secrets in his bosom glow." rous Gothic ideas which the word "Ge. VOL. XX.


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spenstexpresses, ought by all means to who might not know it that under the name be kept out of a classical picture; but Drum. of Knebel one of those pure and elevated mond, as if wishing to try how far a modern spirits has lived and died upon German coloring may be allowed 10 wipe out the ground, whose existence is an honor to our clear outlines of an ancient conception, has nature, and the pledge of his highest antici. given us the monstrous line-

pations. Germany has, indeed, many such

spirits to boast of; but Karl ven Knebel is, “Whence to his fancy Homer's spectre rose.'

for many reasons, particularly deserving of in which their is a double error. Spectre” our study. He does not indeed, like his own is the very worst word that could have been Epicurus, pilot our roving flight “ extra flamchosen ; and then the solemn apparition is mantia mænia mundi ;” nor, like Schelling, evaporated into a mere whim or fancy, very pretended to explain the philosophy of the becoming in a modern Rationalist, but alto. absolute ; nor, like Fichte, to create Deity gether out of place in an ancient poet. Mar- out of the omnipotence of the Ego ; nor, chetti has kepi clear of this barbarous confu. like Hegel, to show how, in the course of sion of ancient and modern ideas, by the time, the Supreme Being arrives at a conhappy resemblance which his language bears sciouness of himself; nor, like Kant, how to ihe antique. “Simulacro” and ** Imagine" | the Categorical Imperative has mighty influ. are free from the objections that lie against ence to freeze every feeling that animates "ghost” and “spectre.' Busby has given the bosom, except the one emotion of reve

form,” which we think bald in English. rence to the law; but he is merely a simple. The German alone could give us two preg. minded man, who stands upon the solid earth nant words, far more expressive than our where Providence has placed him, and looks own “shade," both the same in one sense, round upon the many colors of this world of and yet different, Schattengestaltand light with an observant eye and a cheer. Schaltengebild." Nothing could be better ful heart. He is so thankful for the than this.

gift of existence that he does not This passage, short as it is, supplies us venture, in moments of quiet enjoyment with another remark. Creech, wishing to of the present, to hope for what seems beautify, as Weiland would say, or rather to to be part of the universal creed of humani. sublimify, the grief of Homer, gives us the ty—the separate existence of the soul in a sounding lines

more happy futurity. Such scepticism is

certainly amiable, even when its doubts are un. " An august shade! down from whose rever- founded. At all evenis Knebel knew-and Whole streams of tears in mighty numbers we all know to our consolation—that the im. rolled"

mortality of the soul does not depend upon

our believing it, or upon our disbelieving it, a piece of bombastical bad taste, of which but upon the will of God. This ought to be there is not a trace in the simple p!ırase of enough for every pious philosopher. Haply Lucre!ius, who merely says that " the shape the spirit of Knebel now wanders in pure of the ever flourishing Ilomer arose and regions, no longer requiring any arguments wept salt tears." In this chaste simplicity he to convince it of immortality; and if so, he has been followed only by Knebel and Mar. must now perceive fully the folly of men chetli. The name of Homer blows up all tormenting ihemselves, in this imperfect state, the three Englishmen into a poetic exclama. with the discussion of questions, however im. tion of “august,', " immortal,” or such like. portant, the solution of which depends not Busby is fiiled " with sacred awe;" big tears upon their reason), but upon the Providence (though not quite so large as Creech's rivers) of God. They to whom Christianity does begin to flow, and

not give an assurance of life and immor. “Nature's secrets in his bosom glow.”

tality," sufficient to dispel all lurking doubts

and suspicions on so fathomless a subject, This last line, lke many of Busby's fine have only to rely, with cheerful resignation, things is perfect absurdity; for Lucretius had on the wise disposal of the Supreme Being. no occasion to say that the love of nature was If we take care to do right here, there can be glowing secretly in Homer's bosom, (this he no doubt that God will do right there. Mean. might have supposed in the case of a poet,) while, let us cherish kindly the memory of all bui he was saying that nature's secrets came our great and good men, for they aré - the out of Homer's mouth for the instruction of salt of the earth;" and, by their own exist. Ennius.

ence and their own actions, furnish us with a And now our task is ended ; a short course proof of the higher destination of the human hastily run over, but sufficient for our pur. soul, greater perhaps than all the objections pose, which was merely this,- to tell those which their anxious scepšicism can raise

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against it. We have little doubt, indeed, that surer and more rapid step in the career of
the name of Karl von Knebel will live not improvement.
only in Germany, but in Europe ; were it Amongst the questions most interesting to
only by thai fragment of his being, the trans. humanity which are chiefly agitated at pre-
lation of Lucretius. But the works of great sent, we may specify particulariy such as re-
men are not like pictures in a picture gallery, late to the condition of those who form the
hung up one here and one there, accessory most numerous class in every society, such
and adventitious; they are like leaves of a as the policy of a legal provision for the poor,
plant, all parts of one beautiful organization. commerce and industry, popular education,
And we are much deceived if Knebel be not the wages of labor, the prices of the neces.
one of those plants, which it is impossible to saries of life, the employments of the labor.
examine, even in the minutest leas, without ing classes, the amount of property possessed
feeling a desire to trace to the root the whole by them, savings' banks, and many other
process of its metamorphosis.

particulars which will suggest themselves to
all who take an interest in the progress of
human improvement.

That there is a progressive improvement in the organization of society throughout Europe, we think few will be found to ques.

tion, and among the many indubitable proofs Art. II.-1. Guida dell' Educatore, foglio of this cheering fact, which we derive from

mensuale, compilato da Raffaello Lam- the advance of science, the ameliora!ion of bruschini. Firenze, 1837.

laws, the obliteration of prejudices and of 2. Rapporto presentato dai Segretarj alla barbarous animosities, as nations become

Società per la diffusione del metodo di better acquainted,—no circumstance appears reciproco insegnamento, al principio dell' to us more striking, none fraught with more anno 1836. (Not published.)

certainty of happiness to mankind, than that 3. Terzo Rapporto sopra gli Asili infantili conviction of the supreme importance of di Firenze. 1837.

popular education, which is now awakening 4. Rapporto e Regolamenti degli Asili in. on all sides. For the progress of the higher fantili di Carità per le Femmine in Li- sciences, and the more ornamental branches 1836.

of education, our forefathers have made 5. Intorno alla Fondazione, ed allo Stato magnificent provision ; but it is chiefly to

attuale, degli Asili di Carità per l'Infan. the present century that must be awarded zia, in Milano. Milano, 1837.

the honor of endeavoring to render instruc.

tion a universal blessing, and to adapt it to The neighboring countries of Europe, which elevate the moral character and to improve have become in many respects so familiar the happiness and comfort of the humnblest to us during above twenty years of peace members of society. In our own country, and of increasing intercourse, still present a however, we may hitherto boast more of wide field for important researches to those isolated efforts and experiments than of the who, not content with observing only the actual establishment of a well.proportioned outward aspect of manners or of nature, or system of popular education, and for us of enjoying the treasures of art which they may this generation has been reserved the glori. coniain, will penetrate beneath the surface ous task of laying the foundations, at least, of and investigate their social condition. There an cdifice, commensurate with the just de. are many important questions which are mands of the most numerous classes of our now forcing themselves, in a greater or less countrymen. In this position of things, any degree, on the attention of all the nations information becomes valuable as to the ex. composing the grea: European family, and ertions making in foreign countries towards the traveller who will collect accurate infor- the attainment of the same object, in order mation as 10 the progress which different that the example and experience of other countries have made in their solution, may nations may encourage and direct us, in be assured that he is spending his time in a a work of such magnitude and importance. manner not unprofitable to his own country, In a former Number we gave an account and making a valuable contribution to the of the state of elementary instruction in Ger. materials of sound legislation. Circum many. From Switzerland, where perhaps stances have developed different institutions, everything relating to popular · education as Nature has distributed various products may be best studied, we hope soon to have in different countries, and each, by availing some interesting details in a report which iiself of the experience of its neighbors, may will shortly be made on the subject to the avoid many mistakes, and advance with a French government by M. Dumont, who has


been travelling there for that purpose during 200fr. the department may be called upon the past summer. Had an individual been by the communes within it which are defi. selected for this duty better acquainted with cient, 10 distribute among them as much as German, the language of the majority of the two centimes for every franc of government inhabitants of that country, his task would taxes. Should any deficiency yet reinain perhaps have been more satisfactorily exe. unprovided for, it is made up from the public cuted. The system established in France, revenue. As to the other portion of the upon the information hastily collected on that master's salary, viz. that contributed by the subject by Baron Cousin, in his rapid journey scholars, it is fixed by the conseil municipal through Germany, has been so short a time of the commune. This conseil may divide in operation, that the intentions of M. Guizot the scholars into classes, paying different (at that time minister of public instruction), sums for their instruction, and may even rather than the practical effect of the mea. allow some children of the poorest inhabi. sure, comprise all that is yet to be known on tants to frequent the school gratuitously. the subject.

This power is found to require to be more The law which first established one uni. strictly limited, since in places where a pre. form system for the elementary education of judice exists against education, as is not rare the whole of the lower orders in France bears in France, the commune, by allowing an undate July, 1833. By this law it is provided, due number of children to be educated gratis, that within six years from that date, every attempt to take back with one hand the 200fr. one of the 37,263 communes into which which they have been obliged to give with France is divided must posses at least one the other. From these two sources the elementary school (école primaire).* To. average salary of a master-was stated to us wards those built within the six years the to be in the south of France about 400fr. a state furnishes one-third of the expense. The year (161.), a sum utterly insufficient to semanagement of these schools is in the hands cure the services of a person competent for of a committee of the commune (comité com- so important an office, or to enable him io munale), consisting of three or four inhabi. support the station in which the law ranks tants, of whom the mayor, the priest, or the him as equal to the mayor and the parish Protestant pasteur, if there be one, are mem- priest. bers ex officio, the others being appointed by In order to procure a supply of masters. the committee of arrondissement. This latter properly prepared, a school for their educa. committee has a velo upon the appointment tion (école normale) is established in each of the schoolmaster (instituteur) selected by department; but the demand as yet exceeds the communal committee. This superior what these schools can furnish, ihat for the committee consists of those who have been department of Vaucluse, for instance, not chosen by the arrondissement as representa. producing above ten a year. Those intend. tives in the conseil général du département, ed for masters remain two years at these and of one schoolmaster named by the sous. establishments, to which a school for exer. préfet. The master's salary arises from cising them in the practice of teaching two sources, being partly fixed, of which the (école d'application) is attached. In order minimum is 200fr. (about 81.) a year, besides to induce young men to adopt this profession, which each scholar pays something monthly. those who engage to serve as masters in an The commune is obliged by law to furnish école primaire for ten years are exempted lodging for the schoolmaster and his family, from conscription for the army. and if it cannot afford the whole of the fixed The children are admitied to primary salary, it must contribute towards it at least schools at six years of age, but the irregulari. three centimes for every franc of taxes which ty of their attendance is frequently such as it pays to the government. To complete the to cause them to forget, during the months

that they are absent, all they have previous. * In 1830, only 22,992 communes possessed ly learned. Some persons see no other reof the communes were without any. - Degerando, medy for this than the German system of Report to the Society of Public Instruction. making it obligatory on the parents to send

In 1837, amongst 326,298 young men of all them, from the age of six to ten, without in. elasses included in the list of those of proper age terruption. All that has been heretofore for the conscription for the French army, 45-59 stated applies to boys' schools only, it having write. The year before, the proportion of unin- been found impossible to oblige the comstructed was nearly the same, viz. 45 84 per ceni. munes to furnish the expenses of those for To remedy this deficiency, two regimental girls also. To encourage those which are commissioned officers, are established in each disposed to afford education to girls, the goregiment.-- See Journal de l'Instruction Publique, vernment offers half the expenses of these for May 21, 1837.

Tschools. It was the wish «f the government,

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