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1833.]

SERGEANT'S EULOGY ON CHARLES CARROLL.

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Union emboldened our countrymen to enter upon cessful purpose, looking beyond the generation which the hazardous conflict. Union enabled them to carry effects it, seems to find its chief inducement in the it triumphantly through. When Washington left the accumulation of blessings for future ages. The way of hall of Congress in June, 1775, unanimously elected the patriot then, though it may be rugged and toil. to command the armies of our country, he carried with some, and surrounded with many dangers, is cheerful him a commission from “the delegates of the United and onward. Animated by the encouraging counteColonies.” Supported," to use his own words, “by nance and support of his countrymen, he has also the a confidence in the rectitude of our cause, the support approbation of his own conscience, and can appeal of the supreme power of the Union, and the patronage with confidence to the protection and favour of Heaven. of Heaven,” he drew his sword in the name and the And when his labours are ended, he retires with the feelservices of the Union; and when, having accomplished ings of satisfaction which belong to one who has been a the glorious purpose for which he had taken the field, benefactor of mankind, and with the soothing hope-it be restored that sword to its scabbard, he returned his cannot be called an infirmity—that his memory will be commission, in December, 1783, to the representatives cherished with kindness by a grateful posterity, and his of the sovereignty of the Union-to" the United States example be a guide to the footsteps of those who may in Congress assembled,” then acknowledged by the come after him to take charge of the destinies of his whole world to be a sovereign and independent nation. country,

When, in the process of time, the articles of confed- The history of the blessings dispensed to our couneration were found to be insufficient, and especially try and to the first Congress, is not yet complete. It when it was seen that they did not adequately secure seems, indeed, as if that era in our annals had been the Union, the people of the United States, in the same permitted by a gracious Providence to be crowned with spirit which from their first existence as a people had every distinction that could command admiration and governed and guided their feelings and their councils, respect, or endear its memory to the ages that were to framed the present Constitution of the United States, come. In other revolutions, of any continuance, it has declaring its first object to be “ to form a more perfect been remarked, that those who began the work have Union."

generally fallen victims to the fury of the storm they In Union, we have found safety, prosperity, and had been instrumental in raising. Even when they have honor. With it, we have enjoyed the fullest measure escaped with their lives, they have generally lost their of the blessings of independence and freedom. By it, popularity and their power, and often have been doom. we are the heirs of the fame of our ancestors, which ed not only to suffer degradation themselves, but to equally enriches us all, and partake of the common witness also the destruction of the hopes they had con. glory of being the countrymen of those who have earn ceived for the cause which incited them to action. We ed unfading renown. Union is connected with every are not surprised at this. When we consider the nature eventful period in our history-it is inscribed upon of man and his passions--the nature of faction, its every glorious achievement in our annals-it is the headlong rage,' and its mad inconstancy-hou, when very condition of our existence as a nation—it is the the public feeling is highly wrought, fits of blind concondition upon which we hold whatever we venerate fidence are rapidly succeeded by fits of equally blind in the past, whatever we enjoy in the present, and hatred and suspicion-how, in moments of disappoint. whatever we hope in the future for ourselves and our ment, vengeance seeks for objects upon which to inchildren. Union is our country. We have never known dulge itself-how, in the midst of excitement, irregu. another. Without it-the vision of patriotism cannot lar ambition, with the mask of patriotism, is prowling endure the contemplation of such a scene, but turns about to take advantage of men's weakness, and lurk. from it with dismay and horror--without it, we may ing treason watches its occasions to inflict a woundhave a spot to live upon, a place to breathe in, com how too, the hand becomes familiar with the sword, forts perhaps even greater than we deserve—but we and how the sword, wielded by a strong arm, is apt to cannot have that country which has been the object make itself the arbiter, and with one confounded blow, of our affections and respect-that glorious country, under pretence of terminating the reign of disorder, to which our fathers redeemed from bondage and raised crush the hopes of freedom by silencing its advocatesup to be the admiration of the world—that country by when we consider these things, and consider too that which we are associated with the heroes and sages of the struggle for our independence lasted nearly ten the Revolution, and are enabled to say, that we are the years-language is too feeble to express the emotioris countrymen of Washington and Franklin--that coun- we feel of astonishment, and gratitude, and virtuous try, which makes us partakers of the favours and bles. exultation, when we find that the patriots who began sings youchsafed to her in such rich abundance, by a the revolution were those who carried it through. gracious Providence, in all the times that are past. We Some of them, as we have seen, died before its termimay have another-but never, never, never, such an nation. But, not one of them perished in any strife one as God in his goodness has given us in the day of with his countrymen—not one of them lost the confi. our fathers.

dence of his country, nor did one ever desert her inter. That such a representative body was assembled as ests, or even incur the suspicion of want of zeal in her the one our thoughts have been directed to, must be service. Of all indeed, who were intrusted in any de. ascribed to the character of the people by whom they partment, there was but one who proved a traitor. were selected. Wisdom and virtue in the representa. With that solitary exception of a miserable profligate, tive, where the choice is free, are an argument of whose name has become synonymous with infamy, and wisdom and virtue in those by whom he is chosen. Nor unworthy to be mentioned, all, who were living, lived is this all. As the measures which in succession were with honour. All who were dead, slept in honoured adopted by Congress, derived their support from the graves. One radiant light shone upon them all, when people, and that support was cheerfully granted, at the voices, which in the beginning had joined in sup. whatever cost, it cannot be but that the same sentiments plication for aid and favour in the hour of trial, ascend. wh ch governed the proceedings of the public councils, ed together, at the end, in praises and thanksgiving to reigoed also in the hearts of the people, and reigned Him who had given the victory. with undivided sway. Happy, indeed, must they be Still the aggregate of their felicity is not fully dis. esteemed, whose fortunate lot it is to act in times when closed. Something remains yet to be said, to exhibit one great overruling purpose governs all desires, and the full measure of the reward of their patriotic wis. that one purpose such as justice and patriotism can dom and constancy. Many of them were permitted to warmly espouse. Happier still are they who are ena- live, as it were, with their posterity-to enter with them bled to accomplish what justice and patriotism command into the enjoyment of the fruits of their toils--to witthem to undertake. Happiest of all, when this suc- ness the growth of their country, and the expanding influence of her free institutions and to receive the struction, something entering into our very organizaunaffected homage of the increasing millions made hap- tion, and made a part of our nature, so as to determine py by their patriotic labours. How they were honoured, instinctively all our conduct in relation to our country. i need not tell you. How they were confided in, you Nothing else will secure to us the continuance of the well know. Of the members of that Congress, six were blessings we enjoy. Without it, the forms of free go. members of the convention which formed the present vernment may be but a dead letter. Look at our near. Constitution of the United States. Two were Presi- est neighbor, a nation, which, like our own, has passed denis of the United States. One was Vice President, from a colonial state to independence, and framed for and many others were appointed to stations of the herself a constitution as nearly as possible resembling highest trust and confidence. Their country never that under which we are in the possession of peace and grow weary of exhibiting her grateful sense of their freedom. Can you discern in her present condition any services and their virtues.

thing which deserves to be called the working of a free Shall we here conclude this slight and imperfect constitution? At this very moment, the question of who sketch of the extraordinary happiness, which was the shall wield the power of the State, is depending not reward of these illustrious men? One yet remains, upon the result of an election by the citizens, but upon greater than all the rest. They lived in the faith, and the issue of battles between contending armies. The they were permitted to die in the persuasion, that what sword, instead of the ballot box, is again to decide the ever other chastisement might befall their beloved controversy, as it has done twice within the last five country, she was not doomed to suffer the affliction of years. disunion. The father of his country, in the inestima. How different has been the lot of that happy counble legacy of advice and instruction, he bequeathed to try which we are permitted to call our own. The us when he took leave of public employment, dwelt sword has never been drawn in it, but against a comwith parental solicitude upon the vital topic of union. mon, public enemy. Wherever our arms were seen, the He warned us that it would be assailed " by internal flag of the Union floated over them, and was the sign and external enemies, constantly and actively, though in which all conquered. In every victory that has been often covertly and insidiously.” And while he warned, gained, all could rejoice, for it has never been a victohe exhorted us "to frown indignantly upon the first ry over our countrymen. We have differed about dawning of every attempt to alienate any portion of men, and we have differed about measures, but always our country from the rest or to enfeeble the sacred ties in a spirit of submission to the Constitution, and of atthat now link together its various parts." He could tachment to the Union. And when, according to the not but feel assured that such advice would be obeyed, furdamental law of free government, the will of a maand that one indignant and withering frown would set- jority has been constitutionally declared, as to men or tle on bim, who openly and directly, or “coverlly and as to measures, we have peacefully acquiesced. The insidiously,under whatever name or pretext, should voice of every one is heard, but the voice of the majoriaim a dagger at the heart of his country, by seeking to ty must govern. This is the great pervading vital prindestroy or to “enfeeble” the Union. Adams and Jef- ciple of our constitutions. Whatever may be the dis. ferson, though they lived to the end of the fiftieth year, tribution of powers, however they may be modified in breathed their last breath among a people firmly unit. their investment or exercise, from one great source, ed, and rejoicing in their union. And Carroll-he who they are all derived-from a majority of the people. outlived them all - was he in this respect less happy than That such a government, so simple in its structure, so the rest? Was his aged heart disturbed by the fear clear in its purpose, should be found adequate to all that the exhortation of Washington might prove to be the legitimate objects for which government is institutunavailing? Was the dim sight of the venerable sur- ed among men, who can doubt? Look around upon vivor afflicted with visions of ruin to his country-his this land-trace its progress from the moment when it ear invaded with strange words, of spurious coinage, shook off the trammels of colonial subjection, and and of evil augury, unknown to the vocabulary of the started in the career of independent national existence patriots and sages of the Revolution? Believe it not. -what has the world ever seen that can be compared The last pulsation of the heart had in it a remnant of to it? What does the world now contain that bears any the vigour of the Congress of 1776. That eye had been resemblance to it? The eyes of mankind are fixed upaccustomed to look through gloom and darkness, and on us with earnest attention, watching the great expesee beyond, a glorious light. That ear had heard the riment. Will it succeed? For more than fifty years threats of confiscation and the halter, and did not heed it has succeeded. It has outlived the longest lives of them. Standing upon the rock of the Union, with those who united to establish it. They are now all in Washington, and Franklin, and Hancock, and Adams, their graves. Their work still survives them, the and Jefferson, and their illustrious associates, he had same which they created, and bearing the same im. braved the power of the British empire in arms against press as in the beginning, Union, Independence, Free bis infant country, and in the Union had found safety dom. Why shall it not stand? We are stronger than and triumph. The storm had raged around them, but they were in numbers and in wealth. Are we weaker the rock was immoveable. Could such a man be sud.in wisdom and in virtue? Are we less able to appredenly persuaded, that madness had overtaken one por- ciate the blessings provided for us, less willing to make tion of his countrymen; and degenerate fear another? the exertions necessary for preserving them? A doubt I say again, believe it not. Let us be assured, that he implies degeneracy. It supposes a want of enlightened too was permitted to depart with the unshaken and patriotism-an unaccountable blindness to our own true firm conviction, that there was still enough of the spirit interests-an incredible indifference to the happiness of of the Revolution to preserve its work.

those who are to come after us-an unheard of insensiIn this imperfect and hasty glance at the composition, bility to the great trust committed to our keeping. For character, and services of the illustrious band, who stood sure it is, that if ever this glorious fabric should fall to forward as the representatives of the Union; to assert, ruins—which may Heaven in its mercy forbid-it must and at every bazard to maintain the independence of be because there is not wisdom and virtue enough to our country, it will at once be perceived, that little more support it. The age in which it perishes, will be the ophas been attempted than to point to the sources of in-posite of that in which it was constructed; and as the formation, and to invite to a more thorough examination one has earned undying fame, the other will merit uniof them. It is well for us to dwell, and to dwell fre-versal execration, quently and earnestly, upon all that belongs to that From thoughts like these, let us endeavour to find. period--to study it, to fill our minds and our hearts with consolation and assurance in the careful and constant it, not as a theme of discourse and panegyric merely, study of the past-applying our hearts to extract from but as a living principle of action, a deep and fixed in- it lessons that may keep alive our vigilance, and in or. 1833.]

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igency remind us of our duty. Our greatest danger Such was the occasion which gained for Mr. Carroll his may perhaps be found to lie in what would seem to be first signal distinction. The Governor of Maryland our chief happiness. Our ancestors had to struggle undertook to settle a table of fees by proclamation. It with adversity. We are to guard against the seductions was supported by its friends as a jíst exertion of preof prosperity, an enemy not less to be dreaded. It rogative. On the other side, it was opposed as an atbinds and lulls us with a false security, and thus enfee. tempt to tax without the consent of the people's repre. bles and unnerves us, until, at last, nothing is desired sentatives, and an arbitrary and unjustifiable assumpbut ease. It is not in the order of Providence that tion of power. Among its advocates was one, who, in blessings should be secured or preserved, without exer- the form of a dialogue between two citizens, the first of tion and watchfulness. The moment when they are whom opposed the proclamation, and the second supmost likely to be lost, is that in which, with a slumber. ported it, gave the whole argument, and of course the ing and imperfect sense of their value, there is an ulter victory, to the latter. Mr. Carroll took up the arguwant of all sense of their exposure to risk. Perhaps it ment which had thus been purposely betrayed, and may be a new mercy to our country, if occasionally we under the signature of the “First Citizen,” exhibited should be aroused by some alarm, requiring us to ex. a power and a patriotic energy which immediately enam ne more carefully into our condition, to cling more gaged universal attention. One sentence particularly, closely to the spirit of the institutions which are the which is quoted in his biography, shows how his mind foundation of our happiness, and to endeavour to in. was already ripened in patriotic decision, and impressspire our hearts with that true and active and enlight. ed with that deliberate firmness which characterized ened patriotism, which shed its benignant influence the subsequent proceedings of our country. “What over the early history of our nation. If such a period was done?” he exclaims: “ The authority of the chief be now come, who can deny that it is accompanied with magistrate interposed, and took the decision of this the most affecting and impressive circumstances? The important question from the other branches of the le. cloud seems to be gathering directly over the grave of gislature, to itself. In a land of freedom, this urbitrary the last of the signers, as if it had waited till death had exertion of prerogalive, will not, must not, be endured." closed his eyes, leaving the past all bright and radiant, Thanks from all quarters were addressed to the vir and over the future, stretching a curtain of darkness. tuous champion of the rights of the citizen, and Mr.

It would ill befit the present occasion to inquire Carroll rose at once to the highest station in the con how this sudden change has been wrought. We are fidence of the people. assembled for other purposes. We are here to com. In this resolute determination he continued. The mune with the illustrious dead, whose names are asso- accomplishments of education, the goods of fortune, ciated with the bright period of our history, and espe- the rank they enabled him to assume, were devoted cially to commemorate that one of them who was per- for his country, with an entire disregard of the sacri. mitied to outlive the rest, and, as the survivor, for years fice his devotion might require, of ease, of enjoyment, beyond the ordinary period of man's life, to enjoy of wealth, perhaps even of life itself. In a letter to a the undivided reverence, and affections of a grateful member of Parliament, who, in writing to him, had ascountry.

serted that six thousand English soldiers would march of the men who have acted a distinguished part in from one end of the continent to the other, he malle public affairs, no one can be selected, who, looking on this memorable reply: “So they may, but they will ly to his personal condition, would seem to have had be masters only of the spot on which they encamp. less motive for desiring a change, than Charles Carroll They will find nought but enemies before and around of Carrollton. He was born at Annapolis, in Maryland, them. If we are beaten on the plains, we will retreat to on the 20th September, 1737. His grandfather, an the mountains and defy them. Our resources will inIrishman by birth, came to this country in 1691. His crease with our difficulties. Necessity will force us to father was a man of great wealth, and Charles Carroll exertion; until tired of combating in vain, against a of Carrollton was born to an inheritance, which might spirit, which victory after victory cannot subdue, your well be called princely. His education was luxurious, armies will evacuate our soil, and your country retire, if such a term can ever be applied to what is bestowed an immense loser, from the contest. No sir-we have in the culture and discipline of the mind or the forma- made up our minds to abide the issue of the approachtion of character-it is meant however only to denote, ing struggle, and though much bloo-l may be spilt, we that the judicious affection of his father, provided for have no doubt of our ultimate success. Nursed as he him every advantage which seemed to be proper for had been in the lap of tenderness, he was made of the enabling him to enter upon life as hecame the position hardy material which forms a patriot, and willing he was w occupy:

At a very early age he was sent to with his country to abide the issue of her struggle for Europe. There he was placed in a college of English freedom. Jesuits at St, Omers. After remaining in that institu- In January 1775, he was appointed a member of the tion for six years, he was placed in a College at first committee of observation established at Annapolis, Rheims. Thence, in about a year, he was sent to the and in the same year was elected a delegate in the procollege of Louis Le Grand. From Louis Le Grand, at vincial Convention. In February, 1776, his talents and the expiration of two years, he went to Bourges to stu- his services in the general cause being well known, dy the civil law, and after remaining there for one year, Congress conferred on him, though not a member, the returned to Paris, where he remained till 1757. In that distinguished honor of associating him with Doctor year he went to London, and commenced the study of Franklin and Samuel Chase, as Commissioners to Calaw in the Temple. In 1764, he returned to his native nada to endeavour to induce the inhabitants to join in country, at the age of twenty-seven.

opposition to Great Britain. The nature and imporSoon after this period, the questions between the tance of that commission, and the magnitude of its colonies and the mother country began to be agitated. powers, sufficiently attest the extensive confidence reThe pen of Carroll was among the first that were ac. posed in him. tively and successfully engaged on the side of the From Canada he returned to the Convention, and colonies. After the stamp act was repealed, there was there exerted himself with all bis power, to obtain a a moment of seeming calm. But even then it was easy withdrawal of the instructions by which the delegates to perceive, that the spirit which had been raised, was of Maryland in Congress had been forbidden to concur by no means quieted. There was a watchful jealousy in declaring the colonies free and independent States. awakenrd, and though the great point which had first "They were withdrawn, and on the second of July, 1776, roused it into action was withdrawn, yet it manifested the delegates from Maryland were in possession of auits+lf continually, upon every occasion when the liberty thority to vote for independence. or rights of the citizens seemed to be encroached upon. In July, 1776, he was elected a delegate to Congress, but before he left the Convention to take his seat in and with every blow striking down her constitution, her that body, he had the satisfaction of seeing the decla- laws, and her freedom. ration of the Convention of Maryland published to the Our part is clear. Union is our country, and we are world, associating her fully with the other colonies in on the side of our country, her constitution, her authorthe great contest for independence.

ities, and laws. Within the temple of Union are the But why should we further pursue this detail? His graves of our ancestors. We will not consent that the highest eulogy is pronounce:t in saying he was a signer glorious fabric shall be torn down—we cannt consent of the Declaration of Independence-his character and that the graves of our fathers shall be divided. No: Let his services are best portrayed by the statement, that us supplicate the continued protection of Heaven, with he was worthy to be associated with the body from a devout and earnest spirit, and let our prayer be, that whom that declaration issued. To that eminence, as our descendants, to the remotest posterity, may be able, we have seen, he fairly won his way by his talents and together to make their pilgrimage in peace, as we have his patriotism-by a career of animated and perilous this day done, to the tombs of the departed patriots, exertion, beginning with the first attempts upon the and find them still united, in one country, and in one freedom of his country, and continued throughout with Union, watched over, and guarded, and reverenced by unabated zeal and perseverance. The reputation of One PEOPLE. God in His mercy forbid that more should wealth, and even his unusually protracted life, may be required of us. But if the extremity must come, the have in some degree obscured his just fame. There voice from those tombs will tell us, That UXION IS OUR may be those, who, looking carelessly into the history COUNTRY, of the past, are induced to believe, that riches were his chief distinction, and the tranquil repose of his long We are happy to notice in the “Blairsville Record," serene evening, extending so far beyond the common length of lite, characteristic of his former habits. Noth.

a series of essays commenced, illustrative of the early ing can be more erroneous In personal qualities and settlement of Indiana county in this state. Our pages exertions, Charles Carroll of Carrollton was of the have already been indebted to the “Record,” for the full stature of the eventful times in which he acted. memoirs of Captain Brady, which were read with In zeal and determination he was unsurpassed. He interest. The suggestion made to country papers to neither sought repose, nor shrunk from danger, nor clung to his possessions, nor listened to the seductive furnish sketches of the counties in which they are locattemptations to enjoy in indolence his individual advan. ed, will we bope meet with more attention than our tages—but with the steady and uncompromising spirit frequent calls upon them have been favored with upon which distinguishes the period, could sincerely join the same subjec with the patriots, who declared, “We have counted

It has to us appeared extraordinary, the cost, and find nothing intolerable but slavery.” He that so little disposition is manifested, by gentlemen is entitled to a full portion of our gratitude.

of leisure and intelligence in the interior, to devote As he was for many years the single representative a small portion of their time, to the collection of anec. on earth of the Congress of 1776, his grave seems to be dotes and facts relating to their early history, which the grave of the whole. It is finally closed, and we are assembled around it for the last time. What they every town and county of the state must furnish, and have left to us, is now entirely ours-ours to enjoy, and which can be so conveniently obtained in the new setours, be it remembered, with the favour of Providence, Ilements especially, while many of the early settlers, or to preserve. It becomes us seriously and earnestly to their immediate descendants are living. Every year consider what this great inheritance is, and with resolute firmness to determine that what we can do, we that these investigations are delayed, increases the diffi. will do, to preserve it. The path of duty is plain be- culty of obtaining the desired information, and dimifore us—we have more than a single star to guide our nishes the probability of the correctness of the facts, footsteps—we have a brilliant constellation, set in the political firmament on the 4th of July, 1776, and all when obtained. What is now a well established, histoover resplendent with the light of Union. That is the rical fact, and can be readily preserved as such, may light which embraces us all, and belongs to us all, and in a few years become so interwoven with tradition, exhibits us to the world as the “One People” who de. that the truth will not be easily separated from it. clared themselves an independent nation. That it

may be resolved into its elements, and these be hurled in We will, as we have often before observed, be glad to mad confusion against each other, destroying and de- transfer to our pages from the country papers, or restroyed, until chaotic darkness be come again, is as ceive directly from the writers themselves, communicatrue as that Heaven for our sins may withdraw from us tions throwing light upon the history of any portion protection and support, and leave us to our own blind weakness. But that man can do this, and not be an

of our state, enemy of his country, is as difficult to conceive, as that

From the Blairsville Record. he can do it and not undo the work of the Revolution SKETCHES OF THE FIRST SETTLEMENT OF as that he can do it and not destroy our hopes, and

INDIANA COUNTY, bring upon us a train of dire affliction and calamity, of

No. 1. which even the child unborn is to taste the bitterness, If blood be shed again, except under the flag of the An extensive field is open for the labor of the comUnion, it can never mingle with that blood, which con- piler of the adventures and privations of the first set. secrated our land when men marched to battle with tlers in the west, of the European stock. New England Washington to lead them. It will not produce the has done something toward preserving, for the infirfruits. Armed men will grow up out of this peaceful mation of posterity, the incidents attending the early cosoil-not such men as put on armour to establish the lonization of her swamps and forests, but Pennsylvania union, the independence, and the freedom of their is comparatively at fault in this respect. King Philip, country, and laid it down when her liberties were se- Capt. Church, and Anawon, figure through many a cured—but men supplied with fury's arms, wiih the page of New England inanuscript, and even have a destroying rage, called military ambition, with the lust place in the more permanent form of printed works; of dominion, and its dismal progeny, whose procession but the many moving incidents arising out of the prois closed with the despot and his bloody sword. Brother gressive advance of the “pale face" upon the red will be seen fighting against brother, and father against skin" of the west and south, are not presented to the son, all wounding the bosom of their parent country, world with equal fulness of detail.

1883.)

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The Pilgrim Fathers of Plymouth are immortalized mains, when he discovered him sitting by a spring, wash. in story, as the founders of a new empire. While the ing the blood from his hair. English language endures their pious and successful ef. He bad lain down in his cabin at night and fallen forts to plant the tree of civil and religious liberty be asleep--a wolf reached through a crack between the yond the blighting influence of the institutions ot'dark logs, and seized him by the head This was repeated and barbarous ages, will be lauded, and the time when twice or thrice before he was sufficiently awakened to first their frail bark

shift his position. The smallness of the crack and the

size of his head prevented the wolf from grasping it so "The Mayflower lay on the sands of the bay,"

far as to have a secure hold, and that saved his life. will be regarded as one of those special visitations of a Some time after this, the two adventurers returned to benevolent Providence, of which our unworthiness Franklin county, (then Cumberland,) for their families. alone prevents the more frequent recurrence. Well On their return, they were joined by others. Joseph has their descendant Pierpont compared the moral M'Cartney settled near them at an early period. beauty of their perilous experiment, for sublimity and The privations of such a situation can, in some de, rareness to,

gree, be measured by the difficulty of obtaining bread

stuffs, and other necessaries of life, of which the follow. "An angel's wing through the parting clouds,

ing is an example. Just seen, and then withdrawn."

Moses Chambers was another early settler. Having The country newspapers, it seems to me, might per- served several years on board a British man of war, he form a most useful and pleasing service, by collecting was qualified for a life of danger and hardship. and preserving the most prominent events in the early

Moses continued to work on his improvement till he settlement of their respective localities. Independent was told one morning that the last Johnny cake was at of the value of the historical knowledge thus embodied, the fire! What was to be done? There was no possi. a consequence of still more practical utility, would be bility of a supply short of Conagocheague. He caught found in the amelioration of party heat, and partizan his horse and made ready. He broke the Johnny cake cruelty, that now disfigure our electioneering control in two pieces, and giving one-half to his wife, the partversies. By going back to the days of our simple, sin- ner of his perils and fortunes, he put up the other half cere, and honest ancestors, by accompanying them in in the lappet of his coat, with thorns and turned his their frugal cabins, or on the peaceful stream, or seclud. horse's head to the east. ed mountain, we would inhale a purer atmosphere and There were no inns on the road in those days-norą learn to contemplate the human character in its boldest habitation west of the mountains; save, perhaps, a but and best forms. We should see

without hy or two at Fort Ligonier. The Kittanning path was used, pocrisy, and patriotism without dissimulation, hospita. to Ligonier, and from thence, the road made by Genelity without ostentation, and all the endearing relations ral Forbes's army. Where good pasture could be had of domestic life in their fullest play of feeling.

for bis horse, Moses tarried and baited. To him, day From the same source we should discover that many was as night, and night as the day. He slept only whilst who now contend with acrimony, rival actors, it may be, his horse was feeding. Nor did he give rest to his body in some petty political strife; are the sons of men who or ease to his mind, until he returned with his sack "fought shoulder to shoulder,” against the savage in stored with corn. vaders of their wilderness home. Of men who, could How forcibly would the affecting story of the patrithey burst their "cerements of clay," would behold the arch Jacob, apply itself to the condition of families thus changed condition and feelings of their posterity, only circumstanced. to bewail it.

“Jacob said to his sons, Why do ye look one upon Whether these observations be correct or not, I shall anotheri-and he said behold I have heard that there give them the credit of my belief, and so far as in my is corn in Egypt; get you down thither, and buy for us power discharge the duty of a faithful, though it may be, from thence; that we may live and not die.” incompetent Chronicler, of the early settlements of in Moses Chambers was not the only one who had to diana county,

encounter the fatigue and trouble of procuring supplies The first attempt at making a settlement in the limits from Franklin counky—all had to do so. Such was the of Indiana county, is believed to have been made in the condition of this country, and such the prospects of setyear 1769, in the forks of Conemaugh and Blacklick. tlers after the peace of 1763. The country had been explored in 1766-7, and the ex

MOHULBUCKTEETAM. plorers were particularly pleased with the spot on which the town of Indiana now stands. It was clear of timber

From the Philadelphia Gazette. or brush, and clothed in high grass; a sort of prairie. So was what is now called the marsh, near the town on the

PROCEEDINGS OF COUNCILS. Blairsville road, though at this time, a nearly impervious

Thursday Evening, Sept. 12, 1833. thicket. When settlers had commenced improvements within a few miles of the town, they cut the grass off the

SELECT COUNCIL. prairie for the support of their cattle in winter. In The president presented a communication from the making their hay they were greatly annoyed by rattle City Commissioners, representing that difficulties have snakes, Persons are yet living in the neighborhood, arisen with the tenant of the wharf adjoining the north who have seen this natural meadow, with the hay cut dock at the drawbridge, in relation to the occupation and stacked upon it.

of that dock by vessels, and recommending the corpo. About the year 1771, or 1772, Fergus Moorhead and ration to extend a pier along the north line of the city James Kelly commenced improvements near where the property, into the said dock, thus obviating all difficul. town of Indiana stands. Kelly's cabin stood within the ties, and securing to the city two landings. Referred limits that now inclose his son Meek Kelly's orchard. to the committee on drawbridge lot. The country around might well be termed a howling The president presented a communication from the wilderness, for it was full of wolves.

City Commissioners, enclosing a printed statement of So soon as the cabins were finished, each of these ad. their receipts and expenditures, for the second quarter venturers betook himself at night to his own castle. of 1833, by which, it appears, that the amount of MarOne morning, Mr. Moorhead paid a visit to his neighbor ket rents, from April 1st to June 30th, was $645 50; Kelly, and was surprised to find near his cabin, traces receipts for entries of Hackney coaches, &c. $328; pero of blood, and tufts of human hair. Kelly was not to be mits for builing materials, $48; miscellaneous receipts, found. Moorhead, believing him to have been killed $229 66. Laid on the table. by the wolves, was cautiously looking about for his re. The president presented a communication from the Voz, XII,

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