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To say nothing of the daily enormous contri. and drawing-rooms, by the nobles and priests, butions exacted, without a hope of kindlier who well knew the power of such an intellecprospects, we are more shamelessly misused tual bond of union; and now the question by our own soldiers than formerly by the arose, which of the two languages could be enciny:
The Prince of Orange and deemed the vernacular." his creatures are always decrying Machiavel,
But the grounds of the separation, the whilst those same creatures are laboriog !o form their hero, the most unparallelled aihe rights and the wrongs of the Belgians, are ist, into another Machiavel, and to force his noi questions that ought to be treated super. sovereignty upon us. He rules this country ficially, and in merely reviewing Ernst as an absolute despot, without any right to Münch's present volumes no subject can do so, and perpetuates the war solely to well be treated otherwise. We will there. plunder us, and enrich his German satellites fore proceed to his sketches of William I.'s with the booty. heard of in this country, are attempted. The youth, and of his conduct during his years of new-fangled judges exercise an authority in adversity, which is, we apprehend, but little
known in this country. our city such as the Eighteen never possess. ed. Observe but the inciease of the
William I., his father's second son, was public taxes, and of the excise, effected by born at the Hague, A.D. 1772. His educa. those who suck our life-blood like vampires.' tion was carefully conducted and s:aperin.
The favoritism of the Prince of tended by Euler of Deuxponts, Tollens of Orange towards his own kindred and parti. Breda, and Lieut.-Gen. Van Stamford; and zans is painted in strong colors; he is said to when of sufficient age, he was sent to divers have smuggled into every office noblemen who must otherwise have starved. Have German high-schools and universities. He we,' the pamphleteer proceeds, in Flanders acquire an extensive and solid acquaintance and the other provinces, any lack of nobles with history and jurisprudence, together with to lead our armies? Yet he incessantly calls considerable knowledge of mankind, and in strangers, modelled after himself. He great prudence and reserve.
He was yet promotes and
exalts the lowest people, more remarkable for a purity of morals and merely to consumma:e our ruin and reduce manners, but too unusual in those whose high us to slavery: Out of our purses he aggran, station lays them open to so much tempta. dists himself, and supporis his frightfully tion. In 1791 he married, as much from profuse expenditure."
mutual attachment as from political motises, This vituperation of the Protestant hero, his cousin, the Princess Frederica Louisa William the Taciturn, is certainly curious, Wilhelmina of Prussia. Upon the breaking but these samples of it may suffice ; and we out of the war with France, both he and his turn to Münch's remarks upon the modern elder brother took an active part in the mili. Belgian complaints and discontents which led tary operations. Those unsuccessful opera. to the severance of the northern and south. tions have been so completely superceded in ern portions of the kingdom of the Nether. interest by wars yet morc disastrous or lands.
more brilliant, that it were idle to follow even
our author's brief detail of them. It may “The priests themselves, after their four- suffice to say, that the young princes distin. teen years' fierce battle against the new order guished themselves by courage, coolness, of things and the altered aspect of the times,
When the suddenly changed their colors and watchwori perseverance, and prudence. in concert with the aristocracy, set up the cause of their country became desperate, banner of liberalism, and successfully la bored they embarked with the Stadtholder and the to introduce divisions into the liberal camp ; rest of their family for England. by false representations, by taking advantage But the young princes did not long remain of a certain sensitiveness touching disappoint- dependents upon foreign hospitality. They ed expectations, and by the adroit exaggera- presently returned to the Continent, collected tion of real grievances, they alienated some all the Dutch emigrants who were willing to friends of political liberty from the govern- foilow their fortunes; and with the band thus ment, attaching them to their own party. Another fraction of liberals, partly formed in raised and organized joined the Prussian the Buonaparte school, partly still inspired standard, under which they fought gallantly, by the fame of the revolution, partly actuated until Prussia concluded the treaty of Basle by antipathy to Holland, and sexluced and with the French republic. The little Duich impelled by the witchery of the French lan. corps was then taken into the service of Great guage, literature, and manners, fixed their Brilain. eyes yearningly upon the country with which, during a score of years, they had shared the tria, and, in the year 1799, died of a malady
The hereditary prince entered that of Auscommon destinies of
stormy times. “The mother tongue of ihe Flemish-Wal- caught during an inspection of the military loon provinces was systematically excluded hospitals. The younger brother repaired to from the churches, lecture-roons, tribunals, Berlin, 10 thic court of his uncle and father
in-law, where he endeavored to procure by him, bespeaks the taste and the progress in diplomacy some compensation, at least, for cultivation and learning of the owner. No the dominions which his father had lost by new inquiry or discovery was unknown to the fortune of war.
He so far succeeded him; and his correspondence with the most that Prussian mediation obtained the promise terati, as well as the numerous dedications
distinguished German, Dutch, and foreign liof the future incorporation of the secularized addressed to him, at a time when such combishoprics of Würzburg and Bamberg with pliments could not originate in flattery, but the German patrimony of the House of Nas- must have sprung solely from personal es.
teem, from a sense of his merits, bear witness The prince, now the heir, applied himself to the intellectual life, the moral worth, of to the government and improvement of that the hereditary Prince of Orange and Nassau.” German patriniony, whilst he strove further When the treaty of Luneville was regulatto ameliorate the condition of his family by ing the compensations to be allotted to the agricultural operations, for which he had al. several despoiled German sovereigns, the ways shown a decided taste. These he now hereditary Prince of Orange repaired to Pa. undertook upon a large scale, purchasing the ris, as Count of Dietz, to endeavor to secure extensive estates of the Polish Magnat Jab- the promised Bishoprics.
This, amongst lonowski, situated near Posen ; and he there the number of more powerful claimants, put in practice the principles of economy proved impossible ; but he was treated with that he had derived from the study of Adam much personal consideration by the First Smith and other political philosophers. Consul; and in the end obtained about se.
ven secularized abbeys, including the abbey " His active spirit delighted in the thought principality of Fulda, with one free imperial of a creation according to his own ideas. He city. The old Stadtholder, who shrank from introduced a number of improvements into occupying the dominions of the church as the villages of his Polish lordships, establish: from sacrilege, at once resigned these new ed several colonies, and studied to make the most of all extant resources.
He devoted acquisitions to his son, and Prince William considerable sums of money to the rendering thenceforih fixed his residence at Fulda. their new homes agreeable to the colonists, a In these secularized ubbey domains he matter of no small difficulty. The colonists, had to contend with many of the difficulties who were mostly Germans, showed great re. that he afterwards encountered in Belgium, pugnance to mingle with the natives, the ci- to wit, the detestation entertained by the bi. vilized man naturally shrinking from the goted Catholic inhabitants for the heretical barbarian. His schemes required, nevertheless, that this should be accomplished. The usurper of the rights of the church ; that ignorance of the rude, bigoted Pole was to be usurper being, moreover, a foreigner, un. tempered by German cultivation, in order to known to them, and to whom they had been diffuse civilization through the district. The assigned, without their own consent, by ano. prince began with that which most ennobles ther foreigner; the necessity of laying on the heart of man, elevating his spirit to no- taxes in order to raise an income, sufficient bler objects. He bestowed freedom upon the to pension the dispossessed priests, in addi. bondsmen, or villains, whom he had purchas. tion to the ordinary expenses of government ; ed; and freedom bore fruit a thousand-fold, reaped both by philanthropy and self. interest. an obstinate and slothful hatred of innova. If the former enjoyed the thought of a duty tion, and the like. towards humanity discharged, the latter was « Little as the future promised of enjoy. gratified by the sight of improving agricultu- ment, William of Orange was not disheartral industry, and increasing prosperity. Bar- ened. He possessed the persevering, health. barism was gradually expelled from this dis- ful temper of the best of his race; misfortune trict of Poland, and what had been half a de- had taught him their moderation and frugal. sert was converted into habitable fields.
ity; the convulsions that had shaken the
world had given him steadiness of resolution; “ Whilst Prince William labored thus zea- study and self-examination a knowledge of lously in training strangers, he did not neg. men, with their passions and their wants. lect the education of his two sons. He se- The very difficulties of his situation afforded lected their preceptor, he watched over the him a sort of enjoyment, in the consciousness first tasks of their youth, and discovered in that the energy of his own spirit would enaeverything the noblest care for their future ble him to conquer them. weal, such care as only the tenderest private “ He began the improvements that he deem. individuals extend over their families. ed essential to the country, at home. In his
“The prince at the same time endeavored house the utmost simplicity prevailed; and to collect, preserve, and increase whatever he would have carried his retrenchments yet works of artor of literature still existed in the further, had not his inclinations been checked country, especially whatever related to na. by considerations of justice and expedieacy. tional history, antiquities, and laws. The
He was, perhaps, the first sovereign Dillingen library, principally enriched by prince in Germany who did not copy tho
forms of great courts in a small one, without tions; but the arbitrary severing of old ties regard to extent of domains, or the financial and the virtual subjection to France, revoltresources of subjects, thus incurring ridicule ed alike his pride, his feelings, his princiby a complicated and cunibrous system of
If he could not administration, and an artificially arranged ples
, and his patriotism. hierarchy of servants. A single private se
even attempt to resist his forcible spoliation, cretary, and a privy counsel consisting of a he refused to concur in it, by the acceptance very
few persons, afforded all the aid William of compensations, declaring, that the name required. He was every where personally of Orange must descend to posterity unspotpresent, and personally active. All letters, ted! Ile retired to Prussia, accepted a comdespatches, regulations, petitions, passed mand in his brother-in-law's army, fought through his hands, and never was any thing at Jena, and was afterwards taken prisoner. unread signed by him or published in his When the peace of: Tilsit again put an end name, a practice to which he adhered upon the throne of the Netherlands. Affairs of to his military career, he fixed his residence weight were discussed in especial conversa. at Berlin as a private man, and gave his tions in all their details, and under every as- time and thoughts wholly up to the educapect, with the heads of the departments to tion of his children, study, and the managewhich they belonged, and this not in coun- ment of his Polish estates, then his sole cil, but at his leisure hours.
means of independent existence. could the more easily act up to these princi.
It is needless to remind the reader that in ples, as he devoted all his time to the business 1813 the old cry of Oranien boven ! (Orange of a sovereign
* * He found his enjoy. ment in his work, and disturbance only in for ever!) was again raised in Holland, and passions. **** To be manfully opposed the prince was recalled to his native land by by a single individual when the rest of his the almost unanimous voice of the people. council agreed with himself, rather grieved But it is gratifying to be able to add, that, than angered him. He labored earnestly to in spite of the pains taken by the Catholic convince his opponent, and if obstinate perti; clergy to represent him as an heretical ty. nacity at length irritated him, he regretted rant, whose oppressions had ruined the his warmth and injustice before the day expired, and strove to atone for them by express country, his former subjects, in the secularsions of kindness.
ized abbey lands, solicited, almost as eagerly
as the Dutch themselves, the restoration of “ William, who was usually the first pero his authority. son up in lois palace, would often, when pressed by affairs of importance, surprise his private secretary in bed. Too impatient to wait for the sluggard's dressing, he then seat. ed himself upon the bed, and conversed upon the subject that had brought him thither, until he had satisfied his own mind respecting Art. V.-Khudozhestvenaya Gazeta, na it."
1837. Izdanannaya Nestorom Kukol.
nikom. (The Gazette of the Fine Arts One of this prince's chief objects at the time for 1837. Edited by Nestor Kukolnik.) of which we are speaking, was the enlightening St. Petersburgh, 1837. No. I. to X. his ignorant new subjects, whom their eccle. siastical masters had studiously kept in a state Many, even of the readers of the Foreign of tranquil darkness, by an improved system Quarterly Review, will, perhaps, be astoof education. He invited able teachers, and nished at learning that a journal exclusively professors of reputation, from divers German devoted to the Fine Arts has been establishuniversities, at the same time carefully avoid. ed in Russia; and that, moreover, with a ing, as far as was possible, to shock the pre. tolerable prospect of success, as we know to judices of those whom, or whose children, he our regret, every number of the first volume sought to raise in the social scale.
being entirely out of print some months ago; But we are exceeding the limits that we so that we have been able to procure only had allotted to Ernst Münch, and must those from the commencement of the present hasten to conclude. A few weeks after the
year. This forms rather a contrast to matdeath of the exiled Stadtholder had added iers here at home, where every attempt of a the actual sovereignty, instead of the re- similar nature has hitherto proved a signal gency, of the hereditary domains of the failure, in some instances not undeservedly House of Nassau, to its recent compensatory so, neither industry, nor literary exertion, acquisitions, the institution of the Confede- nor talent, having been manifested on the ration of the Rhine, with the various changes part of publishers or editors; while in others, thereby induced, robbed the Prince of after the work had struggled on for sufficient Orange of all his dominions, old and new. time to give it a fair trial with the public, it He was, indeed, again offered compensa-has fallen to the ground for want of encou. ragement, and the attempt has been aban-though it relates principally to this country, doned as hopeless and impracticable. With and to some of the choicest works of the old so many ominous examples before us, it is masters that we possess. Bui, instead of not likely that, in this country, we shall permitting ourselves to indulge in such reventure upon any similar experiment again marks, we must come at once to the Russian in a hurry; indeed the very latest periodical Gazeta. of the kind was conducted in such a man- Phenomenon as it may be considered by ner as to throw discredit on the scheme some, this Gazette is not the
first pubitself, since it betrayed, to a degree abso- lication of the kind that has appeared in lutely ludicrous, the strange notions enter- Russia; for about ten or twelve years ago tained by those who had the management of there was another work that came out under the work, and what odd sort of fare they, as the title of Jurnal Izyashtshtnik Iskustv, or caterers for the public taste, considered it Journal of the Fine Arts; to which, howadvisable to set before their readers--a sal- ever, it did not answer very exactly, it being magundi of the most ill-assorted ingredients, rather a collection of papers, some original,
--notices of children's books, meteorological but many only translations from books in journals, heavy topographical lumber, scraps other languages; besides which, it did not of namby-pamby rhyming, together with confine itself to the arts of design, to which such light reading, as papers on joint stock the term “Fine Arts” is restricted in this banking, and imprisonment for debt-the country, but included poetry likewise. It last-mentioned, no doubt, for the edification did not proceed beyond its second volume,of that class who are rather the victims than which is the only one we have been able to the votaries of art. We do not mean to deny meet with; and although it does not contain that very clever papers, really valuable con more than iwo or three articles which give tributions, are to be met with in some Eng- any information relative to Russian artists lish publications of this class, but they are and their works, there are papers of consioverlaid and buried under a mass of super- derable length, and not less interest, particuficial scribbling,-puerile, schoolboy "es larly that on the exhibition at the Imperial says," the substance of which has been, in Academy, and the one on the statues of schoolboy phrase, "cribbed” from the most Achilles and Hector, by Holberg and Kriordinary sources.
lov. Abroad they manage such things very The plan of the Gazeta, on the contrary, differently—we need not add, very much conforms better with its title, and, if we may better; in Germany especially, where such judge from the comparatively few numbers publications as Schorn's Kunstblatt, the Ber- that have yet reached us, the work will at liner Kunstblatt, and a variety of others, all events collect a mass of materials for the have successfully maintained their ground, use of some future historian of the arts in and furnish not only a constant supply of Russia. Were it only on arcount or its fresh information, but a great deal of pro- biographical articles, it will prove a valuable found and instructive criticism ;-to say auxiliary for such purpose; for at present nothing of the important disquisitions and very little information of the kind is to be other papers on topies of art ihat appear in derived from what has been written by Rusjournals of a more miscellaneous character, sians themselves; and even that is so scanty the compositions of a Böttiger, and other and meagre as to serve no more than to tanmaster-pens. Germans may be said to excel talize curiosity. As yet, very few Russian in criticisin of this kind, and are, according- names, whether of artists or literary men, ly, apt to deal in it rather largely, not unfre- have found their way into the very latest quently bestowing more of it upon a single biographical works published in other counpainting, or other work of art, than would tries, and fewest of all into any that have among ourselves be considered requisite for appeared in our own. A rather extensive an entire collection or exhibition of pictures. biographical work, by Dmetrii BantieshAs for works of sculpture or architecture, Kamensky, which is confined entirely to the they seem to be considered almost beneath more celebrated natives of Russia, (with the the notice of our crities and periodicals; and exception of a few foreigners, who may be if their merits are discussed at all, it must said to belong to that country,) has lately be—as Toin Hood tells us he read his Bible been published, in five large octavo volumes,
'under the rose.” That there is a very at Moscow; yet even in this, by far the wide difference in the importance attached greater proportion of names are of those to such matters by the Germans and by our- who have distinguished themselves either in selves, scarcely admits of doubt, when we the state, the army, the church, or some find that the English translation of Passa. other public capacity. Of literary men the vant's Kunstreise fell dead from the press, ! number is much smaller than we should
have expected, several well-known names -he possessed considerable talent for hisbeing altogether omitted ;* while of artists it torical composition, of which he early gave is still smaller. That the latter should be proof in his “ Battle of Khan Mamai," a the case did not very much surprise us, yet production displaying great force of imagi. there are one or two omissions which strike nation, and considerable boldness in its exe
as rather remarkable;—for instance, cution. those in respect to both Martos and the late Unless his powers be greatly exaggerated, Ivan Prokophiev, t who, with the exception it would appear from two articles respecting of Martos himself
, was the most eminent him in the Gazeta, that Pheodor Antonosculptor of his time that Russia had pro- vitch Bruni promises to confer no inconduced,
siderable renown on bis country. One of It is, therefore, all the more gratifying, to them gives a long description of a very large find that articles of biography will constitute picture executed by him, about a year and a a prominent feature in the Gazeta ; and that half or two years ago, at Rome, and reprethey will not be merely of a necrological senting the Israelites attacked in the wildercharacter, but retrospective likewise; and ness by the fiery serpents. This is spoken thus we may hope that, in time, all the art of as a performance replete, not only with ists of any note to whom Russia has given talent, but with indubitable traits of genius : birth, or who may be considered as her yet, although its merits may be in some de. children by adoption, will be duly recorded. gree overražed, it cannot have been in con. Among those who have already been so are, sequence of overweening national prejudice Tischbein and Thomond, the architects of and partiality, because the commendation the great Theatre at St. Petersburg; and Vo- proceeds from the pen of an Italian critic, ronikhin, the architect of the Kazan Church; whose remarks on ihe picture are given by while under the head of necrology, an ac- the Editor of the Gazeta in a Russian transcount has been given of Kiprensky, who lation. As some of our readers may pro. died in November last year, but as that ar- bably be desirous of learning how the artist ticle appeared in the volume for 1836, it has has composed and treated the subject,we shall not been seen by us; all, therefore, that we here extract some parts of the descripcan say respecting Kiprensky is that, be- tion :sides being a very able portrait-painter,
6. The sky is overcast with dense clouds and in which branch of the art Varnik was the filled with poisonous serpents of huge size, only one of his countrymen and contempo- which dart down upon the Israelites, who, raries who could be said at all to rival him, horror-stricken at this terrible prodigy, are
seen running about in confusion, endeavoring
to screen themselves from the aitacks of their This is the case even with Bogdanovitch venomous foes. The murky atmosphere it. and Khemnitzer, names of high repute in their self produces almost at the very first glance own country, and not altogether unknown even in this, the one as that of the author of Dushenka, cibly impresses us with an awful sense of the
a strange and undefinable feeling, and forthe other as that of him who has been styled the dreadful vengeance which it pleased the AlRussian La Fontaine. Ozerov, the tragic poet, mighty in his wrath to inflici upon his un, Prince Viazemsky, is attached to one edition of grateful people, who rebelliously murmured his works. To say the truth, a very long list against Moscs,their divinely missioned leader, might be made of omissions, some of them almost for having led them out of the pleasant and as startling and unaccountable as the above ;– fertile Egypt into a land of desolation and for instance, Von Visin, celebrated as a comic barrenness. This is the principal subject ; writer; Podshivalov, Kheraskov, author of the and all the episodes with which the artist has Rossiada, and a great many others. + It is all the more singular that no notice should and in perfect unison with the sentiment of
filled up his canvass, are poetically conceived have been taken of this artist, because there is a the scene, since they all serve to heighten it, rather long memoir of him and his works in the Otetchestvennieya Zapiski for 1828. We there although by means of different modifications. learn that Ivan Prokophievitch Prokophiev was
Commencing from the right,-in the middle born at St. Petersburgh, January 25th, O.S. 1758, ground of the picture, a young female is seen and that he studied under Gilet, a French artist, Ainging herselt, in wild horror, into the arms and then one of the professors in the Academy of her lover, calling upon him to protect her; after which he visited both Paris and Berlin. at the same time, iurning around her head, His productions, both statues and bas-reliefs, be- she gazes with dismay on one of the Israel. sides busts and models, are very numerous, and, ites,-a figure of athletic form and proporalthough partaking more of the French school of ions, whose strength is vaidly exerted against that period than of the antique, charm by a certain gracefulness and air of nature. He died
some of the serpents, which, having flung him February 10th, 1828.
down, are coiling themselves around his mus. * There is also among the notices of this class, cular but impotent limbs ; while he, though one of John Field, an eminent musician, a na the hand of death is already heavy upon him, tive of Dublin, who died at Moscow, January seems to be breathing forth vain impreca. 14th, of the present year (1837).
tions of revenge.-This figure is one of those