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Difcourses on various Subje&ts, Evangelical and Practical. By
the Rev. Hugh Worthington, A. M. 8vo. 55. in Boards,
Buckland. THE HE author's professed design in these Discourses is to affist
in establishing revealed, on the firm basis of natural religion, and to represent the peculiar doctrines of the Gospel in a light worthy of God's moral attributes, and perfectly consonant to reason. These sermons are more distinguished by good sense than by marks of originality or flights of eloquence. Indeed there appears in them little pretension to either. They are composed in a clear, manly, and not inelegant style. The reasoning is generally close, and the arguments cogent; and we think our author cannot have laboured without effect toward the furtherance of his main design.
The subjects of these Discourses are as follow._' I. II. A Vindication of Divine Providence.—III. The Wisdom of Jesus as a public Teacher.-IV. The Necessity of serious Attention in hearing the Word.–V. The Goodness of God an Object of Fear, -- VI. VII. On the State of Human Nature.-VIII. God's Impartiality in his Dealings with Men.-IX. On the New Birth.-X. On the Love of God.-XI. On the Propitiation of Jesus Christ.-XII, XIII. Our Calling and Elec. tion made sure.--XIV. On Juftification by Faith.—XV. On the Nature and Effects of good and bad Habits.—XVI. On the deceitful Nature and hardening Tendency of Sin.-XVII. Of the Evil of Instability.--XVIII. Autumnal Reflections.'
In the eighth Discourse on God's Impartiality in his Dealings with Men, Mr. Worthington explains his visiting the iniquities of the father upon the children, in the following manner, which our readers may not find unsatisfactory.
• This may be thus illustrated : when a nobleman is guilty of treason, by the law. he forfeits his title and estate ; the king takes them away from him, and therefore his children, in fucceeding generations, are deprived of nobility and fortune; in this manner may he be said to visit the treason of the father on the children through all future generations. The king is not angry with the children for what their father did, they are not executed with him, nor is any punishment immediately inflicted on them; they only suffer the natural confequence of their father's crime and punishment. This is very intelligible to common understandings, and well explains the conduct of the Most High, as spoken of in the second commandment.
• And in a similar way he visits the iniquity of our first parents upon their children through all generations ; for their din, God made them subject to infirmities, sickness, and death, which in course are entailed on their posterity ; thus, although God does not impute their fin to us, as if we were guilty of eating the forbidden fruit, yet, in the fixed course of nature, we without any injustice in God fuffer for it; we inherit infira mity, fickness, and death. These are only temporary disad. vantages or trials, not guilt or final destruction. Therefore the ways of God are equal; he is angry with no man for what he never did, neither was accessary to ; che fon shall not bear the iniquity of the father, as he faith, neither shall the father bear the iniquity of the fon; but the foul that finneth, that foul Ihall die
Thus you see that God's impartiality in rewarding and punishing is grounded on the relation which all souls stand in to him; that all fouls are equally his; according as it is said, he is good to all, and his tender mercies are over all his works,'
A System of the Law of Marine Insurances, with Three Chapters
on Bottomry ; on Insurances on Lives; and on Insurances against Fire. By James Allan Park, Esq. 8vo. 109. 68. in Boards,
, until within these thirty years, was very imperfect : it is now a large, complicated system of jurisprudence, but sufficiently understood. The plastic hand of a master has been gradually moulding it into a rational form, not from any original and extensive views, buť by applying the legal doctrines of the statutes to the particular cases which arose; by connecting each properly with the other; and, where the law was imperfect, fupplying the imperfections by decisions grounded on their fpirit, and the customs of the best regulated commercial states. Commerce is a fyftem gradually accumulating, and it is now extended far beyond the bounds which the most active and en terprising 'nations ever krew. In proportion to its exterit; it must be a complicated system ; and the legal decisions muft be as numerous as the new questions which may arise in the varied combination of contested opinions, or jarring interests. There fhould, however, be a period, from which we can safely furs vey what is past, and from which future collectors may proceed. This compilation, which is executed with great attention, will properly afford such a period.
The arrangement is all that Mr. Park claims as his own. It is a very good one; and his own account of it will afford an useful analyfis of the work itself.
• As the policy is the foundation upon which the whole cona tract depends, I have begun with thats and endeavoured to the wo It's nature and it's various kinds; and I have also pointed out the requisites which a policy mult contain, their reafon and origin, as they are to be collected from decided cases, or the wfage of merchants. When we have ascertained the natute of
a policy, the next object is to discover by what general rules courts of justice have guided themselves in their construction of this species of contract. It is then necessary to descend to a more particular view of the subject, and to fix with accuracy and precision those accidents, which shall be deemed losses within certain words ofed in the policy. Thus, loffes by perils of the sea, by capture, by detention, and by barratry, will be a material ground of consideration. When a loss happens, it must either be a partial, or a total loss; and hence it becomes necessary to ascertain in whai instances a loss shall only be deemed partial, in what cases' it shall be considered as total ; and how the amount of a partial lofs is to be settled : hence also arises the doctrine of average, falvage, and abandonment. These points, therefore, will be the next object of attention.
• Having considered the various instances in which the underwriter will be liable upon his policy, either for a part, or for the whole amount, of his subscription ; we seem to be naturally led to the confideration of those cafes in which the underwriter is released from his responsibility. This may happen in several ways : for sometimes the policy is void from the beginning, on account of fraud; of the ship not being sea worthy; or of the voyage insured being prohibited. There are also cases in which the insurer is discharged, because the insured has failed in the performance of those conditions which he had undertaken to fulfil ; such as the non-compliance with warranties, and deviating from the voyage insured : these and many other points of the same nature occupy several chapters.
• When the under-writer has never run any risk, it would be unconscionable that he should retain the premium : there. fore, after considering those instances in which this is the case, it is natural next to ascertain in what cases the under-writer should retain, and in what cases he should return the premium..
• It would be in vain to tell a man that he was entitled to the allistance of the law, and that his case was equitable and right, without pointing out in what form and by what mode of proceeding he should seek a remedy. I have endeavoured to point out the proper tribunal to which a person injured is to apply, the mode of proceeding which he is to adopt, and the nature of the evidence he must adduce to substantiate his claim with respect to this contract : after the discussion of marine infurances, I have added three chapters upon subjects, which, though they do not form a part of the plan, are so materially connected with it in the rules and principles of decision, that it seemed to me the work would be deficient without them : these are, bottomry and respondentia, insurances upon lives, and insurances against fire.'
The Introduction was designed to give a short account of the rise and progress of insurances in this country. It is now extended to a Short History of Naval Jurisprudence, in which the origin of insurances is particularly considered. This Hif.
tory is compiled from the best authors : Mr. Park has advanced little from himself ; but he has collected with care, and employed his collections with address. His style is neat, fimple, and perspicuous.
The origin of insurance he attributes to the Lombards, who settled in England about the thirteenth century. It does not appear in any code of marine jurisprudence till the publication of the Wilbuy code. The laws of Oleron, which were promulgated by Richard the First, about the close of the twelfth century, do not mention it. Notwithstanding the Lombards arrived so early, and that they indisputably introduced this kind of contract into England, we suspect that it originated in the North. The date of the Witbuy code is indeed uncertain : we are inclined to adopt the opinions of those who bring it much below the establishment of the laws of Oleron ; but it is highly probable, that the institutions there promulgated were not framed at that time, but had been adopted, in commerce, long before, perhaps before the existence of Wilbuy as a city. The established code only gave it conGftency and authority. It is, therefore, more reasonable to tappose that the Lombards learned this custom in the North, and brought it from thence to England; for it would seem extraordinary, that, if it had been common in Italy, Richard should not be acquainted with it; or if he was acquainted with the use of contracts of so much consequence, that he should not have added some regulations concerning them to his own code.
The author clearly shows, that the law of insurances was little understood in England for many years after the practice was known. In fact, it grew with the growth of commerce, and increased with its strength. In this work he explains the system as it now stands ; points out the successive improvements which have been made by enacting falutary laws, and endeavours to show that the construction of these laws is at once liberal, judicious, and well adapted to establish a great commercial fyftem.
We cannot give specimens of the execution of particular parts : it is enough to observe that, in the beginning of each chapter, he eftablishes the principles on which the cases de pend; connects these principles afterwards with the cases; and points out the distinctions on which the exceptions depende This part of his talk is performed with accuracy; and we have reason to be satisfied with the fidelity of the reports. At the end are added the forms of different policies, and of respone dentia bonds,
Monafticon Hibernicum ; 'or, an History of the Abbies, Priories,
and other Religious Houses in Ireland. By Mervyn Arcbdall,
A. M. 416. il. 55. in Boards. Robinsons. T! HE Irish writers probably exaggerate the accounts of the
very early civilization of their country, and of the learned men which it had produced, when science was almost lost in Europe. Yet they have clearly shown that, when the continent yielded to the ravages of the barbarous hordes from the North, literature found an asylum on the shores of the Atlantic. Monaftic institutions have had their hours of triumph, and are now on the eve of their total decline : let us look at them, without prejudice, in a political light, or the hatred which a consideration of their numerous abuses must inspire. If we consider the state of society at that period, the turbulence of the feudal lords, the difficulty of finding a protector, without acknowledging a master, the monastery was an useful fetreat. To the unaslisted virgin it was an asylum ; to the unfortunate and the disappointed, a most happy relief from çares and vexation. Under the garb of religion, which at first protected them, they feemed, long after their utility svas no more, too sacred to be assaulted by the secular arm, which now hangs oves them, almost ready to infict the fatal blow. After another century, they will probably be known little more than by name. To these inftitutions Ireland owed the preservation of many sparks of literature, which never rose, in that country, to any distinguished height. The fons of Ireland carried them, however, to distant kingdoms, and spread the enlivening flame, which fostered the remains of science in Europe. From the introduction of Christianity into Ireland, in the fifth century, monaftic inftitutions foon became nume. fous: the soil was congenial to their nature, and they flou. rished with vigour and luxuriance. They have not yet had their historian : another Dugdale was required. Our qu. thor has sketched oụt a bold and extensive outline. With great labour he has acquired much important information, which, if properly encouraged, he will probably publish at length; in this volume he has only given the heads of a future work, which we think will he both interesting and valuable, and which we earnestly hope will not be suffered to moulder in oblivion.
? The history of monachism, in this ifle, says our able and well-informed author, like the edifices it once reared, is almost an heap of ruins; it was țime to collect and preserve its fragments, and ibereby to save it from utter oblivion ; the attempt has met the approbation, and, it is humbly hoped, the execu