Imágenes de páginas

Calm as a voyager to some distant land,

Of ivy-fingered winds and gladsome birds And full of wonder, full of hope as he.

And merriment were resonant around. The deadly germs of languor and disease

These ruins soon left not a wreck behind: Died in the human frame, and purity

Their elements, wide scattered o'er the globe, Blest with all gifts her earthly worshippers. To happier shapes were moulded, and became How vigorous then the athletic form of age ! Ministrant to all blissful impulses : How clear its open and unwrinkled brow! Thus human things were perfected, and earth, Where neither avarice, cunning, pride, nor care, Even as a child beneath its mother's love, Had stamped the seal of grey deformity

Was strengthened in all excellence, and grew On all the mingling lineaments of time.

Fairer and nobler with each passing year. How lovely the intrepid front of youth ! Which meek-eyed courage decked with freshest Now Time his dusky pennons o'er the scene Courage of soul, that dreaded not a name, (grace; Closes in steadfast darkness, and the past And elevated will, that journeyed on

Fades from our charmed sight. My task is done : Through life's phantasmal scene in fearlessness, Thy lore is learned. Earth's wonders are thine own, With virtue, love, and pleasure, hand in hand. With all the fear and all the hope they bring. Then, that sweet bondage which is freedom's self, My spells are past: the present now recurs. And rivets with sensation's softest tie

Ah me! a pathless wilderness remains
The kindred sympathies of human souls,

Yet unsubdued by man's reclaiming hand.
Needed no fetters of tyrannic law.
Those delicate and timid impulses

Yet, human Spirit ! bravely hold thy course, In nature's primal modesty arose,

Let virtue teach thee firmly to pursue And with undoubting confidence disclosed The gradual paths of an aspiring change: The growing longings of its dawning love,

For birth and life and death, and that strange state Unchecked by dull and selfish chastity,

Before the naked soul has found its home, That virtue of the cheaply virtuous,

All tend to perfect happiness, and urge Who pride themselves in senselessness and frost. The restless wheels of being on their way, No longer prostitution's venomed bane

Whose flashing spokes, instinct with infinite life, Poisoned the springs of happiness and life; Bicker and burn to gain their destined goal. Woman and man, in confidence and love,

For birth but wakes the spirit to the sense Equal and free and pure, together trod

Of outward shows, whose unexperienced shape The mountain-paths of virtue, which no more New modes of passion to its frame may lend; Were stained with blood from manya pilgrim's feet. Life is its state of action, and the store

Of all events is aggregated there Then, where, through distant ages, long in pride That variegate the eternal universe; The palace of the monarch-slave had mocked Death is a gate of dreariness and gloom, Famine's faint groan, and penury's silent tear, That leads to azure isles and beaming skies, A heap of crumbling ruins stood, and threw And happy regions of eternal hope. Year after year their stones upon the field, Therefore, 0 Spirit! fearlessly bear on: Wakening a lonely echo; and the leaves

Though storms may break the primrose on its stalk, Of the old thorn, that on the topmost tower Though frosts may blight the freshness of its bloom, Usurped the royal ensign's grandeur, shook Yet spring's awakening breath will woo the earth, In the stern storm that swayed the topmost tower, To feed with kindliest dews its favourite flower, And whispered strange tales in the whirlwind's ear. That blooms in mossy banks and darksome glens, Low through the lone cathedral's roofless aisles Lighting the greenwood with its sunny smile. The melancholy winds a death-dirge sung: It were a sight of awfulness to see

Fear not then, Spirit, death's disrobing hand; The works of faith and slavery, so vast,

So welcome when the tyrant is awake, So sumptuous, yet so perishing withal !

So welcome when the bigot's hell-torch burns; Even as the corpse that rests beneath its wall. 'Tis but the voyage of a darksome hour, A thousand mourners deck the pomp of death The transient gulf-dream of a startling sleep. To-day, the breathing marble glows above

Death is no foe to virtue: earth has seen To decorate its memory, and tongues

Love's brightest roses on the scaffold bloom, Are busy of its life: to-morrow, worms

Mingling with freedom's fadeless laurels there, In silence and in darkness seize their prey. And presaging the truth of visioned bliss.

Are there not hopes within thee, which this scene Within the massy prison's mouldering courts, Of linked and gradual being has confirmed ! Fearless and free the ruddy children played, Whose stingings bade thy heart look further still, Weaving gay chaplets for their innocent brows When to the moonlight walk, by Henry led, With the green ivy and the red wall-flower, Sweetly and sadly thou didst talk of death? That mock the dungeon's unavailing gloom ; And wilt thou rudely tear them from thy breast, The ponderous chains, and gratings of strong iron, Listening supinely to a bigot's creed, There rusted amid heaps of broken stone,

Or tamely crouching to the tyrant's rod,
That mingled slowly with their native earth : Whose iron thongs are red with human gore !
There the broad beam of day, which feebly once Never: but bravely bearing on, thy will
Lighted the cheek of lean captivity

Is destined an eternal war to wage
With a pale and sickly glare, then freely shone With tyranny and falsehood, and uproot
On the pure smiles of infant playfulness :

The germs of misery from the human heart. No more the shuddering voice of hoarse despair Thine is the hand whose piety would soothe Pealed through the echoing vaults, but soothing notes The thorny pillow of unhappy crime,

Whose impotence an easy pardon gains,

The steep descent of heaven's untrodden way. Watching its wanderings as a friend's disease : Fast and far the chariot flew : Thine is the brow whose mildness would defy The vast and fiery globes that rolled Its fiercest rage, and brave its sternest will, Around the Fairy's palace-gate When fenced by power and master of the world. Lessened by slow degrees, and soon appeared Thou art sincere and good; of resolute mind, Such tiny twinklers as the planet orbs Free from heart-withering custom's cold control, - | That there attendant on the solar power Of passion lofty, pure and unsubdued.

With borrowed light pursued their narrower way. Earth’s pride and meanness could not vanquish thee,

Earth floated then below : And therefore art thou worthy of the boon

The chariot paused a moment there ; Which thou hast now received : virtue shall keep The Spirit then descended : Thy footsteps in the path that thou hast trod, The restless coursers pawed the ungenial soil, And many days of beaming hope shall bless Snuffed the gross air, and then, their errand done, Thy spotless life of sweet and sacred love.

Unfurled their pinions to the winds of heaven. Go, happy one ! and give that bosom joy, Whose sleepless spirit waits to catch

The Body and the Soul united then ; Light, life and rapture from thy smile.

A gentle start convulsed Ianthe's frame :

Her veiny eyelids quietly unclosed ; The Fairy waves her wand of charm.

Moveless awhile the dark blue orbs remained : Speechless with bliss the Spirit mounts the car, She looked around in wonder, and beheld That rolled beside the battlement,

Henry, who kneeled in silence by her couch, Bending her beamy eyes in thankfulness. Watching her sleep with looks of speechless love, Again the enchanted steeds were yoked,

And the bright beaming stars Again the burning wheels inflame

That through the casement shone.


P. 3, col. 1, 1. 64.

cessor, with the childish mummeries of the God of The sun's unclouded orb

the Jews, is irreconcileable with the knowledge of the Rolled through the black concave.

stars. The works of his fingers have borne witness Beyond our atmosphere the sun would appear a

against bim. rayless orb of fire in the midst of a black concave.

The nearest of the fixed stars is inconceivably The equal diffusion of its light on earth is owing to

distant from the earth, and they are probably proporthe refraction of the rays by the atmosphere, and their tionably distant from each other. By a calculation of reflection from other bodies. Light consists either of

the velocity of light, Syrius is supposed to be at least vibrations propagated through a subtle medium, or of 54,224,000,000,000 miles from the earth.* That numerous minute particles repelled in all directions which appears only like a thin and silvery cloud, from the luminous body. Its velocity greatly exceeds streaking the heaven, is in effect composed of innumethat of any substance with which we are acquainted :

rable clusters of suns, cach shining with its own light, observations on the eclipses of Jupiter's satellites have

and illuminating numbers of planets that revolve around demonstrated that light takes up no more than 8' 7"

them. Millions and millions of suns are ranged around in passing from the sun to the earth, a distance of

us, all attended by innumerable worlds, yet calm, 95,000,000 miles. Some idea may be gained of the regular, and harmonious, all keeping the paths of imimmense distance of the fixed stars, when it is computed

mutable necessity. that many years would elapse before light could reach

P. 9, col. 1, l. 5. this earth from the nearest of them; yet in one year

These are the hired bravos who defend light travels 5,422,400,000,000 miles, which is a dis

The tyrant's throne. tance 5,707,600 times greater than that of the sun from the earth.

To employ murder as a means of justice, is an idea

which a man of an enlightened mind will not dwe!! P. 3, col. 2, 1. 9.

upon with pleasure. To march forth in rank and file,

and all the pomp of streamers and trumpets, for the Whilst round the chariot's way Innumerable systems rolled.

purpose of shooting at our fellow-men as a mark; to

inflict upon them all the variety of wound and anguish; The plurality of worlds,—the indefinite immensity

to leave them weltering in their blood; to wander over of the universe, -—is a most awful subject of contempla- the field of desolation, and count the number of the tion. He who rightly feels its mystery and grandeur is dying and the dead,--are employments which in thesis in no danger of seduction from the falsehoods of religious

we may maintain to be necessary, but which no good systems, or of deifying the principle of the universe. It is impossible to believe that the Spirit that pervades battle we suppose is won :thus truth is established,

man will contemplate with gratulation and delight. A this infinite machine begat a son upon the body of a

thus the cause of justice is confirmed! It surely Jewish woman, or is angered at the consequences of requires no common sagacity to disceru the connexion that necessity which is a synonyme of itself. All that miserable tale of the Devil, and Eve, and an Inter

* See Nicholson's Encyclopedia, art. Light.


between this immense heap of calamities and the asser Which this unfailing dagger gave.... tion of truth or the maintenance of justice.

I dread that blood ! -no more-this day Kings, and ministers of state, the real authors of Is ours, though her eternal ray the calamity, sit unmolested in their cabinet, while Must shine upon our grave. those against whom the fury of the storm is directed Yet know, proud Vice, had I not given are, for the moet part, persons who have been trepanned To thee the robe I stole from heaven, into the service, or who are dragged unwillingly from Thy shape of ugliness and fear their peaceful homes into the field of battle. A soldier Had never gained admission here. is a man whose business it is to kill those who never offended him, and who are the innocent martyrs of

And know that, had I disdained to toil,
other wen's iniquities. Whatever may become of the
abstract question of the justifiableness of

But sate in my loathsome cave the while,
it seems

And ne'er to these hateful sons of heaven
impossible that the soldier should not be a depraved
and unnatural being.


Hadst thou with all thine art essayed To these more serious and momentous considerations it may be proper to add a recollection of the ridiculous

One of thy games then to have played, ness of the military character. Its first constituent Falsehood, I tell thee thou hadst lost !

With all thine overweening boast, is obedience ; a soldier is, of all descriptions of men,

Yet wherefore this dispute ?--we tend, the most completely a machine; yet his profession

Fraternal, to one common end ; inevitably teaches him something of dogmatism, swag

In this cold grave beneath my feet gering, and self-consequence : he is like the puppet of

Will our hopes, our fears, and our labours, meet. a show-man, who, at the very time he is made to strut and swell, and display the most farcical airs, we

FALSEHOOD. perfectly know cannot assume the most insignificant I brought my daughter, RELIGION, on earth ; gesture, advance either to the right or the left, but as She smothered Reason's babes in their birth; he is moved by his exhibitor. Godwin's Enquirer,

But dreaded their mother's eye severe, Essay V.

So the crocodile slunk off slily in fear, I will here subjoin a little poem, so strongly ex And loosed her bloodhounds from the den .... pressive of my abhorrence of despotism and falsehood, They started from dreams of slaughtered men, that I fear lest it never again may be depictured so And, by the light of her poison eye, vividly. This opportunity is perhaps the only one that Did her work o'er the wide earth frightfully; ever will occur of rescuing it from oblivion.

The dreadful stench of her torches' fare,
Fed with human fat, polluted the air :

The curses, the shrieks, the ceaseless cries

Of the many mingling miseries,
As on she trod, ascended high

And trumpeted my victory !
Whilst monarchs laughed upon their thrones

Brother, tell what thou hast done.
To hear a famished nation's groans,
And hugged the wealth wrung from the woe

I have extinguished the noon-day sun
That makes its eyes and veins o'erflow,-
Those thrones, high built upon the heaps

In the carnage-smoke of battles won :

Famine, murder, hell, and power, Of bones where frenzied famine sleeps,

Were glutted in that glorious hour, Where slavery wields her scourge of iron,

Which searchless fate had stamped for me Red with mankind's unheeded gore,

With the seal of her security.... And war's mad fiends the scene environ,

For the bloated wretch on yonder throne Mingling with shrieks a drunken roar,

Commanded the bloody fray to riseThere Vice and Falsehood took their stand,

Like me, he joyed at the stifled moan High raised above th' unhappy land.

Wrung from a nation's miseries;

While the snakes, whose slime even him defiled, Brother ! arise from the dainty fare

In ecstacies of malice smiled : Which thousands have toiled and bled to bestow; They thought 'twas theirs,—but mine the decd! A finer fcast for thy hungry ear

Theirs is the toil, but mine the mecd-
Is the news that I bring of human woe.

Ten thousand victims madly bleed.
They dream that tyrants goad them there

With poisonous war to taint the air :
And, secret one! what hast thou done,

These tyrants, on their beds of thorn, To compare, in thy tumid pride, with me?

Swell with the thoughts of murderous fame, I, whose career, through the blasted year,

And with their gains to lift my name,
Has been tracked by despair and agony.

Restless they plan from night to morn :

I-I do all ; without my aid
What have I done ?— I have torn the robe

Thy daughter, that relentless maid, From baby Truth's unsheltered form,

Could never o'er a death.bed urge
And round the desolated globe

The fury of her venomed scourge.
Borne safely the bewildering charm :
My tyrant-slaves to a dungeon-floor

Brother, well the world is ours;
Have bound the fearless innocent,

Aud whether thou or I have won, And streams of fertilizing gore

The pestilence expectant lowers Flow from her bosom's hideous rept,

On all beneath yon blasted sun.






Our joys, our toils, our honours, meet
In the milk-white and wormy winding-sheet;
A short-lived hope, unceasing care,
Some heartless scrape of godly prayer,
A moody curse, and a frenzied sleep
Ere gapes the grave's unclosing deep,
A tyrant's dream, a coward's start,
That ice that clings to a priestly heart,
A judge's frown, a courtier's smile,
Make the great whole for which we toil;
And, brother, whether thou or I
Have done the work of misery,
It little boots : thy toil and pain,
Without my aid, were more than vain;
And but for thee I ne'er bad sate
The guardian of heaven's palace gate.

P. 9, col. 2, 1. 27.
Thus do the generations of the earth

Go to the grave and issue from the womb. “ One generation passeth away and another generation cometh, but the earth abideth for ever. The sun also ariseth and the sun goeth down, and hasteth to his place where he arose. The wind goeth toward the south, and turneth about unto the north; it whirleth about continually, and the wind returneth again according to his circuits. All the rivers run into the sea, yet the sea is not full; unto the place whence the rivers come,

thither shall they return again."— Ecclesiastes, chap. i.

P.9, col. 2, 1. 30.

Even as the leaves
Which the keen frost-wind of the waning year

Has scattered on the forest soil. Ολη περ φύλλων γενεή, τοιήδε και ανδρών. φύλλα τα μέν τ' άνεμος χαμάδις χέει, άλλα δε θ' ύλη Τηλεθόωσα φύει: έαρος δ' επιγίγνεται ώρη. "Ως ανδρών γενεή, η μεν φύει, ήδ' απολήγει.

IAIAA. Z'. 1. 146.

admirably fitted to produce all the varieties of disease and crime, which never fail to characterise the two extremes of opulence and penury. A speculator takes pride to himself as the promoter of his country's prosperity, who employs a number of hands in the manufacture of articles avowedly destitute of use, or subservient only to the unballowed cravings of luxury and ostentation. The nobleman who employs the peasants of his neighbourhood in building his palaces, until jam pauca aratro jugera, regiæ moles relinquent,flatters bimself that he has gained the title of a patriot by yielding to the impulses of vanity. The show and pomp of courts adduce the same apology for their continuance; and many a fête bas been given, many a woman has eclipsed her beauty by her dress, to benefit the labouring poor and to encourage trade. Who does not see that this is a remedy which aggravates, whilst it palliates, the countless diseases of society? The poor are set to labour,-for what? Not the food for which they famish : not the blankets for want of which their babes are frozen by the cold of their miserable hovels : not those comforts of civilisation without which civilised man is far more miserable than the meanest savage ; oppressed as he is by all its insidious evils, within the daily and taunting prospect of its innumerable benefits assiduously exbibited before him : -no; for the pride of power, for the miserable isolation of pride, for the false pleasures of the hundredth part of society. No greater evidence is afforded of the wide-extended and radical mistakes of civilised man than this fact : those arts which are essential to his very being are held in the greatest contempt; employments are lucrative in an inverse ratio to their useful. ness *: the jeweller, the toyman, the actor, gains fame and wealth by the exercise of his useless and ridiculous art; whilst the cultivator of the earth, he without whom society must cease to subsist, struggles through contempt and penury, and perishes by that famine which, but for his unceasing exertion, would annihilate the rest of mankind.

I will not insult common sense by insisting on the doctrine of the natural equality of man. The question

is not concerning its desirableness, but its practicabil. ity; so far as it is practicable, it is desirable. That

state of human society which approaches nearer to an equal partition of its benefits and evils should, cæteris paribus, be preferred; but so long as we conceive that a wanton expenditure of human labour, not for the necessities, not even for the luxuries, of the mass of society, but for the egotism and ostentation of a few of its members, is defensible on the ground of public justice, so long we neglect to approximate to the redemption of the human race.

Labour is required for physical, and leisure for moral improvement: from the former of these advantages the rich, and from the latter the poor, by the inevitable conditions of their respective situations, are precluded. A state which should combine the advantages of both would be subjected to the evils of neither. He that is deficient in firm health, or vigorous intellect, is but half a man; hence it follows, that, to subject the labouring classes to unnecessary labour, is wantonly to deprive them of any opportunities of intellectual improvement: and that the rich are hcaping up for their own mischief the discase, lassitude, and ennui, by which their existence is rendered an intolerable burden.

English reformers exclaim against sinecures,—but the true pension list is the rent-roll of the landed pro

* See Rousseau, “ De l'Inégalité parmi les Hommes," note 7.

P. 10, col, 1, 1. 19. The mob of peasants, nobles, priests, and kings. Suave, mari magno turbantibus æquora ventis, E terra magnum alterius spectare laborem: Non, quia vexari quemquam 'st jocunda voluptas, Sed, quibus ipse malis careas, quia cernere suave'st. Per campos instructa, tua sine parte pericli, Suave etiam belli certamina magna tueri: Sed nil dulcius est, bene quam munita tenere, Edita doctrina sapientum templa serena; Despicere unde queas alios, passimque videre Errare, atque viam palanteis quærere vitæ; Certare ingenio; contendere nobilitate, Nocteis atque dies niti præstante labore Ad summas emergere opes, rerumque potiri, O miseras hominum menteis! O pectora cæca !

Lucret. lib. ii.

P. 10, col. 1, 1. 55.

And statesmen boast

Of wealth! There is no real wealth but the labour of man. Were the mountains of gold and the valleys of silver, the world would not be oue grain of corn the richer; no one comfort would be added to the human race. In consequence of our consideration for the precious metals, one man is enabled to heap to himself luxuries at the expense of the necessaries of his neighbour ; a system

prietors : wealth is a power usurped by the few, to where its votaries live in coufidence, equality, and
compel the many to labour for their benefit. The unreserve.
laws which support this system derive their force from How long then ought the sexual connexion to last ?
the ignorance and credulity of its victims: they are what law ought to specify the extent of the grievances
the result of a conspiracy of the few against the many, which should limit its duration ? A husband and wife
who are themselves obliged to purchase this pre-emi- | ought to continue so long united as they love each
nence by the loss of all real comfort.

other: any law, which should bind them to cobabitation
The commodities that substantially contribute to fur one moment after the decay of their affection, would
the subsistence of the human species form a very short be a most intolerable tyranny, and the most unworthy
catalogue : they demand from us but a slender por of toleration. How odious a usurpation of the right
tion of industry. If these only were produced, and of private judgment should that law be considered
sufficiently produced, the species of man would be which should make the ties of friendship indissoluble,
continued. If the labour necessarily required to pro in spite of the caprices, the inconstancy, the fallibility,
duce them were equitably divided among the poor, and capacity for improvement of the human mind ?
and, still more, if it were equitably divided among all, And by so much would the fetters of love be heavier
each man's share of labour would be light, and his and more unendurable than those of friendship, as love
portion of leisure would be ample. There was a time is more vehement and capricious, more dependent on
when this leisure would have been of small compara those delicate peculiarities of imagination, and less
tive value: it is to be hoped that the time will come capable of reduction to the ostensible merits of the
when it will be applied to the most important purposes. object.
Those hours, which are not required for the production The state of society in which we exist is a mixture
of the necessaries of life, may be devoted to the culti of feudal savageness and imperfect civilisation. The
vation of the understanding, the enlargement of our narrow and unenlightened morality of the Christian
stock of knowledge, the refinement of our taste, and religion is an aggravation of these evils. It is not even
thus open to us new and more exquisite sources of until lately that mankind have admitted that happiness

is the sole end of the science of ethics, as of all other

sciences; and that the fanatical idea of mortifying the It was perhaps necessary that a period of monopoly

flesh for the love of God has been discarded. I have and oppression should subsist, before a period of cul

heard, indeed, an ignorant collegian adduce, in favour tivated equality could subsist. Savages perhaps would

of Christianity, its hostility to every worldly feeling !* never have been excited to the discovery of truth and But if happiness be the object of morality, of all the invention of art, but by the narrow motives which

human unions and disunions; if the worthiness of such a period affords. But, surely, after the savage every action is to be estimated by the quantity of state has ceased, and men have set out in the glorious pleasurable sensation it is calculated to produce, then enreer of discovery and invention, monopoly and op

the connexion of the sexes is so long sacred as it conpression cannot be necessary to prevent them from tributes to the comfort of the parties, and is naturally returning to a state of barbarism.- Godwin's En dissolved when its evils are greater than its benefits. quirer, Essay II. See also Pol. Jus. book vüi. There is nothing immoral in this separation. Con. chap. 11.

stancy has nothing virtuous in itself, independently of It is a calculation of this admirable author, that all the pleasure it confers, and partakes of the temporising the conveniences of civilised life might be produced, spirit of vice in proportion as it endures tamely moral if society would divide the labour equally among its defects of magnitude in the object of its indiscreet members, by each individual being employed in labour choice. Love is free: to promise for ever to love the two hours during the day.

same woman, is not less absurd than to promise to

believe the same creed : such a vow, in both cases, P. 10, col. 2, 1. 8.

excludes us from all inquiry. The language of the

votarist is this : The woman I now love may be inOr religion

finitely inferior to many others; the creed I now Drives his wife raving mad.

profess may be a mass of errors and absurdities ; but I am acquainted with a lady of considerable accom

I exclude myself from all future information as to the plishments, and the mother of a numerous family, amiability of the one and the truth of the other, rewhom the Christian religion has goaded to incurable

solving blindly, and in spite of conviction, to adhere to insanity. A parallel case is, I believe, within the

them. Is this the language of delicacy and reason? experience of every physician.

Is the love of such a frigid heart of more worth than Nam jam sæpe homines patriam, carosque parentes

its belief? Prodiderunt, vitare Acherusia templa potentes.

The present system of constraint does no more, in

the majority of instances, than make hypocrites or
P. 11, col. 1, 1. 19.

open enemies. Persons of delicacy and virtue, unEven love is sold.

happily united to those whom they find it impossible to Not even the intercourse of the sexes is exempt * The first Christian emperor made a law by which from the despotism of positive institution. Law pre seduction was punished with death: if the female pleaded tends even to govern the indisciplinable wanderings of her own consent, she also was punished with death; if passion, to put fetters on the clearest deductions of

the parents endeavoured to screen the criminals, they reason, and, by appeals to the will, to subdue the

were banished and their estates confiscated; the slaves involuntary affections of our nature. Love is inevit.

who might be accessory were burned alive, or forced

to swallow melted lead. The very offspring of an illegal ably consequent upon the perception of loveliness. Love

love were involved in the consequences of the sentence.withers under constraint : its very essence is liberty : Gibbon's Decline and Fall, 8€., vol. ii. page 210. See also, it is compatible neither with obedience, jealousy, nor for the hatred of the primitive Christians to love, and even fear : it is there most pure, perfect, and unlimited, marriage, page 269.

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