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20 Tour of the Austrian Archdukes in Great Britain in 1815-16. (Aug. 1,
panied us to the Castle, where the which passes through the lid of the
Governor, and several officers of the copper: from these first coppers the
staff, live; it is also used as barracks, Auid is conveyed by pipes into two
arsenal, &c. Here they shew the room others to be boiled, from which it is con-
in which the crown of Scotland was ducted by a pipe into another copper.
formerly preserved. The Lord Provost In the last pipe there is a kind of sieve,
and two other persons have the keys to which only admits through it the quite
the chamber; which has not been opened clear liquid, and the malt is afterwards
for many years, for fear of not meeting taken out with shovels. Several pumps
with every thing which should be found raise the fluid up to the roof of another
there. It is believed that the crown building, which is open on one side,
has been taken to England, lest the where it is received in two large reser-
sight of it should make the Scotch re. voirs, and stirred round with a mash
pent of their union.* It is supposed fork. For the purpose of fermentation,
that their removal took place in the time the fluid is conveyed into great vats,
of one of the rebellions in the years one of which is an iron one: these vats
1715 or 1745; and this supposition fill two very large rooms.
seems pretty well founded, as since that The distillation is made in four large
time no more has been said of it. retorts, or rather kettles; they are not

From a terrace, which is equal to the above three or four inches deep, and
height of the roof, we enjoyed the have lids, which afford an easy issue to
panoramic view of Edinburgh; and the smoke. The malt which has already
here the singular situatiun of the city is fermented is put into the two largest ;
very striking. You have a view over to prevent its burning, it is kept in con-
the double town united by a bridge. stant motion by means of metal chains,
The landscape which the eye commands which are stirred about at the bottom
is very fruitful, and adorned with gar- of the kettle.
dens and country scats. You see to the Each of these retorts contains from
North the harbour and the town of 9 to 10,000 gallons. The instrument to
Leith; to the East the hill which bears stir the malt is set in motion, like the
the name of Arthur's Seat, has the mills, by the steam engine. The great-
form of a flattened cone eight hundred est card must be taken that the retort
feet high; on the South and SE. the does not remain dry a moment, it is
prospect is bounded by the unfruitful therefore constantly filled up. A great
chain of the Pentland Hills.

fire is kept up under it. A retort On the 4th we began our visits, ac which contains 43 gallons, distils in two companied by the Lord Provost, at the minutes and three quarters, without whisky distillery of Messrs Younger and hurting the brandy, which Aows in a Co. a remarkable and very extensive large and rapid stream. The coolers manufactory. The motion required in are of wood; and stand out of the it, is produced by a steam engine made house. The brandy, after being once in Edinburgh itself upon Watt's prin- distilled, is raised by pumps, worked by ciples. We saw it at work: it is of men, into two other retorts, where it is fifty or sixty horse power. It puts a distilled a second time. The distillery malt mill in motion, which occupies a furnishes daily 3000 gallons of rectified building of four stories. The same brandy. Barley and Spelt * are the steam engine raises the sacks to the roof, species of corn used. T'he brandy is through square openings which are put into large casks, which are gauged closed by trap doors: two sacks are by an excise officer, for the levying of raised together and open the trap doors, the duties. An idea may be formed of which close after them; when they the extent of this distillery, when we reach the top they are taken off, and the are told that the duties paid by the proropes let down again.

prietors amount to 600,000l. + sterling The grain is ground in 'six or eight

* Spelt is not a species of corn, but any scuttles, and the malt then conveyed species of grain split.-Ed. with the necessary quantity of water into f The German editor of the Princes' four great coppers : here it is stirred notes, thinks that the 10,000 gallons menround with a mash fork, the handle of tioned as the contents of a retort or copper

It has since been found with the old Re- should be 1000; and in the sum that a galia of Scotland in the Castle ; so that it similar addition of a cipher by the tranis curious to observe, that even Princes scriber has caused 300,0001. to be menfall into the same vulgar errors with com- tioned as the duty paid instead of 30,000). mon travellers.Ed.

which he thinks more likely,

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1818.] Tour of the Austrian Archdukes in Great Britain in 1815–16. 21 per anum. The produce of this distillery erecting a new one, which will be very is entirely consumed in England. The handsome and extensive, and for which same distillery is not allowed to work for Parliament has granted the annual sum two kingdoms, but must chuse between of 12,000l. sterling for six years. them: those which work for England, This University was founded in the pay here (in Scotland) but small duties; reign of James the Sixth, in the year but on the other hand they bear all the 1581. At the beginning, the number of English duties. The Scotch distillers professors was small; but the city magisare distinguished for their skilfulness in trates took great pains to procure disthe rapid boiling and evaporation of the tinguished men, and the flourishing state fluid; and they effect this by the use of of the University was the happy result broad and shallow vessels. In propor- of their exertions. In the year 1789, tion as the government raises the duty the number of the students amounted on the kettles, they are made of larger to 1100; it has since annually increased dimensions, so that more brandy is dis- and at the time of our visit it was 1708. tilled without paying a higher duty. Doctors Black, Cullen, Blair, and This distillery is the property of two Robertson, have done honour to this brothers, who have employed a very University. At present it has among large capital in it.

its professors of the mathematics Mr. From the manufactory of Messrs. Leslie, celebrated for his fine experiYounger and Co.we went to the building ment on the freezing of water, by called Heriot's Hospital; which however evaporation in a vacuum; Mr. Jameson, in fact is not an hospital, but an estab- professor of natural philosophy, is a lishment for the education of the sons of pupil of our celebrated Werner; Mr. poor citizens, where the children are Hope, professor of chemistry, has always maintained, clothed and taught. This between five and six hundred hearers. establishment was founded in the reign Mr. Dugald Stewart, the professor of of James the Sixth, by a goldsmith, who philosophy, was in the country: we bequeathed his whole property, amount- heard a great deal in praise of him, and ing to 23,6251. sterling for the purpose. also of Mr. Coventry, the professor of This capital, which then brought in 10 agriculture. per cent, increased in twenty years to A house was building for the Acade70,585). and has greatly augmented since mical Museum, of which the collections that time.

are indeed crowded into too small a The building is of considerable extent space. There is in this museum a fine and resembles an old castle: a hundred mammoth's head, and a remarkable coland seventy boys are educated in it; lection of Scotch birds. The mineralowho are taught reading, writing, arith- gical collection is unusually rich, and metic, and latin. Those who are to possesses, among other things, a fine prosecute their studies at the University series of the volcanic products of receive 10l. a year for four years, and Vesuvius, presented to the University by those who learn a business receive 301. Professor Thomson. when they leave the house. They are

The medical lecture room is very received from the age of seven to that of handsome, and is lighted from above. In ten years, and they remain on the esta an adjoining cabinet there is an uncomblishment till their fourteenth year. monly fine stuffed hippopotamus; it is The children look cheerful and healthy; in perfect preservation, and about nine and their rooms are kept clean and in feet long: the animal is said to have good order.

been very young: Opposite to this establishment stands The University Library is a year a similar one, founded by George Wat- older than the University itself. It was son, for the sons of merchants and founded in 1580 by Clement Little, and tradesmen. The city contains also two has been greatly augmented by donaestablishments of the same kind for girls, tions. It contains many rare and curious besides many hospitable and benevolent articles: among others, the original of institutions. In one of these, patients the marriage contract between Mary whose cases do not require them to be Stuart and the Dauphin: the original admitted into the hospital, can receive protest, signed and sealed by five hundred advice and medicines gratis four times a Bohemian and Moravian noblemen, week.

against the Council of Constance, and The New College, in which is the the condemnation of John Huss, in the University, lies in the Old Town. The year 1417. It possesses likewise some old building being too small, they are Oriental MSS.

A Story about Nothing,

(Aug. 1, We next went to Holyrood House, less labour' to set about tracing my orithe ancient palace of the Kings of Scot- gin through all the labyrinths of the dark land. It is situated on the East side of ages, since even the Chinese and the Brathe Old Town, and forms a large square. mins, who make a boast of being in posAt present it is inhabited by some of session of indubitable registers of their the nobility, the Marquis of Douglas, respective nations extended to millions Lord Dunmore, &c. A great hall, of years, are obliged to confess that may adorned with the portraits of the Kings family is still more ancient. At an carly of Scotland, is used for the election of period, and indeed as far back as I can Peers to serve in Parliament. A par. recollect, an inroad was made upon the ticular interest is excited by the apart- greatest part of the paternal estate by ments formerly inhabited by Queen the fiat of the supreme lord; in conseMary Stuart, in which all the furniture quence of which a younger brother of has remained unchanged ever since. mine was put in possession of a very exThere are two rooms, cach with a closct tensive domain, which was cultivated and adjoining. The red dainask curtains, colonized for him solely at my expense. bordered with green fringe, have suf- This you may weil suppose could not but fered by time, and are much damaged: prove extremely mortifying to one of niy the Queen's arm-chair, harpsichord and indolent temper, whose only pleasure has toilet, on the other hand, are in good ever been of the negative kind, in the enpreservation. Next to her room is the joyment of rest and quietness. But this cabinet in which she was at supper in change in affairs put me to the shifts, and the company of the Countess of Argyle, having been so long unuseil to any thing and of Rizzio, when Lord Darnley en- like active life, I was unable to contend tered at the head of the conspirators, with the new colonists, who made conand dragged the unhappy favourite into tinual encroachments upon that part of the bed-chamber, where he was murder- the old estate which remained in my posed. In this room they shew a trap-door session. These vexations were very leading to the private staircase, by which hard to be borne, but after some time I the murderers entered. On the floor had the satisfaction to perceive that the they pointed out some drops of blood, restless beings whom I dreaded at first as which, as we heard, are fresh painted my greatest enemies were easily to be cvery year. In one of the rooms there converted into good friends and even subis a picture of Lord Darnley; and in a jects. Of this an evidence soon appeared closet a glove is preserved, which is said in their readiness to abide by my decision to have belonged to him. They also in most of their disputes; the consequence shew a small oil painting of the Queen. of which never failed to be a protracted

Near the palace there is a chapel in the contest till neither party knew the occaGothic style, but in a very ruinous state. sion of the quarrel. My influence being It contains some monuinents: a very thus established soon spread and became old one of white marble, made in Italy, paramount in the most important of huis shewn in the tower, and considered as man concerns. To such a degree was a curiosity, from its having escaped this carried at last, that the people made destruction in the numerous civil wars. me an object of their idolatry, under

We were told of a singular privilege of various denominations according to the this palace, in which debtors who cannot ingenuity of those who had the address satisfy their creditors, find an asylum to profit by the general credulity. The from prosecution by them.

most splendid editices were erected to (To be continued.)

my honour, and altars smoked with vic

tims at early morn and dewy eve, to A STORY ABOUT NOTHING.

propitiate my favour. Nay even the MR. EDITOR,

sages who affected to treat me with conTHE great encouragement which self- tempt, who boasted of superior light and biography has met with of late years, in- made it their business to instruct men duces me, though hitherto a stranger to in the principles of philosophy, were so your magazine, to solicit the indulgence much my debtors for the greatest part of a page or two for my strange and of their boasted wisdom, as to accuse eventful history. With regard to ances one another of downright ignorance, or try, that most essential and Aattering in plain terms with being my most intipoint in all records of this kind, I may mate acquaintance. It is not a little represume without vanity to challenge any markable that while these men laid it historian of his own life and times to down for a maxim that ex nihilo nilil compete with me. It would be an end- fit, they actually should overthrow their

A Story about Nothing.

23 favourite position by ascribing to an ideal the quirks and quibbles, or to speak point, having neither form nor dimen- more technically, the quidlibets and quodsions, and consequently no existence out libers of the schools, should have obtained of the mind, the generation of all lines currency and passed down from the dark by which superficies are measured, and ages to an enlightened era, as it is called, all solids in which substantial matter is with the stamp of truth. Thus for incontained. In like manner when these stance the word PACI, upon which my profound calculators wanted to discover sagacious disputants of old were wont to some unknown quantities in the com- ring endless changes, still holds its staplexity of numbers, they were under the tion in the philosophical vocabulary, surnecessity of calling me to their assistance, rounded with numerous adjuncts, though by substituting an imaginary sign with the principle remains as undefined and which they were enabled to work, as inexplicable as it was in the days of with a real power, whose talismanic Duns Scotus, or the still more profound operations alone could unfold satisfacto- Raimund Lully. According to one of rily the recondite mystery. Thus it ap- the ablest and most exact of modern pears that the most certain of all the reasoners, “space is not a substance." sciences depends materially upon my aid, and yet the same learned philosopher and that without it the most operose in- immediately afterwards gravely enters vestigations could not be effected. But into an enumeration of all the sensible if this be true in regard to the doctrine and operative qualities of this non-entity, and practice of mathematical analysis, it which is precisely the same sort of conis no less so in dialectics and inctaphy- tradiction as that implied in the celesics. In this airy region, indeed, I may brated question of the schools: “whebe said to reign without a rival, for ther accidents may subsist without a though there have never been wanting subject?" refractory spirits to contest my legiti Of a like kind, and to an equal purport, inacy, none of them ever ventured to are the terms Volition and Necessity call in question my actual existence, made use of in respect to those actions being aware that in doing this they that depend upon the determination of would destroy all title to the castles the human mind. That such actions which they have presumed to erect with are necessary per p, is readily allowed in my dominions. Like the feudal lords by all disputants, but whether the will these founders of systems became ex- of man is at liberty to perform them or tremely arbitrary, and to say the truth not, of its own pleasure, is the knotty their followers have been no less violent point which, after all the contentions it in defending the dignity and principles of has occasioned, remains undecided. To their respective chiefs against all who such a pitch, however, has the spirit of presumed to think for themselves. At disputation been carried on this and one period this intellectual strife was other kindred subjects, that the angry carried to the most extravagant pitch, combatants have not scrupled to charge and universities waged war against each each other with heresy, licentiousness, other with the most infuriate animosity, and even atheism, though neither side according as the Thomists or the Scot- could explain their own doctrine withists, the Nominalists or the Realists ob- out making use of the language and printained a footing in these learned societies. ciples of their opponents. The rage for Whenever these subtile disputants were hypothesis in things which are inexplihard pressed to explain their meaning cable rarely fails to seize men of lively they invented new dialects, by which fancy when they once approach my termeáns my authority became more con- ritory, where, if they chance to settle for firmed, and was more widely extended, any time, the disorder becomes incurafor as the conflicting parties could not ble, and the persons so aflicted with it. comprehend each other's jargon, this was presume to set up as world-makers, and interpreted into a proof that they who reforners of all the irregularities which, roined the most barbarous phraseology in their estimation, deform the present had the advantage in argument, and that state of the moral and physical system. the knowledge of their opponents The earth, according to one philosopher, amounted to nothing. As the world is is nothing more than a spent comet, readily disposed to be duped by hard which, after wandering like an idle vawords, which either have no fixed signi- grant for many ages, became steady at fication, or are of so flexible a descrip. fast, and an orderly member of the plation as to be easily converted to oppo- netary family. Another theorist of a site purposes, it cannot be wondered that more fertile genius has improved upon

New Systems of Education.

[Aug 1, this idea by knocking off a piece of the similar general laws, modified by disun, with his philsophical hammer, and versity of structure, govern and consending it through infinite space till the solidate the animal fraine, as a compound centrifugal force being exhausted, and whole.". the ignited mass pretty well cooled, it According to this mode of accounttook a rotatory motion, and in the course ing for the varieties of animated forms of time became a very comfortable dwell- that exist on the globe, it appears ing for innumerable animals that have that every individual being lay wrapped been hatched by the heat, like the eggs up in its atomic state till the plastic of the crocodile in the mud of the Nile, agency of excitability came with vital or those of the ostrich in the sands of power to hatch it into activity. But the Desert. Whence originated the germ should any one unluckily deinand a of all vegetation and the principle of ani- precise definition of this principle of mated nature would appear to be a ques- excitability, the answer I much fear will tion very hard to solve; but your sturdy be,

NOTHING. theorist is not to be daunted by difficulties which impede the progress of more patient NEW SYSTEMS OF EDUCATION. enquirers. He can take the universe to MR. EDITOR, pieces and put it together again with as YOUR Correspondent “ D-t,"* has nuch ease and accuracy as the artist styled the new school system “ that of does a chronometer. But this is not all, Lancaster and Bell." "This association for having once framed his scheme, it of names is extremely erroneous ; for becomes an infallible rule by which the the new System of Education, or that of most intricate and perplexing problems Madras, was invented by Dr. Bell only. may be easily solved. As a proof of this, That venerable character, anxiously enI shall close the present lucubration with gaged, far from his native shores, in supera passage from an enlightened enquirer intending an Orphan Asylum, first, and of the present day, who has excogitated alone, discovered, and reduced to practice a complete, and, to me at least, a very that principle by which “a school teaches satisfactory definition of vitality. These itself." From 1789 to 1796, Dr. Bell are his words:

experienced at Madras, the utility of “Could the human eye be rendered that power of the mind, there originally sufficiently microscopic to pry distinctly exerted. An account of his novel experiinto the 'minutest integrant particles of ment, extracted from the records of the animal organization, analogy, derived Institution, and corroborated by the from the more evolved structure, war- highest existing authorities in India, was rants the conclusion, that every organ published soon after the arrival of the would be found essentially different in Dr. in London, in the year 1:97. In the disposition, form, number, and pro- this publication was first developed the portion of its radical and constituent principle of the new system, and from principles; hence it is fair to infer that hence sprung its name and its qualities. the vital power manifested by the pro- It was not until 1801,

after Mr. Watts, perty of excitability partakes of the na- in London, and Dr. Briggs, in Kendal, ture and quality of such diversity, and had adopted the system solely fro Dr consequently it is allowable to affirm, Bell's little book, that Mr. J. Lancaster that the excitability of the brain is mo- opened his school in the Borough. In dified by the peculiar structure of that 1803, Mr. Lancaster published, not a organ; the same may be said of all the new experiment in cducation, not a new thoracic and abdominal viscera, likewise organ of the human mind for the acof the muscular, nervous, vascular, cuti- quisition and communication of knowcular, cellular, membranous, ligament- ledge, but what he modestly terms ous, and ossific arrangements of animal “Improvements in Education," and withmatter.”—“But,” continues this most out announcing any claim to originality perspicuous physiologist, “ although the of principle, or detailing any regular property of excitability in these dissimi- code of scholastic administration in conlar parts varies, as effects proceeding from formity to a new principle, he rests condifferent causes, yet similarity in general tented, with his exposure of what he principle and design, joins and associates calls “ dunce schools, and drunken every variety in a species of indivisible schoolmasters," and recommending a union, for the purpose of constituting scheme of rewards and punishments for and preserving the integrity of the sys- children. What he assumed afterwards, tem, and maintaining the vital and salutary relations of its various organs; hence • New Monthly Mag. Vol. IX. p. 396

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