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tion will merit the indulgence of the learned, the candid, and the patriotic.

• It was towards the close of the 5th century, that St. Pa. trick established here the monkish profession; fimplicity and purity of manners, and the most rigid mortification, were well calculated to inspire Pagans with veneration for such misionaries and their doctrines, and the Irish received, with the rudiments of their faith, a predilection for the monastic state. Congal, Carthag, and Columba, in the fixth century, carried monkery to greater splendor and perfection by their rules and noble foundations, and by their eminent talents, and distinguilhed zeal; they were the fruitful parents of a numerous progeny of monks, who, in the next century, multiplied to such numbers, that bishop Nicholson, an excellent judge, pronounces them equal to all the other inhabitants of the kingdom. In succeeding ages, every improvement of dress or discipline was quickly adopted here; and the long catalogue of Auguitinians, Benedi&tines, Ciftertians, and the rett, grace our monaltic annals. Our ancient abbies and monasteries, adorned with every sculptural and architectural ornament, speak the tafte of the times, the public generofity, and the opulence of these communities. These are facts imperfectly known to the natives, and not at all to foreigners ; it mall therefore be the business of the following pages, to draw them from obscurity, and place them in a clearer light.'

At this moment the establishment of the Protestant religion, as Mr. Archdall observes, is only partial; and he mentions the evidence of Dr. Burke, late titular bishop of Offory, that in the year 1756, there were in Ireland, of the Dominican order only, 181 monks : the Franciscans were much more numerous.

Sir James Ware first began the collections for an Irish Mom nafticon ; but he was too closely connected with public bufiness, and his attention too much distracted by various avo. cations, to proceed far in the design. He drew, says Mr, Archdall, tolerably correct outline of our cenobitic eltablishments, but very imperfect as to their private history and property.' In 1690, Ware's catalogue was enlarged, from the historiographers of the different monastic orders, by M. Alle mande ; translated again from the French, and published by captain Stevens, in 1722. Mr. Harris, the editor of Ware, changed the form of the work, but has contracted it too much to render it fatisfactory.

In this imperfect state our author found his subject. His enquiries began at the instigation of doctor Pocockę, þiḥop of Offory and Meath ; and he now, after many years incessant toil, and much expence, publishes an epitome of the records and documents which he has collected. The reason of not 04



publishing the whole, we have already noticed. The bulk would form two yolumes in folio ; and the expence would exceed the fortune of a private clergyman.' The work is undoubtedly of great consequence in different views ; and we would recommend the author to try the liberality of the public, if it be not posible to procure parliamentary aid, which certainly would be exerted with great propriety on a work of national confequence.

There is much information in this volume, relating to the establishment, the revenues, and peculiar situation of various monaftic institutions, the arrangement of which is illustrated by a map. The habits of the different orders are aļso explained, both by descriptions, and suitable engravings.

It is difficult to give a specimen of a work which confifts of short, detached, and almost independent facts. We shall, however, felect an extract of some curiosity, relating to ChristChurch in Dublin.

• Involved in darkness and obscurity, in vain we search for the origin of our religious foundations, the improbabilities and fi&tions of monkish legends are often our only evidences; and We are frequently obliged to adopt the palpable anachronisms of such writings, in the place of authentic documents, and chronological certainty.

• On the present occasion we are fortunately relieved from these difficulties by the testimony of a venerable record, the Black Book of Christ Church, which informs us, that about the year of our Lord 1038, Sitric, the son of Ableb, or rather Aulif, the Danish prince of Dublin, gave to Donat, bishop of that seę, a place, where the arches or vaults were founded, to erect a church to the honour of the Blessed Trinity.

• Ware, Harris, and other antiquaries, who have mentioned these circumstances, give us the extract without subjoining any çlucidation, which however it seems to call for,

• From the practice of those ages, we know that it was usua! to build small oratories, and to arch that part in which the fhrine of the faint, or other sacred deposit was placed. The fone roofing prevented accidents from fire, and at the same time preserved a reference to those cryptical monastic cells, then held in general veneration. When a large edifice was confructed, as was particularly the case at Cashell, these ancient vaulted oratories were religiousy preserved, and were looked on as indubitable proois of the antiquity and holiness of the church. From this explanation and instance, a doubt cannot be entertained of these 'arches being the foundation of an ancient oratory, and which the donations of Sitric enlarged and furnished with convenient and necessary offices ; for so the words " sufficienter ad ædificandam ecclefiam cum tota curia"? are to be interpreted.


Perhaps we shall alfo be excused for adding the following legendary tradition, relative to the staff of Jesus, given to St. Patrick, which he ufed to carry in his hands.

· St. Patrick, moved by divine inftinet, or angelic revelation, visited one Juftus, an ascetic who inhabited an island in the Tyrhene fea, a man of exemplary virtue and most holy life. After mutual falutations and discourse, he presented the Irish apostle with a staff, which he averred he had received from the hands of Jesus Christ himself. In this island were some men in the bloom of youth, and others who appeared aged and decrepit; St. Patrick conversing with them, found that thofe aged persons were fons of those seemingly young; astonished at this miraculous appearance, he was told, “ that from their infancy they had served God, that they were constantly employed in works of charity, and their doors ever open to the traveller and distressed ; that one night a stranger, with a staf in his hand, canie to them, whom they accommodated to the best of their power; that in the morning he blessed'them, and faid, I am Jesus Christ whom you have always faithfully served, but last night you received me in my proper person ; he then gave his staff to their spiritual father, with directions to deliver it to a ftranger named Patrick, who would shortly visit them; on saying this he ascended into heaven, and left us in that ftate of juvenility in which you behold us; and our fons, then young, are the old decrepit persons you now see.” Jocelyn goes on to relate, that with this staff our apostle collected every venomous creature in the island to the top of the mountain of Cruagh Phadruig, in the county of Mayo, and from thence precipitated them into the ocean.'

The author seldom dwells on such trifles.--His book is chiefly filled with facts of importance, which explain the situation, and the fources of the riches of the different monafteries. We wish well to his great work, and hope that he will meet with a liberal contribution.

An Historical and Critical Review of the Civil Wars in Ireland,

from the Reign of Queen Elizabeth, to the Settlement under King William. With the State of the Irish Catholics, from that Settlement to the Relaxation of the Popery Laws, in the Year 1778. By John Curry, M. D. 2 Vols. 8vo. 10s. 64. in Boards. Robinsons. THE first appearance of this work was in 1775: it was

mentioned at some length, in our Forty-third Volume, p. 445. The name of the author was not then annexed; but we now find that it was the production of Dr. Çurry, an able


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man, and a judicious physician. It may be worth while to mention, from his life, the source of works which were afterwards enlarged into the treatise we formerly reviewed.

• In O&ober, 1746, as he passed through the Calle-yard, on the memorial day of the Irish rebellion in 1641, he met two ladies, and a girl of about eight years of age, who, stepping on a little before them, turned about suddenly, and, with uplifted hands and horror in her countenance, exclaimed, there of those bloody Papists in Dublin ?” This incident, which to a different hearer would be laughable, filled the doctor with anxious reflections. He immediately inferred that the child's terror proceeded from the impresion made on her mind, by the fermon preached that day in Christ-church, whence those Jadies proceeded ; and having procured a copy of the sermon, he found that his surmise was well founded. In a spirit very different from that of the preacher, he immediately, on returning to his house, fat down to give some check to the hatred and afperity revived in these anniversary invectives, from seats fet apart for the propagation of truth and benevolence among men. His tract on this subject he put in the form of a Dialogue, wherein one of the intercolutors Mews the unfairness, and abfurdity also, of charging to any religion whatever, the crimes which that religion condemns, but which some of its professors may, at times, be guilty of. After fuch general reflections, he exposes the unfortunate causes which led to the insurrection in 1641, and the fatal consequences which followed. Three kingdoms were then in a flame, and the moderation and good sente of a few could not stop the conflagration : though it might in the beginning be easily quenched by those in power, had not their private views and self-interest biassed them to supply the fuel. The people of our days are no farther concerned in such evils, than to remind them of never repeating them. The cause removed, the effects should not be active, and be active, folely, from fuggestions of the imagination. To this the adversary to that interlocutors made answer, That though the evils complained of have long ceased, yet that among Papifts the principle remains, and must justify every legal penalty they are expofed to: he converted supposition into a fact which he could not prove. With no better argument, the Dialogue was attacked in a voluminous pamphlet, by Mr. Walter Harris, a gentleman unversed in the philosophy of history, and flagrantly abusive, but fit enough for his office of a compiler. Dr. Curry replied, in a book entitled Historical Memoirs ; a work well received by the public, and from which Mr. Brooke had his materials for his Trial of the Roman Catholics.'

We mentioned, in our former account of this work, that the author's great object was to counteract the misrepresentations of historians, in respect to Irish transactions, for almost 200 years


before. Ireland was undoubtedly treated with all the rigour which conquered countries experience; the inhabitants, warm, intrepid, and independent, could ill brook this conduct; and to this imperfect subjugation were at last added the prejudices which a difference of religion will always produce. Henry and Elizabeth could not inspire them with their own opinions. Dr. Curry, who was himself a Catholic, feels a little of these prejudices : he at times, as we have remarked, trusts too much to the vague suggestions of authors of his own party, and magnifies their opinions into facts. We do not mean to invalidate the authority of Dr. Curry's evidences : he is, in general, 2 candid historian ; and many of his fources of information are very respectable. He has sufficiently shown that the conduct of the English governors was not such as to procure esteem or affection; but, at the same time, he has not fully justified many parts of the Irish conduct. It is now a calmer moment: the differences of religion no longer inspire hatred : these in. tolerant principles have declined ; and we hope the penal exceptions to the Catholics, at least in that kingdom, will no longer disgrace the statute-books. They are perhaps the only impediments to a sincere and hearty union.

În this edition much new matter, from parliamentary journals, state acts, and other authentic documents, is added from the author's manuscripts. We are sorry that he did not himself revise it ; for we think much might have been softened, and somewhat changed. Yet this work will have its use: 5 audi alteram partem,' is always a useful lesson to an hisa torian.

To this edition is added, “The State of the Catholics of Įreland, from the Settlement, under King William, to the Relaxation of the Popery Laws in 1778.' This narrative gives a favourable account of the conduct of the Catholics ; and þrings into full view, the infringement of the capitulation of Limerick, the increase of penal oppressions, and the insults which have occasionally been offered to the Catholics. The work is, properly speaking, a continuation of the civil history of the conåuct of the Catholics, and their antagonists. It could not be added under the former title, because it includes no military transactions.

The Appendix contains many authentic documents, from the most respectable collections, to confirm different parts of the detail. It is in many respects a strong and satisfactory body of evidence,


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