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from one whale. Men go out in ships, on purpose to catch the whale.

Every child, almost, has seen a fish hook. Three of these hooks, of a very large size, are fastened together, like a fork with three points. This instrument is called a harpoon.. The people who go out to catch the whale, carry some harpoons with them. The harpoon has not' a handle; it is fastened to a rope. When a whale swims near a ship, the whale catchers make fast one end of the rope,. which has the harpoon fastened to the other end, and throw the harpoon with a great deal of force at the whale. The harpoon sticks fast into the whale, as a fork thrown at a child, would stick into him.

The whale feels the pain; he tries to get away, and dives below the surface of the water, but he takes the harpoon with him; for want of breath he is forced to rise to the surface. where he soon dies. The men then jump out into little boats; they take great knives, and cut the whale in pieces; they get from the whale's flesh all the oil they can, and put it into barrels, bring it home, and sell it. It is burnt in lamps to light houses, shops, and streets.

Many plants produce oil. In France, Italy, and some other countries, grows a tree called the olive. The fruit of the olive looks like a green plum-it has a stone on the inside like a plum stone. Olives are brought to this country in bottles.

When the fresh olive is squeezed, many drops of oil run out of it; many olives make a great deal of oil. This oil is brought to America-it is sometimes called sweet oil; it is eaten upon salad, and many other things.

The seed of the plant called flax, contains oil. This is commonly called linseed oil. The painter mixes his paint with linseed oil.

In Asia, there are springs of oil-the oil is called naphtha. It is of a dark colour like molasses.

There is in aromatic plants a fine oil which contains the odour or smell of the plant. Essences, or perfumes, such as otto of roses, rose water, and lavender water, contain this oil. It is called essential oil. Oils which may become solid, like tallow, which is the fat of animals, are concrete oils.

Heat makes oils liquid. Cold, which is the absence of heat, makes them solid. The oily part of milk is butter. Castor oil, a very useful medicine, is extracted from the seeds of a plant.


THOSE children in this country, who have seen a globe, or a map of the world, have seen those four large divisions, called quarters of the world, Europe, Asia, Africa, and America. They know that they live in America; and if they look very carefully, they will see what oceans, and seas, a ship must sail over, to carry them to any other part of the world.

Many ships have been sent from America, and from Europe, to Africa; but they had been sent for a long time, before any of the people who went in them, got much acquainted with the Africans. A few years ago, the people of

Europe began to wish to know more about the Africans; so a number of persons formed a company called, the African Association, on purpose to learn what they could concerning them; to find out if the Europeans could do them any good; and also to try if they could carry on any business with them.

The African Association hired a man by the name of Mungo Park, to travel very far into Africa, to get what knowledge he could. Mungo Park was a very bold, courageous man; he was not afraid of any thing without great cause; he was very patient; could bear a great deal of fatigue; and was very persevering.

One day Mungo Park had no food; he could find no house, nor any thing fit to eat; the rain fell fast, and the wind blew violently.

Wild animals are found in great numbers at a distance from the habitations of men. Where there are many houses and people, there are no wild beasts. The animals which live with men are tame, and are called domestic animals. Children have no reason to be afraid of wild beasts, when they are in towns.

But Mungo Park had great reason to be afraid; he was alone in the woods of Africa, where there are lions and tigers. He thought the safest place for him would be among the branches of a tree; so he took the saddle and bridle from his horse, which he let go loose, that he might find some grass to eat; and began to climb a tree, under which he had been lying, to rest himself.

Just at this moment, a negro woman saw him. -She had been working in the fields far from

her home. Women, in Africa, work in the fields. The negro woman saw that Mungo Park looked tired and anxious. She could not speak English, nor could he speak her language well, but he understood it a little, so he made her understand that he was hungry, and she knew that a white man had no home in her country.

She had a very kind heart, so she told Mr. Park, if he would follow her, she would make him comfortable. She took up his saddle and bridle, that they might not get hurt, and after a short walk, she and her companion reached her hut.

The people of Africa do not live in large houses, with fine furniture, like ours: their dwellings are made by driving poles into the ground, very near together, and filling the spaces between with clay, and the large leaves of plants. The roofs are covered with thick broad leaves also.

In the room of the negro woman's hut, were several women, employed in spinning cotton. These women stared very much at Mungo Park, they had never seen a white man before. The mistress of the hut lighted a fire, and broiled a fish for the stranger's supper; she also spread a soft, clean mat upon the floor, and told him that he might sleep there, in quiet and safety.

The Africans do not sleep upon beds like ours; they lie on mats. As Mungo Park reposed upon his, he heard the women, who continued their work, singing. One of them composed a song concerning himself, and the others joined her. He has translated the song. The song, which

was sung in the African language, is thus written in English.


"THE poor white man, faint and weary, came and sat under our tree. The winds roared, and the rain fell. He has no mother to bring him milk, no wife to grind him corn.

Chorus. "Let us pity the white man, no mother has he to bring him milk, or wife to grind him corn."

This song has been written anew, or imitated, in poetry, by an English lady.

Suchen a



The loud wind roar'd, the rain fell fast,
The white man yielded to the blast;
He sat him down beneath the tree,
Weary, and sad, and faint was he:
And ah! no wife, no mother's care,
For him the milk, or corn prepare.


The white man shall our pity share,
Alas! no wife, nor mother's care,
For him the milk, or corn prepare.

The storm is o'er, the tempest past,
And mercy's voice has hushed the blast;
The wind is heard in whispers low;
The white man far away must go ;

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