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ing the army, the general respecta- schools established in England by bility of the military profession would the Government and the East India be greatly enhanced. Why do the Company, and according to the sysindividuals belonging to the corps of tem lately adopted in the army by Royal Engineers assume a higher his Majesty's command: And, 2d, To place in society than the officers of introduce a rational and useful sysmarching regiments ? The reason is tem of bodily exercise, which may obvious—because they are, in gene- be practised with safety, not only by ral, incoinparably better educated and boys from the time they commence more accomplished men, and many of their education, but also by grownthem distinguished for their acquire up persons, whatever may be their ments in the exact sciences. Now, views, and while they are pursuought it not to be an object of the first ing their other studies or employimportance with Government, that ments-as agreeable and healthy re. every officer should, if possible, be creations, beneficial in relieving and equally accomplished ? It will not be invigorating the mind, and tending denied that the efficiency of the hum- most powerfully to improve the care blest subaltern is prodigiously en- riuge, develope and strengthen the creased, if, in addition to the know- physical powers, and, by strenuous ledge of those duties which are more exertion, furnish the means of selfstrictly professional, he possesses an preservation, in the various occur. acquaintance with the principles of rences incidental to human life.'” gunnery and fortification-can use In furtherance of this general plan, with facility his pencil in sketching, Mr Scott announced, that the followand has rendered himself familiar ing branches would be taught in the with the foreign languages, particu- Institution : 1st, Military Mathemalarly French, Italian, and German. tics, Fortification, Drawing, Geogra. Every officer is considered a gentle- phy, Military History, French, Itaman, and ought to possess the edu- fian, German, Spanish, &c. &c.; cation of a gentleman: but, above and, 2d, The Broad Sword, both for all, he ought to be entirely au fait Cavalry and Infantry, the Smallin the science and details of his own Sword, Firelock, Tactics, Gymnastic profession. The lawyer, the divine, Exercises, &c.,—the Mathematics, and the physician, are regularly bred Fortification and Plan-Drawing, acto their respective callings; and it is cording to the methods adopted in more than high time that the forma- the Government, and India Comtion of officers should be taken out of pany's Military Schools in England, the hands of the tailor, the jeweller, -and the Military Exercises in conand the man-milliner.
formity to the system lately introWe have been led to make these duced into the army. This was unobservations by witnessing the ho- questionably a most judicious plan; nourable efforts of a gallant and ac and it is gratifying to observe the complished officer to supply the great zeal and success with which it has defect in our general system of pub- been carried into effect. On the 2d lic instruction, to which we have of this month, the first annual exaalluded. More than a year ago, Mr mination of the Institution commenGeorge Scott, who had served for ced, and continued during part of that eleven years as Adjutant to the 91st, and the three following days, in the or Argyleshire Regiment, and had presence of a numerous and highlybeen distinguished by his acquisitions respectable body of spectators. The as a linguist, as well as by his qua- general proficiency of the pupils, in lifications as an officer, organized an Mathematics, Fortification, LanguaInstitution in this city, which he ges, and the Sword and Firelock appropriately denominated “ The Exercises in all their branches, reflect Scottish MILITARY ACADEMY." the highest credit on the zeal and The object of the projected establish- ability of Mr Scott, and give promise ment was twofold: “ 1st, To afford that this infant Institution will at no to young gentlemen intended for great distance of time rival the old the profession of arms, the means of and lavishly-patronized Military Acapreparatory scientific instruction, up- demies of the south. We particuon the principle of the celebrated larly remarked the readiness and ac
curacy with which the young gentle. different systems practised on the men answered the different questions continent, or recommended in the proposed in Fortification, as well as most approved treatises on the subthe beauty and accuracy of the draw. ject. This, in our opinion, (and on ings they had executed of some of the this subject we speak from personal chefs-d'oeuvres of Vauban and Coe- experience,) will be a prodigious imhorn. Nor were we less gratified with provement. « The education of their readings in French and Italian, youth," says an intelligent officer who in the principles of which they seem has written well on this subject, “is ed to be thoroughly grounded: they naturally divided into two partstranslated with an accuracy and pre- mental and physical. In England, cision which can only be acquired by the attention of those who have the an intimate acquaintance with the superintendence of education has grammatical structure of a language; been entirely confined to the for: while the greatest attention appears mer; the latter has been left to to have been paid to the pronuncia- chance, and the natural necessity for tion, particularly of French, which, exertion which characterizes the hu. from its extreme nicety and delica- man body in the early stages of life. cy in many respects, is seldom to be The importance of exercise is unis heard in this country. Mr Scott, we versally allowed, but no attempts are aware, has had many advantages have hitherto been made to reduce it in this particular, which he has not to any system, or subject it to the failed to turn to account; and it may guidance of experience and judga be mentioned, that his superiority to ment. The modes of exercise have most British officers, in the intimate been left to the invention of children, knowledge and correct enunciation of whose supreme command over their the French language, was so well own sports has never been denied or known to his superior officers, that, molested. The consequence is, that when serving with the Army of Ob- the hours of exercise are turned to servation in France, he was frequent- very small account, as regards their ly employed as interpreter in Courts- original destination. The only adó Martial, when it was necessary to call vantage obtained by time spent in Frenchmen as evidence. The expert- recreation at present, is the relaxaness of the young men in the sword. tion of the mind. The body is left exercise, and in loose play with cud. to take care of itself." The object gels, attracted general notice, and proposed by Mr Scott, is to introelicited repeated plaudits from a duce a system of bodily exercise, very numerous and genteel company, which, while it affords considerable
Though this Institution is but in amusement, and total relaxation of its infancy, it ought to be mentioned, the mental faculties, brings into a at once as a proof that such a semi- full and healthy action all the muse nary is wanted, and of the liberality cles of the body. “ Health, vigour, of our countrymen in patronizing so elasticity, robustness and beauty of highly honourable an attempt to re- frame, are the rewards which this medy a defect which was generally system holds out to those who will acknowledged, that, since last sum persevere in the practice of its premer, nearly 200 pupils have received cepts." instruction in the Scottish Military It is astonishing that, with the exAcademy. We have not a doubt that ample of the ancients before us, the the number will rapidly increase, and benefits of physical education should that the Superintendent will thereby have been so entirely overlooked or be enabled to enlarge the basis of the neglected in this country. It is mata Institution, so that the young, men ter of daily observation, where Gymmay be carried forward into the high- nastics are regularly taught and pracer departments of the Mathematics, tised, that the most feeble constituand initiated in the principles and ap- tions are strengthened, -the most plication of the differential calculus. awkward and ill-formed persons im
We learn, with pleasure, that Mr proved, both in figure and in graceful Scott has it in contemplation to in- motion, and the most vigorous and troduce a system of Gymnastic Exer- robust health secured against the accises, combining the best parts of the cidents to which it is incessantly VOL. XV.
liable. By training himself to al- of their families, if, by giving them most daily exercise of some kind or a more vigorous education in their other, the wondrous Childe, now un youth, care had been taken to accuse happily no more, fortified a consti tom their bodies to fatigue, and to tution singularly delicate, and invi enable them to find, in their physic gorated limbs, the original formation cal qualities, the efficacious means of of which seemed intended for any seconding their courage in the mopurpose
but that of motion or exer ment of extreme necessity.” tion. By a similar process, health, We hope these considerations will strength, and symmetry, are within have their due weight with the Pathe reach of every one. If, there trons and Directors of the Edinburgh fore, a sınall portion of the time Academy, the introduction into which daily devoted to the dancing master, of Fencing and Gymnastics we should or to those games and sports which hail as a very great improvement. injure, instead of improving the phy We trust they are superior to the sical frame, were devoted to the paltry prejudices which have hitherto Fencing-Master, and to Gymnastic stood in the way of any effectual Exercises, young men would improve system of physical education in this their health, elasticity, vigour, and country ; and if they are, we venture even the forms of their bodies, and to stake our credit, that Greek and would be free from many of those dis Latin will suffer nothing by teaching eases which grow with their growth, the boys the use of those natural and strengthen with their strength. powers with which Nature has en“ How many parents,” says Mr dowed them. The dancing-master Clias, “ would have preserved their is by no means to be dispensed with; children, if they had had the precau but, in addition to all that he can tion to give them a more masculine give, we would have boys well planteducation !”
ed on their legs, their chests thrown This applies to young men for forward, and their muscular powers whatever profession they may be called into almost constant exercise, destined ; to the intended soldier, by fencing, running, wrestling, such exercises are of the first neces- climbing, and other tasks recomsity. “A great number of those mended by approved writers, and brave soldiers (we again quote from reduced to practice in the best schools Mr Clias's book) who have irrecover on the continent. Four-fifths of our ably lost their health, or who perish- young men are educated as if they ed miserably in the late wars, would were never to pass beyond the prehave been at present the consolation cincts of the library or the drawing. of their parents, and the protectors
SIX MONTHS' RESIDENCE AND TRAVELS IN MEXICO, BY W. BULLOCK, F.L.S.
This is really a very sensible and extensive country are now thrown amusing work. Mr Bullock has, wide open to foreigners, and, by the with great judgment, steered clear liberal maxims of the Mexican rulers, of the course of former travellers, and their visits are encouraged. Under his information, besides being new, certain limitations, indeed, a freer inis interesting. The extensive coun tercourse was admitted in the last try of Mexico, it is well known, was years of the original government ; long closed against foreigners, by the and it was then that the country was narrow policy of Spain, and we knew visited by Humboldt, who has pour. almost as little of it as of China. We ed forth, in his interesting works, knew, indeed, that it contained the those stores of original information, precious metals, but further, our by which he has not only extended knowledge did not extend. Matters the science of geography, but has are altogether changed, under the also enriched many other branches new government that has now suc of science connected with it. Now ceeded to the old despotism of the that the opportunities are enlarged, mother country. The doors of this other travellers have, as might have
been expected, followed in the same short time as possible in Vera Cruz, track, and the demand for South which is well known to be the seat American knowledge is now in a fair of misery and disease. He gives a way of being supplied.
shocking picture of the place, in Mr Bullock is well known to the which he could find no decent accompublic for the various scientific exhi-modation, being obliged to sleep all bitions which he has got up, in which night at the inn, in his clothes, in an he has contrived to combine amuse- apartment which opened into a bilment with solid instruction; and in liard-room, where he was tormented this his vocation, he visited Mexico with heat, noise, and mosquitoes. He in the beginning of the year 1823, went at day-break to the marketwhere he resided six months. He tra- place, where he saw no great show of velled from Vera Cruz to Mexico, either fruits or any other provision, where he made it his business to ex- except fish, of which, however, there amine all the curiosities and antiqui. was most splendid collection. ties of this far-famed capital, and in “ Hundreds," he observes, “ of vawhich occupation he succeeded far rious species, glowing in all the cobeyond his wishes, owing to the faci- lours of the prism, surpassing the lities afforded him by the revolution. lustre of precious gems, and all the ary government, whose liberality he most brilliant tints of the humming commends in the highest terms. All birds, covered the stones of the ancient relics of the Mexican empire market-place of Vera Cruz." The were not only shewn him, but many place, it is well known, is most unof them were dug up from the place healthy, and the stranger is in danwhere they lay half-buried, and he ger every hour he remains within its was permitted, not merely to in- walls, surrounded by arid sands, exspect, but to take drawings, or make tensive swamps and savannahs, the casts of them : several antique me- exhalations from which scatter every morials and MSS. were given alto- where the seeds of contagion and gether into his possession ; and others death. Mr Bullock was assured of he was allowed to take to London, to protection and passports for his subhave them copied, and sent back again. sequent journey to Xalappa (which In short, the liberality of the new is half-way up the Table Mountain) government, and the desire to show from the republican general, whom him attention, was unbounded. Every he met there, and by whom he was trace of the narrow jealousy with treated in the most friendly manner. which foreigners were wont to be Mr Bullock set out on the 8th of regarded, is now entirely done March, in a hired carriage, drawn away, and instead of discouraging by eight mules, in company with Mr them, there is an anxiety to court their Vanderies, an intelligent French visits. Favoured by those opportu- gentleman, and his son, on the road nities, Mr Bullock made excursions, to Xalappa. In order, however, to with the utmost freedom, through explain the nature of this journey, it the country, exploring its antiquities will be necessary to state something and its curiosities, and instead of as to the nature of the country through being impeded, was favoured in his which he was now to travel. It is well researches by all classes. He even known, that the country of Mexico procured from the government let- begins to rise at a short distance from ters of naturalization, and became the sea-coast;
and that after it reaches proprietor of a mine which had been the height of from 0 to 8000 feet abandoned in consequence of its be- above the sea, it spreads out into vast ing overflowed with water, which, plains, and is called Table Land, from Mr Bullock thought, by the appli- its resemblance to a table. Xalappa, to cation of the proper machinery, that which Mr Bullock was now travelling, he could extract.
is situated more than half way up this Mr Bullock sailed from Ports- elevation. It need hardly be stated, mouth on the 11th of December that the climate is sensibly improved 1822, and landed at Vera Cruz, on a as the traveller, receding from the handsome pier of solid masonry, sea-coast, climbs the Table Land, paved with pigs of bar iron of Eng. the great tropical heats being mitilish manufacture. He remained as gated by the height of the ground,
and the country becoming pleasant over our heads, we reloaded our carriage, and healthy. The sea-coast is the and proceeded on a better road than here. abode of heat and fever; but Xalappa, tofore, having in some parts been carried, where the European oak first begins at considerable labour and expence, over
morasses which would otherwise have to appear, is the beginning of that happier region which is the seat of
been impassable. health and of perpetual spring.
Passing through various towns of The first day's journey of our tra- less importance, they arrived at the velling-party terminated at San Ra- city of Puebla de los Angeles, which fael, where they repaired to the Po, contains, according to Mr Bullock, sada, or inn, which is a large shed 90,000 inhabitants, many of them thatched with leaves or reeds, partly wealthy, and living in good style. inclosed like a bird-cage, and freely Puebla is a splendid city; the streets admitting the air. It is so little bar
are straight and broad, and cross ricadoed, as to allow whateyer passes each other at right angles, dividing within to be seen from without, and the whole into squares of consider. the roof projects, very considerably able size. Its manufactures have over the sides. Into this common resort of all travellers Mr Bullock off still more, when the intercourse
fallen off, and it is likely will fall and his party were conducted, and with Europe, and especially with told, that, unless they had beds of Britain—that great seat of capital and their own, they must repose on the industry—becomes more frequent. floor, nothing being furnished but Coarse woollen cloths were formerly shelter from the rain, and Indian made ; but this branch of industry corn for the cattle. Here having cannot possibly stand before the comdisposed their matresses, they pro- petition of this country. Mr Bullock posed to go to rest, hoping that fatigue also visited the glass-manufactory, would operate as a soporific; and we where the machinery for grinding have the following account of the the fint appeared very rude and comfortable manner in which they simple. passed the night, which may be
Passing through the city of Choltaken, Mr Bullock informs us, as lula, and several other minor towns a general specimen of the state of all and villages, Mr Bullock at length the inns on the road.
reached the far-famed city of Mexico; Several persons of both sexes, with and great was his disappointment, as
he travelled through the dreary and some children, were in the same room with us, in a sort of gallery that projecte desolate country by which it is aped over the enclosure. Our mules, and proached, and where there is nothing those of other travellers, were fastened on
that can give the least idea that a the outside, while numerous dogs belong. great city is near.
“ All (he obe ing to the house, as well as those attach. serves) is dreary silence and misered to the different conveyances of the able solitude." . On arriving at the travellers, were mingled with their mas. barriers, they passed through a part ters, and kept up such a barking as to of the shabby-looking troops that render sleep impossible. We had horses surrounded the city, and entered the close to our heads, eating Indian corn, suburbs, which were mean and dirty, the mules kicking and fighting, the the people inhabiting them being muleteers cursing, --intolerable and suf- covered with rags, or only wrapped focating heat,braying of asses,--sing. in a blanket. The following account ing and stinging of mosquitoes, and the of what our travellers now felt is biting of myriads of feas, completed the comforts of what has been called an inn.
exceedingly natural : How did I pray for a glass of water to So great was my disappointment, that moisten my parched and feverish lips ! - I could scarcely bring myself to believe how did I long for an English barn or that I was in the capital of New Spain, hay-loft! either had been a paradise to the great mart of the precious metals, such an infernal spot. To leave it, how. whence they flow to all parts of the ha. ever, would have been to have run the bitable world :-a few minutes more, risk of being devoured by the surrounding however, brought us into the city; and dogs. Day-light at length brought us whatever I had seen of regularity and relief, and, clearing our persons from the largeness of streets, size and grandeur of deposits of the poultry that had roosted churches and houses, was here surpassed,