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To yourself, I feel much indebted for the very kind and complimentary expressions accompanying the communication, and

ley of the Lehigh to Allentown, so as to form a connex- will prepare myself to make every exertion to fulfil the ion with the rail road contemplated to extend from Al-duties of the situation to the best of my abilities. lentown to Philadelphia, via the Perkioming and Schuylkill. This road will form an additional outlet for the immense anthracite treasures of the Lehigh region, and as it will run parallel with the Lehigh canal for nearly 40 miles, it will afford an opportunity of fairly testing the comparative advantages of canals and rail roads for transportation, &c.-Mauch Chunk Courier.

I am, sir, most respectfully,
Your obedient servant,'




READING, Pa. Sept. 28. LARGE BALL. The ball for the spire of the new stee- During the year 1832, the amount of coal taken ple of the Lutheran Church of this borough completely from the mines in this state, and forwarded to market covered with gilding was seen and admired yesterday by the Lehigh, Delaware, Schuylkill, and Delaware by a number of our citizens previously to its elevation and Hudson canals, amounted to 363,850 tons, to its lofty resting place. When mounted on its spire, Of this quantity, the amount brought it will seem perhaps no larger than a punch bowl though by the Schuylkil canal was actually exceeding three feet in diameter, and capable, Lehigh and Delaware canals, from if hollowed out, of containing above a hundred gallons( Mauch Chunk, wine measure. Its workmanship does credit to the turner and the gilder who prepared it.-Berks County and Schuylkill Journal.

The following is a correct statement, of the number of taxable citizens in the several townships of Venango county, as taken from the returns of the respective assessors in April last. Since the enumeration in 1828, the annual increase of the taxable population in this county has been about 100, equal to 500 souls.

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Delaware and Hudson canal, from


In 1833, amount received by the
Schuylkill canal, from Pottsville,
Schuylkill Haven, and the Little
Schuylkill, up to September 19th,
By the Lehigh and Pennsylvania ca-
nals, from Mauch Chunk* up to the
20th instant,

By the Delaware and Hudson canal,
from Carbondale,

By the Union and Schuylkill canals,
from near Harrisburg,




84,160 363,850

192,315 tons.




351,454 tons.

COAL.-Amount of coal transported this season on the different rail roads in Schuylkill county, up to the 26th of September.


DEPARTMENT OF War, April 2, 1833., TO CHARLES LESLIE, Esq. London:

Sir,I do myself the pleasure to forward to you the accompanying commission, and to ask your acceptance

of it, not on your own account, but for the sake of the institution, where its duties are to be performed.

The high professional character you have so justly attained, has directed 'he attention of the President to you, and I am sure his choice will meet the approbation of his countrymen. Your successful devotion to one of the most important of the liberal arts, while it has secured fame to yourself, has conferred honor upon your country. And I am happy in being able to offer to you this testimonial of the estimation in which you are held. Very respectfully, sir,



Your obedient servant.


LONDON, May 16, 1833.

Secretary of War, Washington.
Sir, I had the honor to receive your letter of April
2d, accompanying an appointment to the office of
Teacher of Drawing at the Military Academy.

I beg you, sir, to offer the President my sincere thanks for this mark of his approbation and confidence: and say for me, that I receive it as a great honor, and

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A Discourse on the Early History of Pennsylvania; be.
ing an annual oration delivered before the American
Philosophical Society, held at Philadelphia, for pro-
moting useful knowledge; pursuant to their appoint-
ment, in the Hall of the University of Pennsylvania,
on Wednesday, the 6th of June, 1821-By Peter S.
Du Ponceau, LL. D., one of the Vice Presidents of
the Society.

Mr. President-Gentlemen:

Six years have elapsed since a committee was instituted in the bosom of this Society, whose labours were principally directed to the object of making researches into the history and antiquities of America, but more particularly of our own state. This committee have not been remiss in their exertions; with the aid of several of their zealous and patriotic fellow citizens, (whose names and services have been gratefully recorded) they have succeeded in collecting ample and precious materials, which only wait for the hand of the artist to work them into shape. It was hoped that the impulse thus given would have been caught by some able writer, who, availing himself of these rich stores, would have combined the scattered facts into a faithful and elegant narrative. But our expectations have hitherto been de ceived, and Pennsylvania still wants an historian.

thentic sources, and his authorities are regularly quot. ed. It contains few errors, and those but trifling, and such as may be amended in a translation. This work is uninteresting details, or swelled with unnecessary notes. not encumbered with tedious documents, crowded with The author displays great discernment in his selection of facts, and impartiality in his delineation of characters, and does not appear to have been swayed by any feelings but those which become an historian.

Your Historical Committee were early sensible of the value of this book, and, at their recommendation, a learned member of this society* undertook its translation, which is now ready for the press. It is to be hoped that it will soon be published, and that its sale will amply reward the publisher. Its size and its merit peculiarly recommended it to be used as a school book throughout this extensive state.

will have a sketch of his work ready prepared to his hand, with the subdivisions exhibited in their various proportions; such, at least, as the author conceived them to be. Those who have ever attempted the labour of historical composition will well understand the value of such helps as these.

Still Pennsylvania wants an historian. The book I have just noticedt will always be valuable as an abridg ment of our history; it will also be an excellent guide to him who will undertake to write it on a large scale, and save him much laborious research, by pointing out the sources from whence he is to derive his information on each particular event. I do not hesitate to say that it will shorten his labour by more than one half; for he will no where else be able to obtain the very important aid which this book will afford him. It will, in a short 1 he crude and imperfect annals collected by Robert compass,give him a complete view of his whole ground, Proud, although they bear the title of "History of enable him to measure each period of time, and each Pennsylvania, are generally acknowledged to be un-event in the scale of relative importance; in short, he deserving of that name. As a chronicle of the earlier times of our commonwealth, this book is valuable, as well as for the numerous documents with which it is interspersed. It comes down, as a narrative, no later than the end of governor Thomas's administration, in 1747; beyond that period we find only a few dates of some of the most remarkable events; from which we must conclude that the author became tired of his task, or, perhaps, that he undertook it at too advanced a period of his life, and was prevailed upon by his friends to publish it in its unfinished state. For Robert Proud is well known to have been a man of strong natural powers, and not deficient in acquired knowledge; but the monument which he has left behind him does not entitle him to the fame of an historian. As a man, he was good and benevolent; he was a lover of virtue, and his work breathes throughout those sentiments of stern morality and mild philanthropy, which characterized our early settlers, and are still to be remarked in their descendants.

A work of much higher pretensions, however, claims our attention. When I said that Pennsylvania still wanted an historian, I was far from intending to depreciate the labours of our former associate, professor Ebeling, of Hamburg, whose valuable history deserves to be better known to our fellow citizens. In the small space of one duodecimo volume, he has condensed the whole history of this state from its first settlement to the year 1802. His narrative is well connected through. out, drawn up in plain and unaffected language, and without pretensions to literary ornament; yet his style pleases from that very simplicity. It is close and methodical, and particularly distinguished by great perspicuity. His facts have been obtained from the most auVOL. XII.


As you have shewn me so much indulgence as not to restrict me in the choice of the subject of this anniver. sary discourse, you will not wonder that, as a member of your Historical Committee, zealously devoted to the objects of its institution, I have chosen the topic which is nearest to my heart. If I had but talents equal to my zeal, neither my advanced age nor the weight of professional avocations should stand in the way of my ambition to become the historian of this great and important state; but I need not regret my deficiency, while there are others so eminently qualified for the task, and to whom the country looks for its execution. I shall have attained the object of my wishes if my weak ef forts shall stimulate some one among those men of highly gifted minds to this honourable undertaking.

Let it not be imagined that the annals of Pennsylvania are not sufficiently interesting to call forth the talents of an eloquent historian. It is true that they exhibit none of those striking events which the vulgar mass of mankind consider as alone worthy of being transmitted to posterity. No ambitious rival warriors occupy the stage, nor are strong emotions excited by the frequent

John Eberle, M. D. of this city.

This History of Pennsylvania is the sixth volume of a larger work of the author, entitled "Geography and History of America," of which a particular account will be given in a note at the end of this discourse.

potentates of the earth did not see, or if they saw, they turned away their eyes from the sight; they did not hear, or if they heard, they shut their ears against the voice which called out to them from the wilderness,

description of scenes of blood, murder, and devastation. to look upon, an example for them to imitate. But the But what country on earth ever presented such a spectacle as this fortunate commonwealth held out to view for the space of near one hundred years, realizing all that fable ever invented or poetry ever sang of an imaginary golden age. Happy country, whose unparalleled innocence already communicates to thy history the interest of romance! Should Pennsylvanians hereafter degenerate, they will not need like the Greeks, a fabulous Arcadia to relieve the mind from the prospect of their crimes and follies, and to redeem their own vices by the fancied virtues of their forefathers. Pennsylvania once realized what never existed before except in fabled story. Not that her citizens were entirely free from the passions of human nature, for they were men and not angels; but it is certain that no country on earth ever exhibited such a scene of happiness, innocence, and peace, as was witnessed here during the first century of our social existence.

I well remember them, those patriarchal times, when simple, yet not inelegant manners prevailed every where among us; when rusticity was devoid of roughness, and polished life diffused its mild radiance around, unassuming and unenvied; when society was free from the constraint of etiquette and parade; when love was not crossed by avarice or pride, and friendships were unbroken by ambition and intrigue. This was the spectacle which Pennsylvania offered even in the midst of the storms of our revolution, and which she continued to exhibit until a sudden influx of riches broke in upon the land, and brought in its train luxury, more baneful than war.* This torrent has been checked in its course; we are gradually returning to those moderate habits, which we never should have abandoned. But we are too far advanced in population and arts ever to see our ancient manners restored in their primitive purity; all that we can do now is to preserve their memory in the historical page, as a subject of pride to our descendants, and of admiration to succeeding generations throughout the world.

Discite justitiam moniti, et non temnere Divos. The character of William Penn alone sheds a never fading lustre upon our history. No other state in tis union can boast of such an illustrious founder; none be gan their social career under auspices so honourable to humanity. Every trait of the life of that great man, every fact and anecdote of those golden times will be sought for by our descendants with avidity, and will furnish many an interesting subject for the fancy of the novelist, and the enthusiasm of the poet. It is, there. fore, highly important, that while recent tradition and numerous authentic but perishable documents, are still in our power, we should collect all those valuable materials, and embody their substance in an historical work worthy of being handed down to posterity. Although such a work will not be fruitful of great incidents, still it will exhibit human nature under many a varied as pect; great faults will be found associated to great vir. tues; the reader will, more than once, while he admires the latter, be compelled, with regret, to acknowledge, as the former strike his view, that no efforts of the hu man mind can ever produce absolute perfection in this sublunary world, and that it is in vain for us to expect to be angels on this side of the eternal mansions; and, upon the whole, it may, with truth, be asserted that there will be found in the History of Pennsylvania, much to instruct and much to delight.

The historian will take a cursory view of the various vicissitudes that attended the first settlement of the ancient colony of Virginia, during a quarter of a century, from the time when it was taken possession of for the English crown by Sir Water Raleigh, in 1594, to the yer 1610, when Lord Delaware, arriving there from England, as captain general, found its population reduced, by a dreadful famine, to the inconsiderable number of 60 souls. Yet three years afterwards the colony had so far recovered from that calamity, that her next governor. Dale, sent an expedition to the northward, under Argal, which destroyed the French settlements in remote Acadia, and compelled the Dutch,

the sovereignty of England.

It was on his voyage to Virginia that Lord Delaware discovered the great bay and river to which he gave his name, and which Hudson, sailing in the Dutch service, had passed by in the preceding year. The Dutch call ed it the South River, by which name it was known for more than half a century, to recover afterwards and preserve for ever that of the gallant commander who had saved the first English colony in America from im pending destruction.

Yet amidst this simplicity, what grand and magnificent scenes court the pencil of the historian! His it will be to delineate the majestic features of one of the greatest legislators that ever appeared among mankind Did I say one of the greatest? I hasten to correct my error: WILLIAM PENN stands the first among the law givers whose names and deeds are recorded in history.already established at Manhattan island, to submit to Shall we compare with him Lycurgus, Solon. Romulus, those founders of military commonwealths, who organ ized their citizens in dreadful array against the rest of their species, taught them to consider their fellow men as barbarians, and themselves as alone worthy to rule over the earth? What benefit did mankind derive from their boasted institutions? Interrogate the shades of those who fell in the mighty contests between Athens and Lacedæmon, between Carthage and Rome, and be tween Rome and the rest of the universe. But see our Wm. Penn, with weaponless hands, sitting down peaceably with his followers in the midst of savage nations whose only occupation was shedding the blood of their fellow men, disarming them by his justice, and teaching them, for the first time, to view a stranger without dis trust. See them bury their tomahawks in his presence, so deep that man shall never be able to find them again. See them under the shade of the thick groves of Coaquannock extend their bright chain of friendship, and solemnly promise to preserve it as long as the sun and moon shall endure. See him then with his companions establishing his commonwealth on the sole basis of religion, morality and universal love, and adopting as the fundamental maxim of his government, the rule handed down to us from heaven, Glory to God on high, and on earth peace and good will to all men. Here was a spectacle for the potentates of the earth


Sævior armis.

Luxuria incubuit LUCAN.

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But the Dutch on the Manhattan did not long acknowledge the supremacy of the English crown. In the year 1614, they erected Fort Amsterdam, where New York now stands, and put themselves in a posture of defence against foreign assailants. Then commenc ed in America the empire of the Dutch nation, flushed with the pride of her young independence, and of her victories over Spain, at that time considered the greatest power in Europe. She claimed all the country be tween the two great rivers which Hudson had discover ed, one of which still retains the name of North river, which he gave to it, and even extended her pretensions to the south side of the river Connecticut. At the time the soil of New England was yet untrodden by European feet; but a numerous and hardy population was soon to press on the Dutch settlements from the east, and in less than fifty years to put an end to their dominion on this continent. This was to have been expected by those who considered the different spirit in which the two nations colonized the country, where the

Dutch sought only trade, while the English sought New Gottenburg, the metropolis of the Swedish Amerifreedom and a home. can empire. Here, says their historian Campanius, The Dutch and English colonies were now progres-governor Printz built an elegant mansion house for sing together, but with unequal steps. What was doing towards the north is of 1 ttle interest to our history, it is enough for us to know that for several years the former nation did not extend her settlements to the Delaware, where she had only a few trading establishments on the eastern shore of the river, when another nation appeared and seated herself on the opposite side, then considered a part of the territory of Virginia.

himself and his dependants, with a garden, a pleasure. house, and other appurtenances.* There a church was built, and there the principal inhabitants had their houses and plantations. What is become of that seat of luxury and grandeur? Not a trace of its former glory is to be seen, it lies waste and desolate, tenanted only by grazing cattle; and near it, where perhaps, formerly stood one of those handsome dwellings which the histo rian describes, is an impure lazaretto, the chosen abode of pestilence and death. Such are the vicissitudes which our young country has already experienced.

A different scene will soon open to our view. The Dutch expel their rivals from this continent, and Nova Suecia again becomes a part of the New Netherlands. At New Amstel, now New Castle, is established the seat of delegated authority; and Old Upland,† since honoured by our first colonial legislature, is made he chief place of a judicial district. But this new order of things was not to be of long duration. In 1664 the English expel the Dutch from all their North American territory, with as little ceremony as these had done their former neighbors. Three years afterwards, the treaty of Breda sanctioned the irregular conquest.

That nation was Sweden, then governed by the illustrious daughter of Gustavus Adolphus, aided by the counsels of chancellor Oxenstiern, one of the greatest ministers that a sovereign was ever blessed with. Their genius carried into execution the establishment planned while Gustavus was yet on the throne, of a colony on the banks of the Delaware, which was doomed to last no longer than the reign of the one and the life of the other. A cession of the British title to that part of the country was obtained from the unfortunate Charles; but the Dutch claim subsisted in its full force, and after nineteen years' unquiet possession, the Swedes were compelled, in 1655, to submit to the superior force of that nation, which in less than ten years afterwards was to see her own power annihilated by the same means Now another race of men is about to appear upon which she had employed against her weaker neighbors. the stage. The names of both Dutch and Swedes are The first settlement of the Swedes on the Delaware going to be merged into that of Englishmen, which, took place in the year 1638, at which period our histo-after the lapse of a century, is to be changed for anothry properly begins. The descendants of those sons of er destined to still greater fame the north make part of our present population, and we trace with pleasure among the names of many of those who shone at that time among the first ranks of society, and one of their public edifices still meets our view, and strikes our minds with that veneration which never fails to be inspired by relics of former times. The historian will not pass over that period in silence. nificence of Mr. Russell, our society is in possession of valuable authentic records from the chancery of Stock holm, which throw considerable light on the colonial views and policy of Christiana's government

On the eastern side of the Delaware, Burlington alrea. dy appears, but will soon be eclipsed by a rival city, which will be the pride and glory of the western world.


But I perceive that my subject is carrying me far be yond the object and limits of this discourse. Our histoBy the mu-ry is so full of interesting scenes that I am at a loss how to choose the few traits that I am permitted to exhibit to you.

Here two Swedish governors, Printz and Risingh, successfully exercised a supreme but short lived authority. History will delineate their characters, and trace the consequences of the timidity of the one, who suffer ed the Dutch to erect a fort on the Swedish territory,+ and the rashness of the other, who unseasonably expelled them from it, and by this act of force lost the country, for ever, to his sovereign. The historian will pay a deserved tribute of praise to the mildness of the Swedish government and people, and above all to their strict justice towards the Indian nations, by means of which they firmly secured the love and affection of all the surrounding tribes. He will not fail to interest his reader by a lively description of the face of the country at that time, of the various settlements of the Dutch and Swedes on both sides of our river, and point out the situation of the numerous forts which their mutual jealousy erected, and of which, at present, not a vestige remains. On Tinicum island rose the fortress of

See you yon gallant ship, sailing with propitious gales up the river Delaware? Her decks are covered with passengers, enjoying the mild temperature of our climate, and the serenity of our autumnal sky. They view with astonishment the novel scenery which strikes their sight; immense forests on each side, half despoiled of their red and yellow leaves, with which the ground is profusely strewed. No noise is heard around them, save that of the deer rustling through the trees, as she flies from the Indian who pursues her with his bow and arrow. Now and then a strange yell strikes the ear from a distance, which the echoes of the woods reverberate, and forms a strong contrast to the awful stillness of the scene. Observe the plainness of the dress of those venerable pilgrims, and see them lift their eyes with silent gratitude to heaven. They are a chosen band of friends who have left the British shores to establish here in peace their philanthropic commonwealth; their ship is called the Welcome, Greenaway commands her and, WILLIAM PENN is among them.

Now they land at New Castle, amidst the acclamations of the diversified population which inhabit these

*Christiana abdicated the crown of Sweden, and Ox-shores. The English, the Welch, the Dutch, the Ger enstiern died, in 1654.

Fort Casimir, which was built by the Dutch, in 1651, on the spot where New Castle now stands. By this means they obtained the command of the naviga. tion of the Delaware, to counteract which, governor Printz caused another fort to be erected below, on the east side of the river, which was called Elfsborg, from which, however, the Swedes were soon after driven away by the mosquitoes.

mans, the Swedes, all crowd to hail the great man whom they had been expecting for one long year, and whose fame had already preceded him to these distant regions. The historian will not omit to describe this pleasing scene, and it will be more than once the favorite subject of the painter's pencil. He will choose the instant when William Penn has just landed with his principal followers, while the others are still on board the vessel, or in boats, making for the shore. There you see him In 1654, governor Risingh took fort Casimir by sur-supported by his friend Pearson. From his manly port prise; but the next year the Dutch came in force and and the resolution which his countenance displays, you took possession of the whole Swedish territory.--EB


See Reg. Vol. IV. p. 376.

*He gave it the name of Printzhoff.—CAMPANIUS,

† At present Chester.

Afterwards, indeed!-but I will not anticipate on the painful duty of the historian.

would take him to be a warrior, if the mild philanthropy which beams from his eyes did not reveal his profession, still more than the simplicity of his garb. He who stands This memorable landing took place on the 24th of before him in British regimentals, and whom he shakes October, 1682, a day of proud and glad remembrance, affectionately by the hand, is his relation Markham, which we ought to celebrate on every returning anniwhom he had sent in the preceding year to explore the versary. While our brethren of Massachusetts commeland and prepare the way for the new settlers. Those morate every year, in the dreary time of winter, the on the right, a numerous band, are your honored ances- landing of their pious ancestors on the barren rock of tors, some of whom accompany him on the voyage, and Plymouth, which their gratitude has consecrated to perothers had arrived before, and are now assembled here petual veneration; shall we suffer the epoch of the ar to greet him. There stands Pemberton, Moore, Yard-rival of our great founder, and his venerable band of ley, Waln, Lloyd, Pusey, Chapman, Wood, Hollings followers, to pass away unnoticed? Let us begin this worth, Rhoades, Hall, Gibbons, Bonsall, Sellers; Clay- very year to distinguish ourselves by a similar act of poole, whose ancestor, not many years before, ruled the patriotism, at a time when the season invites, and the destinies of the British empire; West, one of whose bosom of our mother earth is covered with her choicest descendants will charm the world by his magic pencil, fruits. and for whose name and fame rival nations will, in after ages, contend; and many other worthies whom it would be too long to enumerate. On the left is a number of Swedes, whom their national dress, light hair, and northern countenances, sufficiently designate, there you see the brothers Swanson,† who own the ground on which the city of Philadelphia is soon to stand; and whose name one of our streets will perpetuate. With them are Stille, Bankson, Kempe, Rambo, Peterson, and several others, whose names still live in their descendants. Their leader is Lacy Cock,§ whose merit entitles him to a seat in the first council of the new commonwealth. Observe how he extends his hands; promising, in the name of his countrymen, to love, serve, To acquire and secure the possession of an extensive and obey their reverend proprietor, and declaring that country, inhabited by numerous tribes of warlike sathis is the best day they ever saw. The Dutch are dis-vages, without arms, without forts, without the use or seminated through the town which was built by them, as you may easily perceive by the sharp pointed roofs of their houses. They smoke their pipes in silence; and, after their manner, partake of the general joy.

From this day the History of Pennsylvania becomes more particularly your own. If I had not already trespassed too much upon your patience, I would with de light pass in review before you, some more at least of the interesting traits with which this history abounds, and which an abler pen than mine, will, I hope, at no distant day fully delineate. Above all, I should love to dwell on the great character of our immortal founder, and to point out, by numerous examples, that astonishing ascendency over the minds of the mass of mankind, which enabled him to raise a flourishing and powerful commonwealth by means of all others the most appa rently inadequate.

even the demonstration of physical force, was an expe riment which none but a superior mind would have conceived, which none but a master spirit could have successfully executed. Yet this experiment succeeded But see, close to that half ruined fort, this motley in a manner that has justly excited the astonishment of group of Indians, whose anxiety manifests itself on their the whole world. "Of all the colonies that ever existed," countenances, and who view the new comers with looks says Ebeling, "none was ever founded on so philanthro in which suspicion seems as yet to predominate. They pic a plan, none was so deeply impressed with the cha are the Lenni Lenape, whose history and manners are racter of its founder, none practised in a greater degree already familiar to you. At their head is TAMANEND, the principles of toleration, liberty, and peace, and the great and the good, who is said never to have had none rose and flourished more rapidly than Pennsylvania. his equal for virtue and goodness, and whose memory She was the youngest of the British colonies established is still held in veneration by the savage nations. His before the eighteenth century, but it was not long before eye is steadily fixed on William Penn! His great mind she surpassed most of her elder sisters in population, has already discovered in him a congenial soul; alone agriculture, and general prosperity."* This our author among his tribe, he shows by his looks that noble confi- justly ascribes to the genius of William Penn, who dis dence which will not be deceived. He it is, who under daining vulgar means, dared to found his power and his that elm tree, which many of us have seen in its vigor, commonwealth on the nobler feelings of man. but which, alas! has not long since been destroyed by But I must leave it to the future historian to delineate the violence of the winter storm, will sign that famous the character of a legislator who never had a model, and treaty which the genius of the west has immortalised, who, though crowned with success, will probab y never and which a great writer of another nation¶ has, with have an imitator. He will describe the state of this more wit than truth, described as the only one which country, during the two years of that great man's resi was never sworn to and never broken. Nor was it vio-dence here after his first arrival; he will tell us how a lated while William Penn lived, nor while the ascendency of his great mind was yet operating among us.

The Claypoole family are lineally descended from the protector, Oliver Cromwell.

Their original name was Swenson.
Originally Bengtsen.

legislature was formed and assembled within six weeks at most after his landing, whose first act was to recognize as brethren all who believed in one God, the upholder and ruler of the universe; how a code of laws was enacted in three days, founded on the genuine principles of religion, justice, and morality; he will show the territory which now forms the state of DelaLars or Laurence Cock. corrupted into Lacy Cock. ware, united to this province in legislation as well as in The same whom we call St. Tammany. For his government, the friendship of the Indians secured, large character, see Hecke welder's History of the Indian Na-territories obtained of them by fair and honorable pur tions, chap. xi. In 1692, we find him by the name of King TAMINENT, a party to a deed of release of a tract of land lying between Neshaminy and Poquessing, on the river Delaware, and extending backwards to the utmost bounds of the province This land he, with others, had previously sold to William Penn. In 1697, he, by the name of the great Sachem TAMINENT, with his brother and sons, signed another deed for lands between Pemmopeck and Neshaminy creeks. See Smith's Laws of Pennsylvania, vol. ii. pp. 111, 112.

¶ Voltaire.

chase, a noble city founded, and its walls rapidly rising as it were by enchantment, the country increasing in population and wealth, and enjoying undisturbed peace, prosperity, and happiness, until his absence showed how

* Geschichte von Pennsylvania, p. 1.

* This code was called the Great Law, and well de serves the name. The Historical Committee is in pos session of a copy of it, extracted by our associate, Mr. R. Conyngham, from the archives of the state. It has never yet been printed entire.

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