Imágenes de páginas

Tamar lays aside her veil.


Judah's rash judgment. A. M. cir. 2277. 18 And he said, What pledge place said, that there was no A. M. cir. 2277. B. C. cir. 1727.

B. C. cir. 1727. shall I give thee? And she said, harlot in this place. Thy signet, and thy bracelets, and thy staff 23 And Judah said, Let her take it to her, that is in thine hand.And he gave it her, lest we be shamed : behold, I sent this kid, and came in unto her, and she conceived by and thou hast not found her. him.

24 And it came to pass about three months 19 And she arose, and went away, and laid after, that it was told Judah, saying, Taman by her veil from her, and put on the garments thy daughter-in-law hath played the harlot of her widowhood.

and also, behold, she is with child by whore 20 And Judah sent the kid by the hand of dom.. And Judah said, Bring her forth, s and his friend the Adullamite, to receive his pledge let her be burnt. from the woman's hand-: but he found her not. 25 When she was brought forth, she sent to . 21. Then he asked the men of that place, her father-in-law, saying, By the man, whose saying, Where is the harlot that was d openly these are, am I with child: and she said, by the wayside? And they said, There was Discern, I pray thee, whose are these, the no harlot in this place. !

signet, and bracelets, and staff. 22 And he returned to Judah, and said, I 26 And Judah acknowledged them, and cannot find her; and also the men of the said, She hath been more righteous than I; * Ver. 25. c Ver. 14. d Or, in Enajim. - Heb. become a Chapter xxxvii. 32.- Verse 18. k Chapter xxxvii. 33. contempt. - Judg. xix. 2. - Lev. xxi. 9; Deut. xxii. 21.

11 Sam. xxiv. 17. between a buyer and seller, by giving and receiving Verse 23. Eest we be ashamed] Not of the act, for of which the bargain was ratified; or a deposit, which this he does not appear to have thought criminal ; but was to be restored when the thing promised should be lest he should fall under the raillery of his companions given. St. Paul uses the same word in Greek letters, and neighbours, for having been tricked out of his sigappaßwv, 2 Cor. i. 22 ; Eph. i. 14." From the use net, bracelets, and staff, by a prostitute. of the term in this history we may at once see what Verse 24. Bring her forth, and let her be burnt.) As the apostle means by the Holy Spirit being the EARN- he had ordered Tamar to live as a widow in her own EST, appaßwv, of the promised inheritance ; viz., a se- father's house till his son Shelah should be marriagecurity given in hand for the fulfilment of all God's pro- able, he considers her therefore as the wife of his son; mises relative to grace and eternal life. We may learn and as Shelah was not yet given to her, and she is from this that eternal life will be given in the great day found with child, she is reputed by him as an udulleress, to all who can produce this erabon or pledge. He and burning, it seems, was anciently the punishment who has the earnest of the Spirit then in his heart of this crime. Judah, being a patriarch or head of a shall not only be saved from death, but have that eter-family, had, according to the custom of those times, nal life of which it is the pledge and the evidence. the sapreme magisterial authority over all the branches What the pledge given by Judah was, see on ver. 25. of his own family ; therefore he only acts here in his

Verse 21. Where is the harlot that was openly by juridical capacity. How strange that in the very place the wayside ?) Our translators often render different where adultery was punished by the most violent Hebrew words by the same term in English, and thus death, prostitution for money and for religious purmany important shades of meaning, which involve traits poses should be considered as no crime ! of character, are lost. In- ver. 15, Tamar is called a Verse 25. The signet] nonn chothemeth, properly a harlot, 7217 zonah, which, as we have already seen, seal, or instrument with which impressions were made signifies a person who prostitutes herself for money to ascertain property, &c. These exist in all countries. In this verse she is called a harlot in our version ; but Bracelets] Dibina pethilim, from Sno pathal, to twist, the original is not 7731 but nop, kedeshah, a holy or wreathe, twine, may signify a girdle or a collar by consecrated person,

from kadash, to make holy, or which precedency, &c., might be indicated ; not the to consecrate to religious purposes. And the word muslin, silk, or linen wreath of his turban, as Mr. here must necessarily signify a person consecrated by Harmer has conjectured. prostitution to the worship of some impure goddess. Staff.) non matteh, either what we would call a

The public prostitutes in the temple of Venus are common walking stick, or the staff which was the encalled ispodovhol yuvâlkes, holy or consecrated female sign of his tribe. servants, by Strabo; and it appears from the words Verse 26. She hath been mare righteous than I] It zonah and kedeshah above, that impure rites and public is probable that Tamar was influenced by no other moprostitution prevailed in the worship of the Canaanites tive than that which was common to all the Israelitish in the time of Judah. And among these people we women, the desire to have children who might be heirs have much reason to believe that Astarte and Asteroth of the promise made to Abraham, fc. . And as Judah occupied the same place in their theology as Venus did had obliged her to continue in her widowhood under among the Greeks and Romans, and were worshipped the promise of giving her his son Shelah when he with the same impure rites.

should be of age, consequently his refusing or delaying


Tamar bears twins, which


are named Pharez and Zarah,

B. C. cir. 1727.

my son.

A. M. cir. 2277. because that m I gave her not to 1 29 And it came to pass, as A. M. cir. 2277.

B. C. cir. 1727. Shelah

And he knew he drew back his hand, that, her again no more.

behold, his brother came out: and she said, 27 And it came to pass in the time of her · How hast thou broken forth ? this breach travail, that, behold, twins were in her womb. be upon thee : therefore his name was called

28 And it came to pass, when she travailed, Pharez.9 that the one put out his hand : and the mid- 30 And afterward came out his brother, that wife took and bound upon his hand a scarlet had the scarlet thread upon his hand : and thread, saying, This came out first.

his name was called Zarah.

» Ver. 14.—Job xxxiv. 31, 32.- - Or, Wherefore hast thou P That is, a breach.

made this breach against thee ?

-9 Chap. xlvi. 12; Num. xxvi. 20; 1 Chron.

ii. 4; Matt. i. 3.

In many

to accomplish this promise was a breach of truth, and so laboriously delicate as to cover the sin which it an injury done to Tamar.

professes to disclose ? Elaborate treatises on the Verse 28. The midwifebound

ироп his hand a subject will never be read by those who need them scarlet thread] The binding of the scarlet thread about most, and anonymous pamphlets are not likely to be the wrist of the child whose arm appeared first in the regarded. birth, serves to show us how solicitously the privileges The sin of self-pollution, which is generally conof the birthright were preserved. Had not this cau- sidered to be that of Onan, is one of the most de tion been taken by the midwife, Pharez would have had structive evils ever practised by fallen man. the right of primogeniture to the prejudice of his elder respects it is several degrees worse than common brother Zarah. And yet Pharez is usually reckoned whoredom, and has in its train more awful consequences, in the genealogical tables before Zarah; and from him, though practised by numbers who would shudder at the not Zarah, does the line of our Lord proceed. See thought of criminal connections with a prostitute. It Matt. i. 3. Probably the two brothers, as being twins, excites the powers of nature to undue action, and prowere conjoined in the privileges belonging to the birth- duces violent secretions, which necessarily and speedily right.

exhaust the vital principle and energy; hence the musVerse 29. How hast thou broken forth?] nong n12 cles become flaccid and feeble, the tone and natural mah paratsta, this breach be upon thee, pano 70y aleycha action of the nerves relaxed and impeded, the underparets ; thou shalt bear the pame of the breach thou standing confused, the memory oblivious, the judgment hast made, i. 8., in coming first into the world. There- perverted, the will indeterminate and wholly without fore his name was called yno Parets, i. e., the personenergy to resist; the eyes appear languishing and withwho made the breach. The breach here mentioned out expression, and the countenance vacant; the aprefers to a certain circumstance in parturition which it petite ceases, for the stomach is incapable of performis unnecessary to explain.

ing its proper office ; nutrition fails, tremors, fears, and Verse 30. His name was called Zarah.] 777 Zarach, terrors are generated; and thus the wretched victim risen or sprung up, applied to the sun, rising and dif- drags out a most miserable existence, till, superannufusing his light. “ He had this name," says Ainsworth, ated even before he had time to arrive at man's estate, a because he should have risen, i. e., have been born with a mind often debilitated even to a state of idiotfirst, but for the breach which his brother made.” ism, his worthless body tumbles into the grave, and his

guilty soul (guilty of self-murder) is hurried into the There are several subjects in this chapter on which awful presence of its Judge! Reader, this is no cariit may not be unprofitable to spend a few additional cature, nor are the colourings overcharged in this shockmoments.

ing picture. Worse woes than my pen can relate I 1. The insertion of this chapter is a farther proof have witnessed in those addicted to this fascinating, of the impartiality of the sacred writer. The facts unnatural, and most destructive of crimes. If thou detailed, considered in themselves, can reflect no credit hast entered into this snare, flee from the destruction on the patriarchal history ; but Judah, Tamar, Zarah, both of body and soul that awaits thee! God alone and Pharez, were progenitors of the Messiah, and can save thee. Advice, warnings, threatenings, intherefore their birth must be recorded; and as the birth, creasing debility of body, mental decay, checks of conso also the circumstances of that birth, which, even science, expostulations of judgment and medical assisthad they not a higher end in view, would be valuable ance, will all be lost on thee : God, and God alone, as casting light upon some very ancient customs, which can save thee from an evil which has in its issue the it is interesting to understand. These are not forgot- destruction of thy body, and the final perdition of thy ten in the preceding notes.

soul ! Whether this may have been the sin of Onan 2. On what is generally reputed to be the sin of or not, is a matter at present of small moment; it may Onan, something very pointed should be spoken. But be thy sin ; therefore take heed lest God slay thee for who dares and will do it, and in such language that it it. The intelligent reader will see that prudence formay neither pollute the ear by describing the evil as bids me to enter any farther into this business. Seo it is, nor fail of its effect by a language so refined and the remarks at the end of chap. xxxix. VOL. I. ( 16 )


Joseph is bought by Potiphar,


and advanced in his house


ver. 21.

I Gen. xxiv. 2.

Joseph, being brought to Potiphar's house, prospers in all his undertakings, 1-3. Potiphar makes him his

overseer, 4. Is prospered in all his concerns for Joseph's sake, in whom he puts unlimited confidence, 5, 6. The wife of Potiphar solicits him to criminal correspondence, 7. He refuses, and makes a fine apology for his conduct, 8, 9. She continues her solicitations, and he his refusals, 10. She uses violence, and he escapes from her hand, 11-13. She accuses him to the domestics, 14, 15, and afterward to Potiphar, 16-18. Potiphar is enraged, and Joseph is cast into prison, 19, 20. The Lord prospers him, and gives him great favour in the sight of the keeper of the prison, 21, who intrusts him with the care of the house and all the prisoners, 22, 23. 6. M: 2276. AND Joseph was brought down he served him: and he made him A. M 2276.

B. C. 1728. to Egypt; and a Potiphar, an overseer over his house, and all officer of Pharaoh, captain of the guard, an that he had he put into his hand. Egyptian, 6 bought him of the hands of the 5 And it came to pass from the time that Ishmaelites, which had brought him down he had made him overseer in his house, and thither.

over all that he had, that 8 the LORD blessed 2 And the Lord was with Joseph, and he the Egyptian's house for Joseph's sake; and was a prosperous man; and he was in the the blessing of the LORD was upon all that house of his master the Egyptian.

he had in the house and in the field. 3 And his master saw that the Lord was 6 And he left all that he had in Joseph's with him, and that the LORD d made all that hand; and he knew not aught he had, sare he did to prosper in his hand.

the bread which he did eat. And Joseph 4 And Joseph found grace in his sight, and was a goodly person, and well-favoured.

* Ch. xxxvii. 36 ; Psa. cv. 17.-- Ch. xxxvii. 28. — Ver. 21; 14, 28; Acts vii. 9. d Psa. i. 3. Chap. xvii. 3; xix. 19; chap. xxi. 22; xxvi. 24, 28 ; xxviii. 15; 1 Sam. xvi. 18; 'xviii.

% Ch. xxx. 27.-hi Sam. xvi. 12. NOTES ON CHAP. XXXIX.

is none other than a glorious angel !"-Surat xii., Verse 1. An officer of Pharaoh, captain of the guard) verse 32. Mr. Ainsworth, supposing that his office merely con- Two of the finest poems in the Persian language sisted in having charge of the king's prisoners, calls were written by the poets Jamy and Nizamy on the Potiphar provost marshal! See on chap. xxxvii. 36, subject of Joseph and his mistress; they are both en and xl. 3.

titled Yusuf we Zuleekha. These poems représent Verse 4. He made him overseer] 7"pan hiphkid, from Joseph as the most beautiful and pious of men; and po pakad, to visit, take care of, superintend ; the same Zuleekha the most chaste, virtuous, and excellent of as ETLOKOTOC, overseer or bishop, among the Greeks. women, previous to her having seen Joseph ; but they This is the term by which the Septuagint often express state that when she saw him she was so deeply afthe meaning of the original.

fected by his beauty that she lost all self-governmert, Verse 6. Joseph was a goodly person, and well fa- and became a slave to her passion. Hafiz expresses voured.] 7873 17" non ' yepheh thoar, vipheh this, and apologizes for her conduct in the following mareh, beautiful in his person, and beautiful in his elegant couplet :countenance.

w to Rachel ; see them explained chap. xxix. 17. The beauty of Joseph is celebrated over all the East, and

; ! ! his comeliness. Mohammed spends the twelfth chapter of the Koran entirely on Joseph, and represents him as Men az an husn-i roz afzoon keh Yusuf dasht danislam a perfect beauty, and the most accomplished of mortals. Keh ishk az pardah-i ismal beroon arad Zuleekhara. From his account, the passion of Zuleekha (for so the I understand, from the daily increasing beauty which Asiatics call Potiphar’s wife) being known to the ladies

Joseph possessed, of the court, they cast the severest reflections upon How love tore away the veil of chastity from Zuher : in order to excuse herself, she invited forty of

leekha." them to dine with her, put knives in their hands, and The Persian poets and eastern historians, however, gave them oranges to cut, and caused Joseph to attend. contrive to carry on a sort of guiltless passion beWhen they saw him they were struck with admiration, tween them till the death of Potiphar, when Zuleekha, and so confounded, that instead of cutting their oranges grown old, is restored to youth and beauty by the power they cut and hacked their own hands, crying out, of God, and becomes the wife of Joseph. What tra

ditions they had beside the Mosaic text for what they

می ازلی حسی روز افزون کر پرسن داشت countenance

The same expressions are used relative


که عشق از پده عضمت برون آرد زليخارا | the Persian poets via with each other in descriptions of


say on this subject , are now unknown ; but the whole حاش لله ما حذا بشرا أن هذا الا مل كريم

hasha lillahi ma hadha bashara in hadha illa malakon story, with innumerable embellishments, is so generally kareemon. "O God! this is not a human being; this current in the East that I thought it not amiss to take 226

( 16* )

A. M. cir. 2285.
B. C. cir. 1719.

B. C. cir. 1719.

Joseph is tempted to sin


by the wife of Potiphar. 7 And it came to pass after I lifted up my voice and cried, A. M. cir. 2285. these things, that his master's that he left his

garment with wife cast her eyes upon Joseph; and she said, me, and fled, and got him out. i Lie with me.

16 And she laid up his garment by her, 8 But he refused, and said unto his master's until his lord came home. wife, Behold, my master wotteth not what is 17 'And she ? spake unto him according to with me in the house, and he hath committed these words, saying, The Hebrew servant all that he hath to my hand;

which thou hast brought unto us, came in 9 There is none greater in this house than I; unto me to mock me : neither hath he kept back any thing from me but 18 And it came to pass, as I lifted up my thee, because thou art his wife: how then can I voice and cried, that he left his garment with do this great wickedness, and I sin against God? me, and fled out.

10 And it came to pass, as she spake to . 19 And it came to pass, when his master Joseph day by day, that he hearkened not heard the words of his wife, which she spake unto her, to lie by her, or to be with her. unto him, saying, After this manner did thy

11 And it came to pass about this time, that servant to me; that his p wrath was kindled. Joseph went into the house to do his business ; 20 And Joseph's master took him, and put and there was none of the men of the house him into the prison, a place where the king's there within.

prisoners were bound : and he was there in 12 And m she caught him by his garment, the prison. saying, Lie with me: and he left his garment 21 But the Lord was with Joseph, and in her hand, and fled, and got him out. * showed him. mercy, and gave him favour

13 And it came to pass, when she saw that in the sight of the keeper of the prison. he had left his garment in her hand, and was 22 And the keeper of the prison u commitfied forth,

ted 10 Joseph's hand all the prisoners that 14 That she called unto the men of her were in the prison ; and whatsoever they did house, and spake unto them, saying, "See, he there, he was the doer of it. hath brought in a Hebrew unto us to mock 23 The keeper of the prison looked not to us : he came in unto me to lie with me, and any thing that was under his hand; because I cried with a n loud voice :

the LORD was with him, and that which he 15 And it came to pass, when he heard that did, the Lond made it to prosper.

* Prov. vi. 29, 32. Chap. xx. 6; Lev. Chap. xl. 3, 15; xli. 14.—Heb. extended kindness unto vi. 2; 2 Sam. xii, 13; Psalm li. 4. m Prov. vii. 13, &c. him.- - Exod. iii. 21; xi. 3 ; xii, 36; Psa. cvi. 46; Proverbs * Heb. greal.-- Exod. xxii. 1; Psa. cxx. 3.- Prov, vi. xvi. 7; Daniel i. 9; Acts vii. 9, 10.- - Chapter xl. 3, 4. 34, 35.- -4 Psa. cv. 18; 1 Pet. ii. 19.

Ver. 2, 3. this notice of it. The twelfth chapter of the Koran, of God before his eyes, how could he be capable of which celebrates the beauty, piety, and acts of this pa- committing an act of transgression, which would at triarch, is allowed to be one of the finest specimens once have distinguished him as the most ungrateful of Arabic composition ever formed; and the history and the most worthless of men ? itself, as told by Moses, is one of the most simple, Verse 14. He 'hath brought in a Hebrew unto us) natural, affecting, and well-told narratives ever publish- Potiphar's wife affects to throw great blame on her ed. It is a master-piece of composition, and never husband, whom we may reasonably suppose she did fails of producing its intended effect on the mind of a not greatly love. He hath brought in—he hath raised careful reader. The Arab lawgiver saw and felt the this person to all his dignity and eminence, to give beauties and excellences of his model ; and he certainly him the greater opportunity to mock us. put forth all the strength of his own language, and all tsachek, here translated to mock, is the same word the energy of his mind, in order to rival it.

used in chap. xxvi. 8, relative to Isaac and Rebekah; Verse 8. My master wotteth not] Knoweth not, from and is certainly used by Potiphar’s wife in ver. 17, to the old Anglo-Saxon pitan, witan, to know; hence pic, signify some kind of familiar intercourse not allowable wil, intellect, understanding, wisdom, prudence. but between man and wife.

Verse 9. How then] '7'*1 veeik, and how ? Jo- Verse 20. Put him into the prison) 170 n'a beith seph gives two most powerful reasons for his noncom- sohar, literally the round house; in such a form the pliance with the wishes of his mistress : 1. Gratitude prison was probably built. to his master, to whom he owed all that he had. 2. Verse 21. The Lord was with Joseph] It is but of His fear of God, in whose sight it would be a heinous little consequence where the lot of a servant of God offence, and who would not fail to punish him for it. may be cast ; like Joseph he is ever employed for his With the kindness of his master and the displeasure master, and God honours him and prospers his work.

12 Sam. xi. 11.

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-le לצחק

Imprisonment of the


chief builer and boker. 1. He who acknowledges God in all his ways, has fight and when to fly are of great importance in the the promise that God shall direct all his steps. Jo- Christian life. Some temptations must be manfully seph's captivity shall promote God's glory; and to met, resisted, and thus overcome; from others we this end God works in him, for him, and by him. must fly. He who stands to contend or reason, espeEven the irreligious can see when the Most High dis- cially in such a case as that mentioned here, is infallidinguishes his followers. Joseph's master saw that bly ruined. Principiis obsta, "resist the first overtures Jehovah was with him; and from this we may learn of sin," is a good maxim. After-remedies come too late. that the knowledge of the true God was in Egypt, 4. A woman of the spirit of Potiphar's wife is even before the time of Joseph, though his worship capable of any species of evil. When she could not was neither established nor even tolerated there. get her wicked ends answered, she began to accuse. Both Abraham and Isaac had been in Egypt, and This is precisely Satan's custom : he first tempts men they had left a savour of true godliness behind them. to sin, and then accuses them as having committed it,

2. Joseph's virtue in resisting the solicitations of even where the temptation has been faithfully, and perhis mistress was truly exemplary. Had he reasoned severingly resisted ! By this means he can trouble a after the manner of men, he might have soon found tender conscience, and weaken faith by bringing conthat the proposed intrigue might be carried on with fusion into the mind. Thus the inexperienced especially the utmost secrecy and greatly to his secular advan- are often distracted and cast down; hence Satan is protage. But he chose to risk all rather than injure a perly called the accuser of the brethren, Rev. xii. 10. kind benefactor, defile his conscience, and sin against Very useful lessons may be drawn from every part God. Such conduct is so exceedingly rare that his of the relation in this chapter, but detailing the facts example has stood on the records of time as almost and reasoning upon them would be more likely to prowithout a parallel, admired by all, applauded by most, duce than prevent the evil. An account of this kind and in similar circumstances, I am afraid, imitated cannot be touched with too gentle a hand. Others by few. The fable of the brave and virtuous Bellero- have been profuse here; I chose to be parsimonious, phon and Sthenobea, wife of Prætus, king of the for reasons which the intelligent reader will feel as Argives, was probably founded on this history. well as myself. Let this remark be applied to what

3. Joseph fled and got him out. To know when to has been said on the sin of Onan, chap. xxxviii.

CHAPTER XL. Pharaoh's chief butler and his chief baker, haring offended their lord, are put in prison, 1-3. The captain

of the guard gives them into the care of Joseph, 4. Each of them has a dream, 5. Joseph, seeing them sad, questions them on the subject, 6, 7. Their answer, 8. The chief butler tells his dream, 9-11. Joseph interprets it, 12, 13. Gires a slight sketch of his history to the chief butler, and begs him to think upon him when restored to his office, 14, 15. The chief baker tells his dream, 16, 17. Joseph interprets this also, 18, 19. Both dreams are fulfilled according to the interpretation, the chief butler being restored

to his office, and the chief baker hanged, 20–22. The chief butler makes no interest for Joseph, 23. A. M. cir. 9096.

AND it came to pass after 3. And he put them in ward A. M. cir. 2286. B. C. cir. 1718.

B. C. cir. 1718. these things, that the “ but in the house of the captain of ler of the king of Egypt and his baker had the guard, into the prison, the place where offended their lord the king of Egypt. Joseph was bound.

9 And Pharaoh was b wroth against two of 4 And the captain of the guard charged his officers, against the chief of the butlers, Joseph with them, and he served them: and and against the chief of the bakers.

they continued a season in ward. a Neh. i. 11 ob Prov. xvi. 14.

© Chap. xxxix. 20, 23. NOTES ON CHAP. XL.

personal liberty. As the butler and the baker were Verse 1. The butler] mporo mashkeh, the same as state criminals they were put in the same prison with 4

Film saky among the Arabians and Persians, and Joseph, which we learn from the preceding chapter, signifying a cup-bearer.

verse 20, was the king's prison. All the officers in Baker] nox opheh ; rather cook, confectioner, or

the employment of the ancient kings of Egypt were, the like.

according to Diodorus Siculus, taken from the most Had offended] They had probably been accused illustrious families of the priesthood in the country; no of attempting to take away the king's life, one by slave or common person being ever permitted to serve poisoning his drink, the other by poisoning his bread in the presence of the king. As these persons, therefore,

were of the most noble families, it is natural to expect or confectionaries.

Verse 3. Where Joseph was bound.) The place in they would be put, when accused, into the state prison.. which Joseph was now confined; this is what is im- Verse 4. They continued a season] O'yi yamim, plied in being bound; for, without doubt, he had his literally days; how long we cannot tell.

But many

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