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But, as it is our custom, when we imagine a work of merit lies before us, to present a taste of it to our readers, we shall conclude with an extract sufficient to display this Writer's talent at imitation; whilft, at the same time, it lays open his real design.
Revolye our whole discourse; add to it all those reflecti. ons which your own good understanding thall suggest, and make a strenuous effort beyond the reach of vulgar philofo
phy, to confess, that the cause of Artificial Society is more ç defenceless even than that of Artificial Religion; that s it is as derogatory from the honour of the Creator, as sub
versive of human reason, and productive of infinitely more 6 mischief to the human race.
• If pretended revelations have caused wars where they
were opposed, and slavery where they were received, the • pretended wise inventions of politicians have done the same. < But the slavery has been much heavier, the wars far more
bloody, and both more universal by many degrees. Shew
me any mischief produced by the madness or wickedness of < Theologians, and I will thew you an hundred resulting from " the ambition and villainy of Conquerors and Statesmen.
Shew me an absurdity in Religion, I will undertake to shew Ć
you an hundred for one in Political Laws and Institutions.
If you say that Natural Religion is a fufficent guide, withs out the foreign aid of revelation, on what principle should s political laws become necessary? Is not the same reason s available in Theology and in Politics ? If the laws of Nas ture are the laws of God, is it consistent with the Divine « Wisdom, to prescribe rules to us, and leave the enforce<ment of them to the folly of human institutions ? Will you 6 follow Truth but to a certain point ? We are indebted for
all our miseries to our distrust of that guide, which Pro(vidence thought sufficient for our condition, our own natu
ral reason, which rejecting both in human and divine things, we have given our necks to the yoke of political and theological Navery. We have renounced the prerogative of man, and it is not wonderful that we should be treated like beasts. But our misery is much the greater, as the crime we commit in rejecting the lawful dominion of our reason is greater. If, after all, you should confefs all these things,
yet plead the neceility of political institutions, weak and 5 wicked as they are, I can argue with equal, perhaps fupe* rior, forcé, concerning the necessity of artificial religion ; * and every step you advance in your argument, you
add Strength to mine. So that if we are resolved to submit our
• reason and our liberty to civil usurpation, we have nothing " to do but to conform, as quickly as we can, to the vulgar ( notions which are connected with this, and take up their
theology as well as their politics. But if we think this ne
ceffity rather imaginary than real, we should renounce their • dreams of Society, together with their visions of Religion, 6 and vindicate ourselves into perfect liberty.'
The Hebrew Concordance adapted to the English Bible; difposed
after the Manner of Buxtorf. In two Polumes. By John Taylor, of Norwich. Folio. Vol. I.* Waugh, &c.
HIS is one of the most laborious and most useful works THUS
ever published for the advancement of Hebrew knowJege, and the understanding the text of the Old Testament as it is in the original. It is a Grammar, Lexicon, and Concordance; and so contrived as to be of great service to the English reader, giving him an advantage he never had before, for understanding the Scriptures, by enabling him to judge of the sense of the original Hebrew.
Marcus Marinus Brixianus, a Venetian, published a Thesaurus of the Hebrew language, in Latin, which, like this before us, served the learner for a Dictionary and Grammar, as well as a Concordance: it is a very valuable book called Arca Noa, In this, as in Mr. Taylor's, the primary sense of words is given, and that with freedom and impartiality, radicibus unicam et genuinam significationem dedimus, ex quâ perdeant cætere vel per translationem vel per metaphoram, in qua re nequaquam juravimus in alicujus verba. He had finished this work, as appears by the dedication, the very year, 1581, in which Froben published a second edition of R. Nathan's Concordance. To assist beginners Brixianus has inserted many inflected words, where there was any difficulty in discovering the roots. In the year 1748, his Annotations upon the Psalms were published at Bononia, in 2 volumes 4to, in which there are many curious and critical observations.
We have been more particular in our account of the writings of Brixianus, as Mr. Taylor has not mentioned him. And, indeed, the Venetian has more merit, as a Critic and Grammarian, than as a writer of a Hebrew Concordance: in which last character he may be rather said to have collected
* This firft volume was printed in 1754, the second is not yet published.
the principal passages in which every word occurs, than to have wrote a compleat Concordance. Mr. Taylor's book has all the advantages over that by Brixianus, without any of its defects ; and is, besides, adapted to the Englidh Bible, and the purposes of an English reader.
As a Concordance, Mr. Taylor's performance certainly exceeds that of Marius de Calasio, yet the latter will have its use, as it contains the variations of the Septuagint and vulgar Latin, and gives the Syriac and Arabic words that agree with each Hebrew root, tho' very often faulty in this last particular. There are some Hebrew words of fingular occurrence, whose fignifications are best explained by comparing them with the fame words in the Arabic. Kimchi says, that the Rabbi's would not have known that 7219 signified thy burden, if they had not heard an Arabian Merchant make use of the same expreson, in directing a burden to be put on the back of a camel. In proper names, and many other cases, it is not to be doubted, but the Arabic, and other Oriental Dialects, are of great use in explaining many Hebrew words. The book of Job and of Proverbs, and, indeed, every book in the Old Testament, is a proof of it. They who have the Lexicon Hebraicum Selectum Johan. Clodii, or manuscript copies of the learned Schulten's Hebrew Lexicon, have such inftances of the utility of the Arabic, in the interpretation of Scripture, as must' evince the unreasonableness of objecting to the use of that language, in theological matters.
Before Mr. Taylor published the firft volume of his Concordance, that by the Buxtorfs, to use Dean Prideaux's words, « deservedly had the reputation of being the perfecteft and 's best book of its kind extant; and, indeed, so useful for “ the understanding of the Hebrew Scriptures, that no one, as who employed his studies this way, could well be without " it, being the best Dictionary, as well as the best Concord
ance, to them."
This Concordance, therefore, our Author follows; taking, however, the liberty of inserting his own explication of the roors, instead of that by R. Nathan, which Buxtorf did not think worth transating. He has also corrected all the errors in Buxtorf, and inserted the word or words by which any Hebrew word is translated in the English Bible and where the Hebrew is not literally rendered, a literal translation is added. In general, all change cr difference in the two texts, Hebrew and English, is diligently remarked. Mr. Taylor has added all the words, about one hundred and twenty one,
which Buxtorf had omitted: alfo all the Particles out of Noldius.
In giving the several significations of any Hebrew word, our Author has first let down the primary fignification, and after that the other ten es, in their proper order, as they seem to have branched out from the original use of the word. This, which was much to be desired, and which is attempted in Schulten's manuscript Lexiccii, is also attempted here; with what fuccefs, let the reader judge, from the following instances, which may serve as fpecimens of Mr. Taylor's skill and diligence. We omit the occurrence of words, as it would make our extracts too large. Page 78. OX: 78th root, hath • seven fignifications; i. firmum, fidum ele. To ? be true, faithful, firm, steady, fure, well fettled and esta• blished : so that a man keeps his word, or agreement, in
violably, and any other thing remains in its pr per ftate un
alterably.' Under this fignification of the word "!, follow the places in which the word occurs in that which is its primary sense. ii. Verè, revera; Truly. ii. Veritas, fiides. 'Truth, faithfulnels, assurance, certainty. iv. Amen,
verum, ftabile, firmum. Let it be granted; let it be di ne ( and unalterably confirmed. v. Nutrire. To bring up chile dren, not upon the foot of natural affection, as parents, • but upon the foot of fidelity and honour, as nuries and
guardians. vi. Multitudo, a multitude. vii. Artifex. A skilful, truly workman.'
Page 536.537 537th root, hath fix fignifications. «i. « Pignorari, in pignus accipere ; a cord, a rope; [significat. iv.] ' a measuring line, Zach. ii. 1. A plot, lot, or tract of land
ineasured or laid out. Deut. ill. 4, 13. Toils, nets or snares • made of cords, Job xviii. 10. Prov. v. 22. The cordage or • tackling of a fhip; the mast to which they are fastened, Prov. • xxiii. 34. Sailors who work the cordage, Ezek. xxvii. 3. The
master of the ship, who orders and directs the use of the tack<ling, Jon.i. 6. Hence, wife counsel, advice, and government, • Prov.i. 5. [Signif. vi..] To cord, to bind fast with cords « to be bound under the obligation of a debt, [Signif. i.] To ? pledge, to lay to pledge, or to be bound to a creditor, Deut. 6 xxiv. 6. to be bound for more than one can pay ; to be
broke, bankrupt, ruined, [Signif. 11.] To be spoiled, de& ftroyed, i. e. to be reduced to a broken, ruined state, Ecclef. & v. 6. Cant. ii. 15. [ny breath is corrupt, Job. xvii. 1. my « spirit or mind is bankrupt, broken, exhauited of its vigour and powers.!
To be bound to punishment, Prov. v. 22. Neb.i. n. (we have rendered ourselves very obnoxious to thee.] To be bound with the cords of great pain or affic
See root 457:
tion, Job xxxvi. 8. (Signif. ii.] The pains of childbearing; to travail or bring forth a young one, Cant. viii, 5. or some wicked scheme, Psal. vii, 14. also the young
which is brought forth with pain and sorrow, Job xxxix. 3. ? a company of men bound together in society, [Signif. v.] ? or walking in a train. So a company of soldiers is called
OTTEIP%, a band, Matth. xxvii. 27.
Page 563.6917 563d root, hath three fignifications. Si. albescere ; to be white; to be pale through disappointsment or fear; white. ii. Nobiles, illuftres; Nobles, per
fons of the highest rank; so called because they wore white • robes ; as the Romans called those who put in at an election,
Candidati, from their white gowns. iii. Foramen; a hole; any thing full of holes, as net-work or basket-work; a cave or hollow place in the earth. The connection with the root is uncertain; perhaps from admitting the light,
and giving a white appearance.' It will be very difficult, if not impossible, to reduce each secondary or remote significaţion to its proper place, or rank, and shew its connection with the primitive. In most of them Mr. Taylor has been very happy, and in all of them ingenious. But whether 7777 as it signifies foramen, may not better be derived from 972, fou dere, since the change of 7 into > is common in all the oriental dialects, let the reader determine, as likewise whether for dere is not the primary signification of 1790. See Schindler.
Page 582. byte , 582d roct, hath fix fignifications. 'i.
Vulnerari, confodi ; to diffolve or break the texture of a bo? dy, by penetrating into, or perforating the substance thereof; 6 to penetrate into the human bodys
aix. 40. to diffolve
to diffolve its texture & the whole texture of the body to kille poplay, Deut. xxi. ? I. Hence stabbers, swordsman, gladiators, soldiers trainSed up to a singular dexterity in stabbing and flaying with the < sword, Prov. vii. 26. Jer. li. 4, 47, 49. Ezek. xi. 6, 7. $ See Mr. Kennicott's late learned Dissertation on 1 Chron.
xi. &c. page 102-122, Figuratively, to diffolve or break . a body of men in battle, by penetrating into their ranks, ( and throwing them into disorder, Judg. xx. 31, 39. [they ç began to smite of the people and kill: to smite of the people
routed, or when their ranks were penetrated into and broken.] It is also applied to the wounding or penetrating the heart with forrow, &c. Psal cix. 22.--to the infirmity of a discomposed, broken, shattered mind, Pfal. lxxvii. 10.-ii. Incipere. Figuratively, to penetrate, to make an opening or entrance into an affair ; to begin, Numb. xvi. 46, 47.