« AnteriorContinuar »
point which deserves the attention of stu- reigned at Agde and at Saint-Gilles; and dents, and on which M. Lenthéric gives us Provence was to become a French depen. the most curious particulars. Studying in dency only three centuries later. The only a kind of parallel manner the deltas of the available territory was the marshy district Rhone and of the Nile, he shows their won- of Aigues-Mortes, held in possession by derful similarity : the district of the lower the monks of Psalmodi, whose abbey, situ. Rhone seems evidently to have passed ated on the summit of a hillock, in the through the same geological phases as midst of the lagoons, was one of the richest that of the Nile ; the transformations have establishments of the kind at that time. been exactly identical in both cases, and it is Saint Louis entered upon a negotiation a singular coincidence that certain writers with the religious of Psalmodi, and in have ascribed to the Rhone, as well as to exchange for certain Crown lands situated the Nile, seven mouths or outlets : both near Sommières, he obtained from them the rivers, now, have only two.
cession of Aigues-Mortes, together with all After thus introducing his book by the surrounding tract of territory as far scientific remarks of a general nature, our as the coast. author describes the Gulf of Lyons, and, to We have quoted the above passage to begin with, asks, Whence comes the name show how M. Lenthéric illustrates importGolfe de Lyon ? Are we to suppose that a ant historical episodes, in the course of his portion of the shore of Languedoc and journey along the Mediterranean shore. He Provence has been designated after a city follows throughout their vicissitudes the more than three hundred kilometres dis- destinies of Aigues-Mortes, and with the astant from the sea ? No; M. Lenthéric sistance of some excellent maps and plans, observes that very few Latin texts give us he makes us share the deep interest he feels the corresponding Sinus Lugdunensis ; in in a town which, after a brief space of most cases we have Sinus Gallicus, or even prosperity, is now almost as much a city of Sinus Leonis; and if we consider that the the dead as Herculanum or Carthage. majority of modern French maps have the The last chapter, treating of engineering appellation Golfe du Lion, we are led to questions, deserves serious notice from adopt the view of the old chronicler, another point of view ; our author engGuillaume de Nangis, who said : ' The Sea merates the best ways of restoring to the of the Lion, therefore so called, because it is districts he has been examining, not always savage, restless and cruel.'
merely material prosperity, but health and Time will not allow of our describing in the elementary conditions of existence. detail the cities and other points of interest The planting of trees carried out on a which are described in the second part of large scale, the careful regulation of allu. the volume on The Dead Cities': we say vial deposits and the discontinuance of points of interest, for M. Lenthéric does embankments are amongst the principal not merely stop at the centres of popula- remedies he urges : the first would, by tion, enumerated at the beginning of this altering atmospheric conditions, put an review; he does not forget the rivers, the end to the fevers and agues which decimate lakes, the bays, but gives us an account of the population ; the second would help in their various transformations. The chapter the same direction, besides preserving for on Aigues-Mortes is one of the most in- the coasting trade and navigation purteresting in the volume, bearing, as it does, poses harbours which might add to the on the biography of Saint Louis, and being commercial prosperity of Southern France. connected with the history of the Crusades. Finally, although a system of embankments As soon as the French king had pledged is often useful, especially when large centres himself to take the cross (1244), his first of population are to be protected ; such as care was to secure on the coast of the Paris, London, Rouen, etc. ; yet in most Mediterranean a tract of land and a har- cases they are a cause of ruin, for the rise bour sufficient for the concentration of the of a river will frequently, by destroying troops which were to form the expedition. the barriers constructed at a great expense; The difficulty, says M. Lenthéric, was a carry along with it the most frightful serious one : Louis IX. had only a right of devastation ; whereas, if the river had been suzerainty over the southern parts of allowed free action, it would have, like the France, and he did not possess as his own Ganges and the Nile, fertilized the surany of the cities in Provence or in Langue- rounding land. doc. The harbour of Narbonne was ren- If we were asked to name the two prindered useless by accumulation of sand, cipal French cities on the Mediterranean besides which it belonged to the Viscounts shore, no one would be astonished at our of the city. The Port-Sarrazin, at Mague- pointing out Arles and Marseilles : Arles, lone had its Bishop as a ruler ; the graus, the city of the past, the Rome of Gaul, now or bays, of Montpellier, were owned by the completely shorn of its greatness, forsaken Kings of Aragon ; the Counts of Toulouse by those who have the greatest interest in
its prosperity,a deserted harbour, an aggregate of empty mansions, a barren country left as a prey to fever and malaria ; Marseilles, the centre of commerce, of political activity, and of intellectual vigour : the point of contact where the East and the West, Europe and Asia, meet for the discussion of trading problems and the carrying on of venturesome speculations. Marseilles and Arles form the subject of M. Lenthéric's second volume, a volume fully as interesting as the first, and addressing itself equally to the antiquarian and the engineer, the scholar and the geologist. Our author begins by endeavouring to ascertain the various ethnic influences which have successively contributed to the civilization of the Mediterranean region : Iberi and Ligures, Phænicians, Greeks and Romans appear as the colonists of Southern France, and the foundation of the city of Arles can be safely ascribed to the Celtic tribes, who selected that locality both as a castellum where they could successfully resist an attack from without, and as an emporium from whence the small craft used in those days for commercial purposes could sail up the Rhone and penetrate into the interior of the country : the Celtic name Ar-laith ('a damp place') bears witness to the antiquity of Arles, and is much more probable than the Greek and Latin ones suggested by certain critics. In connection with this part of the subject, M. Lenthéric has given us a number of curious details on the oppida of Gaul, the tradesunions, or guilds, as they existed in antiquity, etc., etc.
Arles, under the Romans, was a town where all the refinements of civilization occupied an important place : baths, theatres, amphitheatres, public gardens, libraries, museums. Our author, in stating and explaining that fact, takes the opportunity of denouncing the madness for pleasures of every kind, the decay of patriotism, the absence of domestic life which was the prominent feature of heathen society during the last period of the empire.
Men forget everything so long as they are amused,' said Cassiodorus ; "and it is easier to lead them by pleasures than by the force or reason.' Arles reproduced, on a limited scale, the habits and usages of the metropolis of the world; it had its arena, and its thermal establishments. There is not one of its streets which does not preserve some trace of Roman influence, and M. Lenthéric is not guilty of exaggeration when he describes Arles as an open-air
The forum still exists after fifteen centuries of revolution. Occupying the centre of the city, it has retained to a certain extent its original destination ; for there, says our author, the modern
Arlesians spend hours and days exercising the taste for flânerie and gossip, which was so characteristic of their ancestors. It is impossible within the limits of a short notice to describe in detail all the monuments of Greek and Roman architecture still extant at Arles : the reader will find, however, a sofficient account of the principal ones ; and an excellent map engraved on purpose for this work gives, from the most trustworthy authorities, the topography of the classical Arelate.
If the restitution of the locality such as it was at the time of Constantine is a relatively easy matter in the case of Arles, the same process applied to Marseilles is, on the contrary, beset with the most serious difficulties. To quote M. Lenthéric : • Cities where development has been gradual and of an average kind, those especially which have decayed and perished by slow stages, present almost at the surface of the ground a rich harvest of valuable remains. The soil on which Marseilles stands cannot be regarded even as a heap of ruins ; the ruins have been carried away or used for building purposes ; and it is absolutely necessary to excavate at a considerable depth if we wish to find here and there a doubtful vestige of classical civilization.' The history of Marseilles is really that of its harbour; but where shall we find the elements of a trustworthy and really authentic account of the Phocæan colony? The narratives of the earliest writers are so lamentably made up of fact and fiction blended, that it is impossible to determine what is strictly historical as compared with the merely legendary past ; and the annalists, living many centuries subsequently to the events which they describe, seem to have delighted in casting around them a kind of poetical and mysterious garb.
M. Lenthéric devotes a considerable space to the Phænician period of Marseilles. From the evidence of Thucydides, Pausanias and other old writers, it is quite clear that as early as the sixth century, B.C., the present capital of the department of Bouches du Rhône occupied an important position as a commercial centre. To say nothing of the coins and medals struck at Tyre and at Carthage, which have been dug upin the whole extent of Southern Gaul, and at Marseilles itself, the works of excavation carried on from time to time have brought to light on the site of the old Acropolis no fewer than forty-five small stone edifices (édicules, says M. Lenthéric) of an archaic style much anterior to the Greek epoch. These edifices monolithic and portative chapels or shrines, offering the most striking and significant similarity to those recently discovered in Africa on the site of
Carthage, and, in the East, at Tyre, Sidon, Byblos, Palmyra, Baalbec. Marseilles, in point of fact, was essentially a Phænician city, one of the principal colonies founded by that remarkable race of men whose best counterpart in modern times was to be found in the lagoons of Venice.
A disquisition, treating of the political state of Marseilles, its laws, government and institutions, forms one of the most interesting parts of M. Lenthéric's tenth chapter. Aristotle had written on that very subject a book, now unfortunately lost ; but Athenæus, Herodotus, Plutarch, Thucydides, Polybius, Suetonius,and Strabó
supply us with a mass of information which deserves to be attentively studied, and from which our author has collected the details he places before us. He concludes with some suggestive remarks on the introduction of Christianity amongst the population of Southern Gaul, and on the constitution of the early Church.
The notes, appendices of original documents, and twenty-two maps or plans which complete these two volumes, add very much to their usefulness, and help us to understand thoroughly the geographical and topographical descriptions so industriously put together by M. Lenthéric.
SELECT LITERARY NOTICES. The Churchmanship of John Wesley, miss a passage to which we at the time felt and the Relations of Wesleyan-Methodism bound to demar. to the Church of England. By James Though the work is not written priH. Rigg, D.D., Author of Modern marily for Wesleyans, but for non-WesAnglican Thcology,' ctc. Published for leyans, yet no intelligent Wesleyan can the Author at the Wesleyan Conference fail to derive from it both pleasure and Office. This volume, as the author ex- profit; all the more pleasure and profit plains, “is a new composite out of materials from the very fact that he is placed in a the greater part of which have already position to look at the matter, not from been published. The substance of about within, but from without or rather from one-half appeared in The Contemporary abuve.' One's own house and garden gazed Review in September, 1876, as an article down upon from a neighbouring observaon The Churohmanship of John Wesley.... tory, are invested with a fresh interest, whilst Most of the remainder had appeared in a their outline and relative position are former publication on The Relations of more clearly and accurately realized. The John Wesley and Wesleyan-Methodism Methodist will find his ecclesiastical hometo the Church of England, which was stead look wonderfully well from the called forth by special circumstances eleven elevation to which our author conducts years ago, and of which two editions have him, and the bounds of his habitation will been sold. The combination of these two not contract, but expand beneath his gaze. very able, timely and mutually compli- Wesleyans themselves, as a rale, do not too mentary productions into one complete clearly understand the opinions and chartractate was a happy idea ; and it is as acter of John Wesley, and the precise happily realized. The two works are so position and relations of Wesleyan-Methoskilfully amalgamated, so artistically fused dism among the ecclesiastical organizainto a homogeneous monograph that, with- tions and communities of England.” out close comparison, it is impossible to (Preface.) This little volume will prove determine to which date or to whether of of great service to Wesleyans and nonthe two essays any particular chapter or Wesleyans alike. The extent to which section belonged ; in fact, no one who had Dr. Rigg has succeeded in contemplating neither read the author's preface nor the his Mother Church merely as a student of two previous publications would suspect history, in particular, of ecclesiastical that the whole had not been produced, so history,' is remarkable. Hence result a to say, at the first intent. The suture is candour, a moderation and a judicial calmeffected so naturally that no trace, even of ness and impartiality too rare in denominathe process, is left. Of the later named tional apologetics. We have no fear that but earlier published treatise we need not Dr. Rigg will be disappointed in his speak particularly, having reviewed it at ‘hope' that this small volume...will have some length on its first appearance. Its a permanent interest, and will conduce, merits are well-known to our readers. As not to division and controversy, but to the author intimates in his preface, it is settlement and peace so far as regards the superseded by the now completed work, in Church of England and Wesleyan-Methowhich it is embodied. We are glad to dism with their mutual relations.' (Pre.
face.). The book is entirely free from polemical heat or harshness.' We should think the questions discussed are henceforth set at rest. We are inclined to question the exact accuracy of one opinion expressed by our author : There are still, I believe, a few Wesleyan Ministers who receive the doctrine of baptismal regeneration.' There may be such, but we ourselves have not met with them. We certainly know some who hold, more strongly than definitely, a doctrine of baptismal grace; but we doubt of the existence of one Wesleyan Minister who holds, out and out, what is ordinarily meant by 'the doctrine of baptismal regeneration.?
Faultless accuracy, frankness and fairness in a writer form no effective guarantee for the attractiveness of his work. This book, however, is emphatically readable. The style is so easy, so lucid, sɔ quietly yet forcefully fluent, and the diction so apposite and natural, that the reader's attention is never either strained or slackened. The current of the argumentative narration is like the flow of 'bonnie Doon,' "never drumlie': never turbid with obscurity of thought, or discoloured by asperity of temper.
Syntax of the Hebrew of the Old Tes. tament. By Heinrich Erald. Translated from the Eighth German Edition, by James Kennedy, B.D. Edinburgh : T. and T. Clark. 1879.–Nowhere has the splendid intellect of Evald done snch sound service to the cause of sacred science and the elucidation of the Holy Scriptures as in the important province of Hebrew Grammar. His was, in fact, the
very genius of Grammar. In his hands Grammar is as charming? as Divine philosophy'; not harsh and crabbed as dull fools suppose,' and as dull pedants never fail to make it. The subject receives from him a thoroughly philosophical and scientific treatment Heshows how the subtleties of Hebrew Syntax grow out of the yet deeper subtleties of the laws of thought. The brilliancy of his analytic faculty and the animation of his style throw a fascination over what would otherwise be the driest philological details. The very first paragraph wakes up the student's intellect and makes him feel that he is sitting at the feet of a master. Not only the peculiarities, but the strength, and in some departments the affluence of that ancient and imperfectly. developed tongue are strikingly brought out. The sections on the six tense forms in Hebrew : 'two plain, two modified, two resimplified,' and the relatively progressive imperfect, perfect' tenses, and on the relatively progressive volantative mood,' for example, are really interesting. Valuable rules
ofexegesis are incidentally laid down. Every Biblical student who aspires to a competent knowledge of Hebrew should master Evald's Hebrew Syntax. The translator has acted wisely in confining himself to the third part of Evald's Manual : Ausführliches Lehrbuch der hebräischen Sprache des alten Bundes (1870), inasmuch as the purpose of the two earlier parts are sufficientlymet by the well-knownGrammars of Kalisch, Gesenius, Green and Davidson. Bating a few conventionalisms, the translation is beautifully executed.
The Student's Commentary of the Holy Bible. Founded on the Speaker's Commentary. Abridged and Edited by J. M. Fuller, M.A., formerly Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge. Vol. I. London: John Murray. 1879.-The term Student on the title-page is, as we learn from the preface, widely inclusive, the work being intended 'for circulation among readers of all classes. It is to be studied for its explanations rather than for practical remarks or spiritual application.' This is a good idea, but, in this volumecomprising the
Pentateuch—it is unequally carried out. The Introductions—first to the Pentateuch, and then to the separate books—are judicious and useful, and the commenting on Leviticusis almost throughout very helpful to the general reader ; but that on the other books seems to us to fall below the requirements of any but beginners in the study of the Scriptures. We think that the same space might have contained explanatory matter more serviceable to the ordinary Bible reader. Sometimes the comment is not in harmony with the text ; for instance, on Leviticus xiv. 49, we read : · Cleanse the house. Strictly purge the house from sin. The same word is used in v. 52 ; and in v. 53 it is said, "and make an atonement for it.”... The leprosy in houses, the leprosy in clothing, and the terrible disease in the human body, were representative forms of decay which taught the lesson that all created things, in their own nature, are passing away, and are only maintained for their destined uses during an appointed period, by the power of Jehovah.' It is obvious to remark : if leprosy symbolized decay and not moral and spiritual corruption, and its lesson' were the transitoriness and dependence on God of all created things, and not the evil of sin and the need of 'atonement,' how unaccountable and misleading is the omission of any such idea from the text, and the prominence given to cleansing, sin and atonement'! This is as great an error in physiology and pathology, as in exegesis and theology. "The terrible disease of leprosy 'in the human body is
not mere decay'; it is an animal poison fermenting in the blood. And leprosy in houses is something more than decay'; it is a fungous growth on the walls.
We confess ourselves also to be none the wiser for the following "explanation of the miracle of the articulate remonstrance of Balaam's ass against Balaam's worse than assenine obstinacy : 'God may have brought it about that sounds uttered by the creature after its kind became to the prophet's intelligence (sic!) as though it ad. dressed him in rational speech. What is gained by this utterly unsupported hypothesis of an hallucination brought about' by *God’? According to the expositor, the perception of the presence of the angel of the Lord was no optical delusion, but, on the contrary, an optical illumination ; and his hearing of the voice of the angel was an objective and not a subjective miracle. Why should the articulation of the ass, any more than the visibility and audibility of the angel (both admittedly the result of Divine intervention), be regarded as a mere cerebral or mental abnormity ? What is the utility-moral or scientific—of this conjectural transference of the sphere of the miracle from the mouth of the ass to the brain of the prophet ? The Apostolic version of the historical event seems to us as much more morally impressive as it is more Divinely authenticated : “The Cumb ass, speaking with man's voice, forbade the madness of the prophet. According to our expositor, Balaam's fancying that the commonplace kicking and braying of the ass “after its kind' was only a symptom of the prophet's madness. In all exegetical comity, the apparition of the angel and the articulations of the ass must be placed in the same category : both must be objective, or both subjective. We are afraid, too, that the ass of the disobedient prophet must, on this hermeneutical principle, owe its imaginary life to some similar cerebration on the partof the lying prophet. What is there, again, more incredible in the brief opening of the mouth of one abused ass than in the shutting the months of many hunger-maddened lions through a long night in the den at Babylon ?
the grave blunder of too many modern critics of fancying that the conjectural date and occasion for the composition of a psalm, inferred by a nineteenth century student from the contents of the psalm, are more authentic and trustworthy than the ancient inscriptions which form an integral portion of the Canon. We cannot but wonder that the sound rule with re. gard to various readings in the MSS. of Holy Writ sbould not have occurred to our often too clever destructive critics : the reading which seems, at first sight, the least likely is the least likely to hare been the result of meddlesome emendation or tampering with the text. Two things these self-confident conjecturers have made very plain : first, that the superscriptions of the psalms which they assume to put right were not, what their substituted superscriptions of course are, mere literary guess-work ; secondly, that this conjectural criticism is most precarious, inasmuch as the witness of the emending critics does not agree together. Mr. Brentnall himself shows that the acutest of them are utterly at variance : Murphy, Delitzsch, Perowne, to whom he might have added Ewald and many another, attributing the same psalm to authors and to times very widely apart.
His new theory about the meaning of the word Selah does not help matters-Damely,
that the thirty-nine Selah Psalms are all composite poems, made up of short songs or fragments of songs, and that as entire psalms, they were generally applied to occasions different from those for which the several component parts were originally written.' In our judgment his attempt to prove this utterly breaks down. What psalms, for example, have more complete, organic and vital unity thronghont than the first two Selah Psalms, the Third and Fourth Psalms? The supposition that the Fourth Psalm is made up of three distinct parts, composed on three separate occasions, seems to us most uncritical. You might as well start the hypothesis that Gray's Elegy or Milton's Sonnet on his Blindness was a patchwork of this kind. Besides, the historic value of the psalm is sadly impaired if it were not a spontaneous composition, but a series of quotations or recollections strung together for the occasion. Many of our author's suppositions as to Davidic Psalms, which do not traverse the superscriptions, are both probable, and illustrative of, and in turn illustrated by the sacred narrative. We cannot congratulate him on his rhymed versions. The rule, “None but a poet should translate a poet,' applies to the Psalms as much as to any other productions. In the process of rendering the Hebrew songs into English rhymed metre,