AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT. Drams marked dr 16 qr 1 Hundred Weight cwt ton 1 16 gr 1792 = 112 = 4 = 1 ton By this weight are weighed all things of a coarse or drossy nature, as Corn, Bread, Butter, Cheese, Flesh, Grocery Wares, and some Liquids; also all Metals, except Silver and Gold. oz dwt go 0 18 5 0 1 3 weights one ounce, and 12 ounces one pound. But in later times, it was thought sufficient to divide the same pennyweight into 24 equal parts, still called grains, being the least weight now in common use; and from thence the rest are computed, as in the Tables above, In In Ft rd 1 PL 198 = 161 = 5 = 1 Fur 7920 660 220 40 = 1 Mile 83360 = 5280 = 1760 = 320 = 8 = 1 CLOTH MEASURE. 2 Inches and a quarter make 1 Nail NI * Nails 1 Quarter of a Yard Qr 3 Quarters 1 Ell Flemish EF 4 Quarters 1 Yard rd 5 Quarters | Ell English EE 4 Quarters 1 Inch I EU Scotch ES SQUARE MEASURE. 144 Square Inches make 1 Sq Foot 9 Square Feet 1 Sq Yard 1 Sq Pole 1 Acre rd Sq Inc Sq Ft Sq rd : 144 I 1 1 Sq PI = 1210 4Qs Acr 6272640 = 43560 = 4840 - 160 4 1 By this measure, Land, and Husbandmen and Gardeners' work are measured; also Artificers' work, such as Board, Glass, Pavements, Plastering, Wainscoting, Tiling, Flooring, and every dimension of length and breadth only When three dimensions are concerned, namely, length, breadth, and depth or thickness, it is called cubic or solid measure, which is used to measure Timber, Stone, &c. The cubic or solid Foot, which is 12 inches in length and þreadth and thickness, contains 1728 cubic or solid inches, and 27 solid feet make one solid yard. DRY, Bu Pts Gal 1 Pec 1 Or Weg By this are measured all dry wares, as, Corn, Seeds, Roots, Fruits, Salt, Coals, Sand, Oysters, &c. The standard Gallon dry-measure contains 2685 cubic or solid inches, and the Corn or Winchester bushel 2150 cubic inches; for the dimensions of the Winchester bushel, by the Statute, are 8 inches deep, and 18 inches wide or in diameter. But the Coal bushel must be 19 inches in diameter; and 36 bushels, heaped up, make a London chaldron of coals, the weight of which is 3156 lb Avoirdupois. Pts Ot 1 Gal 1 Bar 54 = Butt 864 432 = 108 = 3 = 2 = 1 Nate, The Ale Gallon contains 282 cubic or solid Inches. WINE MEASURE. 2 Pints make 4 Quarts 42 Gallons 63 Gallons or 1 Tierces 2 Tierces 2 Hogsheads 2 Pipes or 4 Hhds 1 Quart Or . Pts Q: 1 Gal 1 Tier 336 = 168 = 42 = 1 Hbd 504 252 = 63 = 1=1 Pun 672 = 336 = 84 = 2 = 1 = 1 Pi 1008 = 504 = 126 = 3 = 2 = 1= 1 Tun 2016 = 1008 = 2526 = 4 = 3 =2=1 Note, By this are measured all Wines, Spirits, Strongwaters, Cyder, Mead, Perry, Vinegar, Oil, Honey, &c. The Wine Gallon contains 231 cubic or solid inches. And it is remarkable, that the Wine and Ale Gallons have the same proportion to each other, as the Troy and Avoirdupois Pounds have; that is, as one Pound Troy is to one Pound Avoirdupois, so is one Wine Gallon to one' Ale Gallon. Sec Min 60 1 Hr 3600 60 1 Day 86400 = 1440 24 1 12 604800 10090 168 1 М. +2419200 = 40320 = 672 = 28 = 4 = 1 31557600 = 525060 = 8766 = 36543 i rear Or WŁ Da Hr Mo Da Hr 6 - 13 1 6=1 Julian Year RULES FOR REDUCTION. . When the Numbers are to be reduced from a Higher Denomie nation to a Lower : MULTIPLY the number in the highest denomination by as many as of the next lower make an integer, or 1, in that higher; to this product add the number, if any, which was in this lower denomination before, and set down the amount. Reduce this amount in like manner, by multiplying it by as many as of the next lower make an integer of this, taking in the odd parts of this lower, as before. And so proceed through all the denominations to the lowest ; so shall the number last found be the value of all the numbers which were in the higher denominations, taken together *. EXAMPLE. S 1. In 12341 15s 7d, how many farthings? 1 d 1234 15 7 20 24695 Shillings 12 296347 Pence 4 Answer 1185388 Farthings. * The reason of this rule is very evident; for pounds are brought into shillings by multiplying them by 20; shillings into pence, by multiplying them by 12; and pence into fartbings, by multiplying by 4 ; and the reverse of this rule by Division. —And the same, it is evident, will be true in the reduction of numbers consisting of any denominations whatever. II. When |