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trary,a veryworthy man,andof unimpeachable veracity, we should be extremely sorry to see him in his literary character altogether the reverse, which must inevitably be the case if he goes on in his present practices. In the generic characters' he acknowledges that he has followed Withering pretty close. Whatever, consequently, occurs in that part which is not his own, we can call by no harsher name than borrowed. But then Dr. Withering's commodities also appear, without proof of any valuable consideration having been given for them, in the so called “ Introduction to the Study of Botany.” The “ Vocabulary of Technical Terms,” too, made use of in this work, is copied almost verbạtim from Withçring's. Introduction. The first definition of approaching," meeting each other at top,” may possibly belong to Mr. Dede, as also the explanations of chaffy,' 'incorporated,' sitting anthers,' \ varieties,' and ' umbelliferous plants. And this, we conscientiously, beleire, is nearly the whole amount of what he can fairly lay claim to
The Elements of the Science of Botany, is a work of a much superior degree of merit; though certainly as little deserving the title it bears, as a collection of bricks from every different street of the metropolis, deserves to be called Elements of British Architecture, or the anecdotes wbich form the seasoning of our newspapers, Elements of the History of England. It is, however, a very neat and elegant picture book; and those who can afford to lay out a good deal of money, for a small stock of information, conveyed in a pleasing manner, will not do amiss in putting it into the hands of their children. It may assist in exciting a fondness for botany, at a time when the powers of the field cannot be obtained for examination. But it has, we conceive, little or nothing to do with botany as a science,-if we except the ten pages of introduction, and a few plates illustrative of the stamina and pistilla of some of the different classes, which are generally well designed, and will be useful to the young botanist. The plates, it is true, are selected and arranged according to the classes and orders of the Linnæan system; but as there are no dissections to shew the parts of fructification, and, on account of the arlificial nature of the system, a single species can scarcely ever be-assumed as the representative ot a whole class or order, (which may be done in a natural arrangement,) they contribute scarcely any thing to the elucidation of the science. Nor does the letter-press compensate for this defect, as it frequently consists of nothing but the habitat, time of inforescence, &c. adding, when most copious, a few anecdotes concerning the plant. The botanical description of genus and species, are entirely
omitted, as if to prevent even the appearance of systematic botany. Stili, however, the whole is so compiled, that we believe it will not be read without interest, by those whom it is likely to benefit. The description of papyrus may be selected as a fair specimen of the author's manner.
. PAPYRUS. This plant is of the rush kind, and grows in marshes and swamps, on the borders of the Nile, to the height of ten or twelve feet; at the top it has a bushy head, the stem is naked, and has a few short leaves at the bottom. In the British Museum there is a dried speci. men which corresponds to this description.
• From the inner rind of the stem of this plant the ancient Egyptians made their paper ; but at what time it was first used for that purpose is not accurately known. It was, however, in high estimation in the time of Alexander the Great, and probably not long before; for Ptolemy Philadelphus, king of Egypt, when he began to make a great lib ary, and to collect all sorts of books, he caused them to be copied on this newly-invented paper. In his reign it was also exported for the use of other countries, till he prohibited it to prevent Eumenes, a king of Pergamus, from making a library to rival his own at Alexandria. In consequence of this prohibition, Eumenes invented parchment to supply its place: hence parchiment is called pergamena in Latin, from Pergamus, in Lesser Asia, where it was first used for this purpose: not but that skins, both of sheep and goats, were used to write upon by the ancient Ionians some hundred years before this time, according to Herodotus ; but it would seem that Eu. menes invented a new mode of preparing them.
• Paper made from the Papyrus was principally manufactured at Alexandria, from the exportation of which the city was greatly enriched ; and in the time of the Emperor Adrian, Vopiscus speaks of one Fermies, who boasted that he could maintain an army with the value of his stock of paper.
When this paper became to be disused is not known with more accu. racy than its commencement; and the truth is, probably, that they were both so gradual, that no fixed point of time existed for either. As late as the end of the fifth century it was in general use in Europe; and in Italy it. was occasionally used till the eleventh, and in France till the twelfth century,* when paper made of cotton entirely superseded it. Afterwards paper made from linen was adopted, of which there was reason to believe none was entirely made of that material before the year 1367.1
* From Papyrus, paper is derived; and from the ancient custom of writing on the leaves of trees, our book is said to be composed of leaves. Liber is the inner bark of a tree, on which the ancients were also used to write ; and volumen was the manuscript rolled up; hence our words library and volume.'
23-25. The plates which accompany this work are by no means
* The Bulls of the Popes Sergius II. John XII. and Agrapatus Il. were written in the eighth and ninth centuries on cotton paper.
† The first Paper Mill, in England, was erected in the year 1588.
faultless. Thus in Linnæa, though the lower leaves are very properly represented as opposite, the upper are falsely made alternate; the peduncle of the orange is badly figured ; and in melaleuca the position of the leaves on the right hand branch is quite neglected. Indeed few will bear a critical examination. We could more readily pardon these faults, however, than the unnecessarily contracted size of the figures. Polish pomp combined with Polish tastelessness, may still entertaio a dwarf or two in the retinues of the great, and teach them td estimate the value of their libraries in the inverse ratio of the size of the volumes; but we prefer human beings that can shake hands with us without the assistance of a ladder, and botanical plates that will give some idea of the growth of at least moderately sized plants. Errors of a more serious nature for the botanical character of the author also occur. It is possible that Mr. R. D. found the alisma plantago in Keswick Jake, and in Wales, as we do not recollect a Lake in Britain which does not produce it. If however, as we are rather apt to suspect, he has a different species in mind, he ought to have known that straa tiotes alismoides is, on the best grounds, removed to a different genus in a different class. The term root is also very io properly applied to lycoperdon tuber.
As for the fourth edition of Lee's Introduction to the Science of Botany; it may be justly compared to one of those painful searchers of the temper of all notable housewifes, an excellent pye utterly spoilt in the baking. The title we imagine to be intended for a translation of Philosophia Botanica ; the dish consisting chiefly of the disjointed limbs of Linnæus' work of that name.
The first part comprising 48 pages, contains a description of the seven parts of fructification; the second of above 350 pages, is devoted to an illustration of the Lionæan System; and the third of about 150, to an elucidation of the different sorts of vegetables. On a subject so often and so ably treated, we cannot expect to see valuable improvements except by persons of extraordinary abilities;--and these, rots withstanding the respect we may have for Mr. Lee's memory, we cannot think that he possessed, though we do not doubt of his ability to bring the labours of others into a form more applicable to particular purposes. If some parts of his work are by no means what we could desire, there are others which, at least in their design, claim the highest approbation. The second table of Linnæan genera, with their synonymes, and the third with references to their classes and orders, must be useful to every botanist; and the first, exhibiting the changes in the old genera, appears very convenient for occasional re'ference.
> But when we examine into the execution of this performance, we know not whether to give way to indignation or to laughter, Modern discoveries are altogether neglected. The Linnæan genera remain 1177 in nuu.ber, and will most probably remain so for ever, if none can be Linnæan but such as were established by Linnæus. The old observation, that the whole order of Fungi, to the scandal of the science is still a chaos, &c. still remains,—though the editor very gravely expects much in this department from the ingenious efforts of the President of the Linnæan Society, Dr. Smith. We can hardly suppose him ignorant of the labours of our countryman, Mr. Sowerby, even if he never heard of the foreign authors, with Persoon at their head, who have reduced what Linnæus indeed left a chaos to a very tolerable state of order. We therefore can do no other than conclude, that this passage, which “ British Fungi" alone would be sufficient to refute, has been suf, fered to remain from mere idleness. We should not however, have hazarded this supposition, were we not provided with sufficient and independent proof of the predominant sway of this negative agent over our author, notwithstanding his eular gist's. assertion, that the chief merit of his introduction is, that he does not go slovenly to work.'p. vi. Thus, in mentioning the authors quoted in Tab. II., no allusion is made to their works: and even persons having the same sirname,-as Iohn, and loh. lac. Scheuchzer, loh. and Casp. Bauhin, pass undistinguished. Modern authors are, as might be expected, entirely onnitted. If the title of the third table, and indeed several others, exhibit marks of diligence, it is of diligence similar to that of the litterati of Laputa, in working the frame which was to produce such astonishing discoveries, by the transposition of all the words composing the language. They would hardly be able to put the same words in worse 'order than in the sentence referred to "The Linnæan Genera, alphabetically arranged, with the classical and English names, and accented with a reference also to their class is and orders. In the accentuation almost balf the names have been omitted, and of those on which marks have been bestowed, several are false. In the fifth table, containing the English and French names, the inventors of new genera are occasionally annexed to the Latin generic appellation, in a manner which might occasion mistakes in a student wholly unacquainted with the French language, and the history of botany; and lead him to translate crupina into Adans, or marattia into Smith. Of the sixth, seventh, and eighth tables, an idea can only bę formed from a sight of these master-pieces of composition. For the amusement and instruction of our readers, we subjoin a few
specimens, whence the grammatical system and perspicuous style of our author will be fully evident.
* ABRUPTUM FOLIUM PINNATUM; winged leaves, ending without either foliole or cirrhus.'
• AMPLEXICAULE FOLIUM, embracing the stalk when the base of the leaf embraces the stem sideways.' p. 506.
APPENDICULATUS PETIOLUS, a little appendage hanging from the extremity of the foot-stalk.' p. 507.
• BIFARIA FOLIA, a leaf pointing two ways.' p. 508.
* BULBIFERUS Caulis; a stalk-bearing bulb, as in a species called LILIUM BULBIFERUM. p. 509.
• CONGESTA UMBELLA, flowers collected into a spherical shape, as id the ALLIUM. p. 512.
COTYLEDON, a side-lohe of the seed, of a porous substance, and perishable, or seminal leaves.'
514. • TruSTRANEA POLYGAMIA, to no purpose, the third order of the class Syngnesia.' p. 520.
GLAREOSS Locis, gravelly placcs, where plants delight in gravel.'
SPINOSUS CAULIS, strong prickles, whose roots proceed from the wood of the stem, and not from the surface of the bark.' p.
537. We must not however dismiss this work, without noticing an appendage intitled “a Sketch of the Life and Writings of the late James Lee, by Robert John Thornton, M. D.” Who this Dr. Thornton may be, we are wholly ignorant ; as it is quite impossible to suppose the renowned author of the splená did llustration of the Sexual System,---which was approved of by the testimonies of monarchs, voted into the libraries of universities, permitted to be disposed of as a lottery by an Act of the British Legislature, and erected into a criterion of the taste of every true-born Englishman,-10 hare disgraced himself by so execrable a farrago of nonsense. Indeed we shall think it an unquestionable proof of a most forbearing temper, if the learned Doctor does not call the editor to an account, for pre fising his name to it. We extract a single passage, and that by co means the worst, partly as a proof that we do not treat this memoir with injustice, and partly as the reader will thence be able to guess at a curious anecdote.
• As might be expected from an author, Lee's Garden was always open to the curious; nor was he ever backward in communicating knowledge; whereas Mr. MILLER concealed the names of his valuable collection in the Chelsea Gardens; and the papers, which contained his foreign seeds, were industriously thrown into the Thames; and such is the ardour of Botany, although the acquisition was often to be swam for, these were fished for up again, and the names of the new plants, then introduced, was thus known to Mr. LEE, and others, in a way which greatly surprised the author of the Gardeper's Dictionary. pp. xv. xvi.