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5. Inoculation is but little practiced among the Christians, and not at all among the Turks, who trust to their fatum. In Georgia, according to the report of a physician of that country, the practice is common, and had its rise from mere fuperftition.
6. There is now no printing-house in Constantinople. One Ibrahim Effendi, an Hungarian, introduced the art of printing; but it was of no long continuance. His adoptive fon, who, Mr. Porter tells us, is now secretary under the interpreter of the Porte, has all the materials; but could never find money fufficient to carry on it: that the jealousy and fuperftition of the people, tho' the government should permit Chriftians to raise a printing-house, would be an irresistible impediment; and they are too ignorant themselves to be ever capable of doing it. With regard to the maps, they did not exceed three or four, one of Persia, one of the Bosphorus, and one of the Euxinus, or Black Sea, and these are only to be found in private hands.
7. The progress of arts and sciences, and literature,' says Mr. Porter, feems travelling on, gradatim, to the westward, * from Egypt to Greece, from Greece to Rome, thence to the
west of Europe, and I suppose at laft to America. We find
few traces in the east: the Greeks, who should be the depo“sitaries of them, are the fame Greeks they ever were, homi
nes contentionis cupidiores quam veritatis. They have retained all the vices, imperfections, and ill habitudes of their ancestors; but have lost all their public spirit and public virtues.
There are neither grammarians, critics, historians, nor philofophers, among them; nor have they preceptors, or 6 masters to instruct.'
With regard to the Turks, their learning consists principally in abftrufe metaphyfics; some few touch the surface of fcience: their favourite philofophy is the Epicurean, called by them the Democratical, from Democritus. «The infti'tutes and practice of physic,' adds Mr. Porter, are taken 6 from Galen. Eben Zina, or Avicena, is a principal guide. 6 Mathiolus is known. But with all this, as the sole drift and < end of their study is gain, there does not seem the least emu
lation towards true knowlege: so that the state of letters may • be said to remain deplorable, without the least glimmering 6 or remote prospect of a recovery.'
Conclusion of Mr. Bardwell's Treatise on Painting, &c.
N our last we attempted to give our readers a general idea
of Mr. Bardwell's scheme, and the manner in which he propofed to execute it. We then particularly observed some of the incoherences, and blunders, which compofe his introduction to the Practice of Painting; and now, on examining the precepts themselves, we find, that they are really, as he himself confesses, the result of a tedious course of mistakes : and that his Introduction, bad as it has proved, is by no means the worst part of his book.
The method by which he proposes to teach the Art of Calouring, is extremely unartificial and defective; for, were he ever so well acquainted with the properties of those material Colours that usually furnish the Painter's pallet; were he ever so expert at compounding them, so as to obtain from their mixture all the imaginable variety of beautiful tints; and did he, even with the greatest perspicuity, convey this knowlege to his readers : yet, while he conceals from us those principles which ascertain the precise parts of the original object, to the exact imitation of which, these tints are particularly appropriated, he can never be said to teach the Art of Painting. And in this respect Mr. Bardwell is so much wanting, that he appears to us in the fame light with an author who should write a treatise shewing how to articulate a set of sounds, but without any regard to their meaning, or that arrangement necessary to constitute language ;-such a book would as well answer the title of a Practical Grammar, as this of Mr. Bardwell's the title he hath bestowed on it. This averfion to theory, however, appears the more excuseable in our Author, as, in all probability, he is totally unacquainted with that Branch of his Art. He seems really to have confined his genius, and directed his ftudies merely to the nature of Material Colours :--and this is tive knowlege he seems peculiarly conscious of poffefsing. A flight scrutiny will fhew how far he is master of the subject. He begins thusOf the principal Colours used in Fles, from which all the
« Teints are made. "1. Flake White, or fine White, is the very best White "we have.-White is a friendly working colour, and comes ( forward with Yellows and Reds, but retires with Blues and « Greens,'
If this is true, how unlucky are our Landschape Painters, who, to represent the glowing colours of an evening sky, or a morning, like that in Milton,
Where the great Sun begins his state,
Rob’d in flames, and amber bright. are obliged, on the sky and the horizon, (that part of the picture which retires most from the eye) to employ White mixed with the brightest Yellows, and warmest Reds; while, for the nearer herbage, in order to bring it forward, they avail themselves of White mixed with Green! and, in the reprefentation of Water, frequently obtain the same effect by a mixof Blue and White: All which, is quite the reverse of Mr. Bardwell's doctrine.
(2. Ivory-Black is the best Black we have Black is a ( cold retiring Colour.'
How can this be, Mr. Bardwell? Painters, you know, use this cold retiring Colour plentifully, in the nearest objects, because it contributes to bring them forward: for the less air is interposed between the eye and the object, the darker the shades will appear !
3. Ultramarine is the finest Blue in the world; it is a s tender retiring Colour, and never glares.'
We suspect he is only joking a little with us, now; for, doubtless he knows very well, that, in fact, Ultramarine is the brightest, or most glaring Blue in the whole Materia Pictorica, and, of all others, comes the most powerfully forward! Ah! he's a fly one!-He's at the same sport again below, viz,
4. Prussian Blue is a very fine Blue.--It should never be used in the Flesh, but in the Green Teint, and the Eyes.'
Our Wag, however, like other Wits, sometimes forgets himself. Who would expect, after such a prohibition, [it should never be used in the Flesh] to find this green tint, in the next chapter fet down by Mr. Bardwell, as one of those ? principal Teints which are absolutely necessary for painting « Flesh, and expressly prescribed by him for the middle Tints of Flesh, and for softening the red shadows of Flesh ?
Comical, however, and diverting as, we see, Mr. Bardwell can make himself, when he has a mind to be droll, we might, perhaps, trespass too much on the taste of our Readers, should we follow him thro' all his Humbugs, to the end of this chapter on Colours; we have said enough to demonstrate how in. timate a knowlege he poffeffes of the qualities peculiar to those principal and fimple Colours from which all his Teints are made; in the composition of which teints, how he is likely to fucceed, will appear from the following extracts,
• All Yellows are strengthened with Reds, and weakened with Blues and Greens.'-Now, to be serious, for we cannot always be in humour to laugh, when our Author is difposed to risibility, this maxim is really false: and if Mr. Bardwell had heard of one Newton, who formerly wrote a book on Light and Colours, he would, perhaps, among many other pretty hints, have learned, that Reds degrade Yellows to Orange or Tawney, and of consequence cannot be said to ftrengthen Yellows, but to weaken them.
Again, “ Light-Red, and White, in mixing, produce the + most perfect Flesh-colour that can be made. In the next chapter the Author seems to be of another opinion; for he there tells us, that this most perfect Flesh-colour should be improved by mixing it with some Vermillion and White.
• No Vermillion but what is made of the true native Cin( nabar, should ever be used.'
Vermillion is not made of Cinnabar, but is another name for Cinnabar, of which the shops distinguish two forts, the native and the factitious,
From these extracts our Readers will probably have formed a true judgment of Mr. Bardwell's deep skill in the nature of Colours, and their mixture. However, what relates to the application of them should, we find, be read, cum grano falisand when he talks of glazing with White, (page 34.) we must fuppose he means scumbling; for he else where tells us, that White is the destruction of all glazing. (Page 39.) On the contrary, when he recommends scumbling with transparent colours, he must be understood, glazing.
When he would puzzle us by prescribing solid Colours for painting some parts of the picture, we should remember, that Colours ground with oil are not solid. We must therefore conclude he means cpake : and so in other instances.—And now, Reader, may we not be allowed to congratulate ourselves on having played the OEdipus, with some success, thus far? but alass! when he talks of blending the Gradations with the Blue Teints which follow the Yellows-When he recommends driving of Colours, or breaking of skies, our decyphering art fails us, and we fairly own ourselves driven beyond our knowlege.
In the middle of his Disiertation on Colouring, Mr. Bardwell has inserted an entire chapter, which he stiles, On Copying. From its place and title we really expected here some important documents on the method of imitating an original picture; but how great was our disappointment, when, throughout the whole chapter, we could not discover the most distant hint of this mystery! not even the secret of cracking a Varnish, of discolouring a recent piece of daybing, or a wretched copy, so as to impose it as an original, on the injudicious or unsuspecting purchafer.
On reflection, however, we find it will be no difficult task for our Readers to guefs at his motive for inserting this ebapter in his work, when they are informed, that it is, notwithstanding its title, 'no Treatise on Copying, but an Apology for Copiers: a set of operators whom our Author supposes to have been injuriously treated by Mr. Hogarth.
We can conceive, that the ingenious Mr. Hogarth, who is all original, may treat this favish berd of Copiers (to use Virgil's phrase) with a degree of contempt, to which even their dullness may be not insensible. He may fay, that they are mere mechanical drudges, without genius; that they knavishly depreciate the merit of ingenious men now living, the easier to impose their vile copies, on the unwary, as rare originals of masters long since deceased; he may even expose some of their iniquitous tricks, the lamp-black and oil, the Smoaky chimney, &c. by means of which their uncouth productions are taught to vie for complexion and obscurity with
The sacred fmut of twice two hundred years. and the too sufficient or too credulous purchaser falls an eafy prey to their impostures.
Such treatment of these wonder-working artists, who can multiply originals without making one, is, indeed, intolerable; and Mr. Bardwell, who honours the calling, has taken on himself its defence; and here shews, that not contented with merely instructing his brethren, he is equally able, and resolved, to vindicate their quarrel.
He begins with hinting, that Mr. Hogarth has no skill in this branch of the art, nor understands the true merit of Copying; and even insinuates, that he wants common sense: which, from what we judgeof Mr.Hogarth, will, doubtless, not a little mortify him: especially as it comes from Mr.Bardwell; who thusproceeds.
· Rubens studied the works of Titian, Paul Veronese, and « Tintoret. Vandyck copied Titian, and all the Vene• tian school; or, in De Piles's phrase, skimmed their cream. · Teniers is celebrated for transforming himself into as many o masters as he copied; which he did so exactly, that it is • hard to distinguish the copies from the originals. Hanne« man's copies of Vandyck are taken for the originals of that
I have seen copies by Stone fold at great « prices for undoubted originals, notwithstanding they were • divested of that free pencilling, and charming variety of • teints, which are so apparent in Vandyck. Buckshorn was.
one of the last good copiers we have had in England; the • rest that followed him and his master Lely, foon dwindled