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What is remarkable at this period, is, that the Indian chiefs, on their return, staid several days with Conrad Weiser, at Tulpehocken, and there executed the following deed dated October 25th, 1736, which is proved and recorded in Book C. vul. 2, page 350, May 22d, 1741.

London in the year 1759, and said to have been commentasachta, and by the Delaware Indians, the Kekachpared with the original then in being, any claim under taramin hills Signed by 23 Indian chiefs of the Ononthe deed of 1686, would appear to have been abandon- dago, Seneca, Oneida, and Tuscarora nations, recorded ed. The letter is in these words, Friend Thomas in Book C. vol. 1, page 277, May 7th, 1741.. Watson, this morning I wrote to thee by Joe Taylor, concerning warrants that may be offered thee to be laid out on the Minissink lands, and was then of opinion that the bearer hereof, Joseph Wheeler, proposed to lay his there. Having since seen him, he tells me he has no such thought, but would have it laid three or four miles above Durham, on a spot of pretty good land there amongst the hills, and I think at some distance from the river, proposing, as he says, to live there him self with his kinsman, who was here with him; pray take the first opportunity to mention it to I. Langhorne, for if he has no considerable objection to it, (that is, if he has laid no right on it,) I cannot see that we should make any other than that it is no purchased of the Indians, which is so material an one, that without their previous engagement to part with it very reasonably, it cannot be surveyed there. But of this,they themselves, I mean Joseph Wheeler, &c. propose to take care. This is what offers on this head, from thy loving friend, James Logan." The forks of Delaware were, notwithstanding, settled; and to this, among other causes, was attributed by the writers of the day, the alienation of the Delawares and the Shawanese, from the British interests.

We, the chiefs of the Six Nations of Indians, the Onondagoes, Isanundowans, or Sennekas, Cayoogoes, Oneydas, Tuscaroroes, (in behalf also of the Canyingoes, or Mohacks,) who have 1.tely, at Philadelphia, by our deed in writing, dated the 11th day of this instant, October, released to John Penn, 1homas Penn, and Richard Penn, proprietors of Pennsylvania, and to their heirs and successors, all our right, claim, and pretensions to all the lands on both sides of the river Susque hanna, from the mouth thereof as far northward, or up the said river as that ridge of hills called the Tyoninhasachta, or endless mountains, westward to the setting of the sun, and eastward to the farthest springs of the waters running into the said river, do hereby further declare, that our true intent and meaning by the said writing, was and is to release, and we do hereby more expressly release to the said proprietors, &c. all the lands lying within the bounds and limits of the govern ment of Pennsylvania, beginning eastward on the river Delaware, as far northward as the said ridge, or chain of endless mountains, as they cross the country of Pennsylvania, from the eastward to the west; and they further engage, never to sell any of their lands to any but the proprietors, or children of William Penn.

There is an indorsement of ratification on this deed, dated 9th of July, 1754, signed by nine Indians.

But notwiths'anding this latter deed, it was earnestly contended by those who were unfriendly to the proprietary proceedings, and probably from an apprehension or foresight of the disasters which ensued, that the right of the Five Nations lay only on the waters which run into the Susquehanna; and as they claimed no lands on the Delaware, they could by that instrument convey none. However this fact may have been, we find about eighteen months afterwards, the proprietors procured a release from the Delawares, for at least part of these lands, or a confirmation of the supposed deed of 1686, or the walking purchase. This singular release is in the following words:

After several ineffectual attempts to compose the clamors of the Delawares, it is said the proprietor complained of them to the Five Nations. In 1736, the deputies of the Five Nations arrived, and a treaty was held with them, at which Conrad Weiser was an important agent. The deed of 1736 is as follows:

October 11th, 1736 Whereas the late proprietary of the province of Pennsylvania, William Penn, Esq. soon after his first arrival in the said province, took measures to have the river Susquehanna, with all the lands lying on both sides of the same, purchased for him and his heirs, of those Indians of the Five Nations inhabiting in the province of New York, who claimed the property thereof, and accordingly did purchase them of Col. Thomas Dungan, formerly governor of New York, and pay for the same; notwithstanding which, the Indians of the Five Nations aforesaid, have continued to claim a right in and to the said river and lands, nor have those claims been hitherto adjusted; whereupon the said sachems or chiefs, having, with all the others of the said nations, met the last summer at their great council, held in the country of the said On- August 25th, 1787. We, Teshakomen, alias Tishe. ondagoes, did resolve and conclude that a final period kunk, and Nootamis, alias Nutimus, two of the sache. and conclusion should be put to all disputes that might mas, or chiefs of the Delaware Indians, having almost possibly arise on that occasion, and having appointed three years ago, at Durham, begun a treaty with our the aforesaid sachems or chiefs, as plenipotentiaries of honorable brethren, John and Thomas Penn, and from all those nations to repair to Philadelphia, in order to thence another meeting was appointed to be at Pennsconfirm the several treaties of peace which have hither- bury the next spring following, to which we repaired, to been concluded between them, and the said province, with Lappawinzoe, and several others of the Delaware and also to settle and adjust all demands and claims that Indians, at which treaty several deeds were produced, have been heretofore made, or hereafter may be made, and shewed to us by our said brethren, concerning setouching or concerning the aforesaid river Susquehan- veral tracts of land, which our forefathers had more than na, and the lands lying on both sides thereof; and the fifty years ago, bargained and sold unto our good friend said sachems or chiefs of the Five Nations aforesaid, and brother William Penn, the father of the said John having for themselves, and on behalf of the said Na- and Thomas Penn, and in particular, one deed from tions, renewed and ratified the treaties of friendship Maykeerick kisho, Sayhoppy and Taughhaughsey, the and peace subsisting between them and the said pro- chiefs or kings of the northern Indians on Delaware, vince, did afterwards proceed to treat and agree with who for, &c. did grant, &c. all those lands lying and the honorable the proprietors thereof, about the said being in the province of Pennsylvania, beginning upon river and lands. Now know ye, &c.- grant, &c. to a line formerly laid out from a corner spruce tree by John Penn, Thomas Penn, and Richard Penn, their the river Delaware, (Makeerikkitton,) and from thence heirs, successors and assigns, all the said river Susque running along the ledge or foot of the mountains, westhanna, with the lands lying on both sides thereof, to ex- northwest to a corner white oak, marked with the letter tend eastward as far as the heads of the branches or P. standing by the Indian path that leadeth to an Indian springs which run into the said Susquehanna, and all town called Playwickey, and from thence extending the lands lying on the west side of the said river, to the westward to Neshameny creek, from which sa'd line, setting of the sun, and to extend from the mouth of the the said tract or tracts thereby granted, doth extend said river, northward, up the same to the hills or moun- itself back into the woods, as far as a man can go in one tains called in the language of the said nations Taya-day and an half, and bounded on the westerly side with

the creek called Neshamony, or the most westerly
westerly branch thereof, and from thence by a line
to the utmost extent of the said one
day and an half's journey, and from thence
to the aforesaid river Delaware, and from
thence down the several cour-es of the said river to the
first mentioned spruce tree, &c. But some of our old
men being absent, we requested more time to consult
with our people, which request being granted, we have,
after more than two years, from the treaty at Pennsbu.
ry, now come to Philadelphia, together with our chief
sachem, Monockykichan, and several of our old men.
They then acknowledge that they were satisfied that
the above described tract was granted by the persons
above mentioned, and agree to release to the proprie.
tors all right to that tract, and desire it may be walked,
travelled, or gone over by persons appointed for that
purpose. (Signed,) Manockykichon, Lappawinzoe,
Teshacomin, Nootamis.-And witnessed by twelve oth-
er Indians, in token of full and free consent, besides
other witnesses. Recorded May 8th, 1741, in book
vol. 1, page 282.

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consideration about fifty-five years ago, (alluding to the deed of 1686, confirmed by the deed of 1737.)-That they continued their former disturbances, and had the insolence to write letters to some of the magistrates of this government, wherein they had abused the worthy proprietaries, and treated them with the utmost rudeness and ill manners; that being loth, out of regard to the Six Nations, to punish the the Delawares as they deserved, he had sent two messages to inform them the Six Nation deputies were expected here, and should be acquainted with their behaviour. That as the Six Nations, on all occasions, apply to this government to remove all white people that are settled on lands before they are purchased from them, and as the government use their endeavours to turn such people off, so now he expects from them that they will cause these Indians to remove from the lands in the forks of Delaware, and not give any further disturbance to the persons who are now in possession.

The deeds and letters were then read, and the draught Gexhibited.

whether that deed were real or fictitious.

Canassutego, in the name of the deputies, told the The walk was accordingly made; but it tended only governor, "That they saw the Delawares had been an to increase the dissatisfaction of the Indians-In giving unruly people, and were altogether in the wrong; that this summary of the causes and effects of the Indian they had concluded to remove them, and oblige them treaties, it is not designed, nor is it calculated, to en to go over the river Delaware, and quit all claim to croach on the province of history, which embraces a any lands on this side for the future, since they had rebroader ground, but merely to connect them together, ceived pay for them, and t is gone through their guts and shew how intimately they depend on each other. long ago."-Then addressing himself to the Delawares. Nor will it escape the observation of the reader, how in a violent and singular strain of invective, he said, materially the frequent recurrence to, and confirmation"They deserved to be taken by the hair of the head, of, Col. Dongan's deed, hears upon the deed of the 11th and shaked severely, till they recovered their senses, July, 1754, from the Indians to Connecticut claimants, and became sober; and he had seen with his eyes a deed signed by nine of their ancestors about fifty years ago, for this very land, (1686,) and a release signed not many years since, (1737,) by some of themselves, and chiefs, yet living, (Sassoonan and Nutimus were pre sent,) to the number of fifteen and upwards; "but how come you, continued he to the Delawares, to take upon you to sell lands at all? We conquered you; we made women of you; you know you are women, and can no more sell land than women; nor is it fit you should have the power of selling lands, since you would abuse it. This land that you claim is gone through your guts; you have been furnished with clothes, meat, and drink, by the goods paid you for it, and now you want it again like children as you are. But what makes you sell lands in the dark? Did you ever tell us that you had sold this land? Did we ever receive any part, even the value of a pipe shank, from you for it? You have told us a blind story, that you sent a messenger to us, to inform us of the sale, but he never came among us, nor we ever heard any thing about it. This is acting in the dark, and very different from the conduct our Six Nations observe in the sales of land. On such occasions they give public notice, and invite all the Indians of their united nations and, give them all a share of the present they receive for their lands. This is the behavior of the wise united nations. But we find you are none of our blood; you act a dishonest part not only in this, but in other matters; your ears are ever open to slanderous reports about your brethren. For all these reasons ue charge you to remove instantly; we don't give you liberty to think about it. You are women. Take the advice of a wise man, and remove instantly. You may return to the other side of Delaware where you came from; but we do not know whether, considering how you have demeaned yourselves, you will be permitted to live there, or whether you have not swallowed that land down your throats, as well as the land on this side. We therefore assign you two places to go to, either to Wyomen or Shamokin. You may go to either of these places, and then we shall have you more under our eye, and shall see how you behave. Don't deliberate, but remove away, and take this belt of wampum." He then forbid them ever to intermiddle in land affairs, or and for which their ancestors had received a valuable | ever hereafter pretend to sell any land, and commanded

At this treaty, at Philadelphia, the governor informed the d puties of the conduct of their cousins, a branch of the Delawares, who gave the province some disturbance about the lands the proprietors purchased of them,

This walk extended, it is said, about thirty miles beyond the Lehigh hills, over the Kittatinny mountain; and a draught of it was made by Surveyor General East burn,including the best of the lands in the forks of De laware, and the Minissinks. The walkers were expert, and the Indians who could not keep up with them, complained that they ran; and moreover it would appear that their expectation was that the walk was to be made up the river, by its courses. It is not intended to enter further into the controversy than to exhibit the general grounds which are said to have estranged the Delawares from our interest, and drove them into that of the French, who were always ready, in those times, to increase their dissatisfaction with the English. Nutimus and others, who signed the release of 1737, were not willing to quit the lands, nor give quiet possession to the people who came to take up the lands and settle in the forks. They remonstrated freely, and declared their resolution of maintaining possession by force of arms. In the year 1741, therefore, a message was sent to the Six Nations, who, it was well known, had great authority over the Delawares, to press them to come down and force the Delawares to quit the forks. They accordingly came in the summer of 1742,to the number of two hundred and thirty. Governor Thomas, in his message to the assembly of the 24th July, in that year, among other things, tells them, "That their coming down was not only necessary for the present peace of the province, in regard to some Indians who had threaten ed to maintain by force their possession of lands which had been long ago purchased of them,and since convey ed by the proprietaries to some of our own inhabitants: but for its future security, like wise, in case of a rupture with the French, who will leave no methods unessayed to corrupt their fidelity, and to persuade them to turn their arnis against us. Votes of assembly, vol. 5, page

481-2,

them, as he had something to transact with the English, immediately to depart the council.

The Delawares dared not disobey this peremptory command. They immediately left the council, and soon after removed from the forks; some,it is said, went to Wyoming and Shanwkin, and some to the Ohio. Thus strangely was terminated the purchase of 1686 admitting the deed to have once existed. But even at this treaty with the Six Nations,it was not admitted that the proprietary right extended beyond the Kitt chtinny hills; and the deputies complained that they were not well used with respect to the land still unsold by them " Your people, (they said,) daily settle on these lands, and spoil our Hunting. We must insist on your remov. ing them, as you know they have no right to settle to the northward of the Kittochtinny hills. In particular we renew our complaints against some people who are settled on Juniata, a branch of Susquehanna, and all along the banks of that river as far as Muhaniay, and desire they may forthwith be made to go off the land, for they do great damage to our cousins the Delawares."

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The governor acknowledges, in answer, That the people's settling on Juniata was contrary to the engagements of this government to the Indians; that he had received no orders in favour of them; that they had no countenance from the government, that no endeavours should be wanting on his part to bring the offenders to justice, and to prevent all future causes of complaint. Nothing else was done at this meeting, and the Senecas departed; but on their return they met the other deputies; and after considerable deliberation, and notwithstanding the opposition of Conrad Weiser,they all came to Philadelphia, accompanied by some Mohickans, Tutelas, Delawares, and Nanticokes, in number two hundred and eighty, about the 14th of August, 1749. Canassatego was again the speaker. They renewed the com. plaints about the settlements on the unpurchased lands; that by treaties all white people were to have been hindered from settling the lands not purchased of them; and if they did, the government engaged to remove With respect to the people settled at Juniata, the them when discovered; but since it might be attended Governor replied, "that some magistrates were sent with a great deal of trouble, and having observed the expressly to remove them, and he thought no persons people's settlements, they were willing to give up the would presume to stay after that." Here they interlands on the east side of Susquehanna, from the blue rupted the Governor, and said, "These persons who hills to where Thomas Magee, the Indian trader lived, were sent do not do their duty; so far from removing and leave it to the government to assign the worth of the people, they made surveys for themselves, and they But as to the hunting grounds of their cousins are in league with the trespas-ers; we desire more effec- the Nanticokes, and other Indians, living on the waters tual methods may be used, and honester men employed," of Juniata, they must use more vigorous measures, and which th Governor promised should be done But we forcibly remove them. shall have occasion again to recur to this point. It is necessary only to add, at this time, the strong expressions of the speaker to the Governor-"We have given the river Juniata for a hunting place to our cousins, the Delaware Indians, and our brethren the Shawnese, and we ourselves hunt there sometimes. We therefore de sire you will immediately by force remove all those that live on the river Juniata. And what less could be demanded after the expulsion of the Delawares from the Forks?

them.

On consultation, and their agreement to extend the purchase, so as to carry its breadth to the Delaware, the following deed was executed on the 22d day of August, 1749.

We Canasatago, Sataganachly, Kanalshyiacayon, and Canechwadecron, sachems or chiefs of the Indian nation called the Onontagers. Cayanockea, KanatsanyAgash Tass, Caruchianachaqui, sachems or chiefs of the Indian nation called the Sinickers. Peter Ontachsax, and Christian Diaryhogon, sachems or chiefs of the Indian nation called the Mohocks, Saristagnoah, Watshatuhon and Anuchnaxqua, sachems or chiefs of the Indian nation called the Oneyders. Tatis Tawis, Kachnoaraaseha, and Takachquontas, sachems or chiefs of the Indian nation called the Cayiukers. Tyierox, BalichwanonachCachnaora-katak-ke, sachems or chiefs of the Indian shy, sachems or chiefs of the Indian nation called the Tuscorrorow. Iachnechdorus, Sagoguchiathon, and nation called the Shomoken Indians. Nutimus and Qualpaghach, sachems or chiefs of the Indian nation called the Delawares; and Bachsinosa, sachem or chief A meeting of the deputies from each of the Six Na- of the Indian nation called the Shawanes, in considerations, had been appointed, by the grand council at tion of £500, grant, sell, &c. all that tract or parcel of Onondago, to go to Philadelphia, on business of impor- land lying and being within the following limits and tance. The Senecas first arrived there, "One of the bounds, and thus described. Beginning at the hills or most considerable points," (said the speaker to the go- mountains called in the language of the Five Nation vernor,) "which induced the council to send deputies Indians Tyanuntasachta, or endless hills, and by the at this time, was, that they had heard the white people Delaware Indians Kekactany hills, on the east side of had begun to settle on their side the blue mountains. the river Susquehanna, being in the north west line or And we the deputies of the Senecas, staying so long at boundary of the tract of land formerly purchased by Wyomen, had an opportunity of inquiring into the truth the said proprietaries from the said Indian nations, by of this information, and to our surprise found the story their deed of the 11th of October, 1736; and from confirmed, with this addition, that even this spring, thence running up the said river by the several courses since the governor's arrival, numbers of families were thereof, to the first or nearest mountain to the north side beginning to make settlements. As our boundaries are or mouth of the creek called in the language of the said so well known, and so remarkably distinguished by a Five Nation Indians, Cantaguy, and in the language of range of high mountains, we could not suppose this the Delaware Indians Maghonioy, and from thence excould be done by mistake, but either it must be done tending by a direct or straight line to be run from the wickedly by bad people, without the knowledge of the said mountain on the north side of the said creek to the governor, or that the new governor has brought some main branch of Delaware river, at the north side of the instructions from the king, or the proprietaries relating mouth of the creek called Lechawachsein, and from to this affair, whereby we are like to be much hurt. thence to return across Lechawachsein creek aforesaid, The governor will be pleased to tell us, whether he has down to the river Delaware by the several courses brought any orders from the king or the proprietaries thereof to the Kekachtany hills aforesaid, and from for these people to settle on our lands; and if not, we thence by the range of said hills to the place of beginearnestly des re they may be made to remove instantlyning, as more fully appears by a map annexed; and also

Soon after this it appeared that the Shawnese were endeavouring to draw the Delawares from Shamokin to the Ohio, and that there were some heart-burnings between the Delawares and the Six Nations, and that the former only wanted a favourable opportunity to throw the insults that had been offered to them at Philadel off the yoke, which they afterwards did, and to revenge phia, in 1742. See votes of assembly, vol. 3, p. 555.

with all their effects, to prevent the sad consequences which will otherwise ensue.'

""

We shall now proceed to the causes and circumstances which produced the treaty and purchases of 1749.

all the parts of the rivers Susquehanna and Delaware from shore to shore which are opposite to said lands, and all the islands in said rivers, &c.

This deed is recorded, May 6th, 1752, in book H, vol. 2, p. 204.

This purchase is distinctly marked by natural boundaries, so as not to be mistaken. And at this treaty the engagement was renewed, that the white people should be removed from the Juniata. Proclamations were accordingly issued, but disregarded by the settlers on the unpurchased lands. In May 1750, Richard Peters, then secretary of the Land Office, with some magistrates, was sent to remove them. Of this circumstance further notice will be hereafter taken, in the course of the note. See votes of assembly, vol. 4th, p. 137. But these proceedings appear to have had little effect The history of this eventful period is still within the Numbers were spirited up to stay, and others went and memory of many yet living. Many of the Indian tribes settled by them, so that in a few years the settlements seeing their lands gone, joined the French, and in the in the Indian country were more numerous and farther following year fatally evinced their resentment at Bradthan ever. See governor Hamilton's message, ibid.dock's field. The settlers were driven into the interior, and also p. 509, 517, 528. their improvements were laid waste, and desolation marked the path of the warriors.

Tuscarora nation, in consideration of £400 lawful money of N.York, grant, &c. to Thomas and Richard Penn, "all the lands lying within the said province of Pennsylvania, bounded and limited as follows, namely, beginning at the Kitrochtinny or blue hills, on the west branch of Susquehanna river, and thence by the said, a mile above the mouth of a certain creek called Kay arondinhagh; thence northwest and by west as far as the said province of Pennsylvania extends to its western lines or boundaries; thence along the said western line to the south line or boundary of said province; thence by the said south line or boundary to the south side of the said Kittochtinny hills; thence by the south side of said hills, to the place of beginning: recorded in Book H, vol. 5, page 392, February 3d, 1755.

Governor Morris, in his address to the assembly, November 3d, 1755, expressly tells them," that it seemed clear from the different accounts he had received, that the French had gained to their interest the Delaware and Shawanese Indians, under the ensnaring pretence of restoring them to their country; votes of assembly, vol. 4, page 492. The assembly themselves, in a reply to governor Denny, in June 1757, say, "it is rendered beyond contradiction plain, that the cause of the present Indian incursions in this province, and the dreadful calamities, many of the inhabitants have suffered, have arisen, in great measure, from the exorbitant and unreasonable purchase made, or supposed to be made of the Indians, and the manner of making them -So exorbitant, that the natives complain that they have not a country left to subsist in;" ib. 718, 722, 728, 737, 738. The fact was indeed notorious in both hemispheres, although some palliation was attempted in the report made of the conferences at Carlisle in 1753. After the treaty of 1758, it was however fully admitted by John Penn himself, who was then governor, upon communicating a letter from general Gage, on the subject of the continued discontent of some of the western Indians; "I would willingly, he said to the assembly, take every measure in my power, not to remove the just causes of their complaints of past injuries, but to protect their persons and properties for the future." And general Gage's letter thus communicated, has this remarkable paragraph. "The encroachments made upon the Indian lands, for which they could obtain no justice, with the daily threats of more invasions of their property, lost us the affections of the savages before, and was the principal reason for them throwing themselves into the arms of the French for protection. From hence arose the hostilities they committed upon us in 1754 and 1755, and the war that followed. The same causes will have the same effects." Votes of assembly, vol. 6, pages 7-8.

It is necessary merely to mention the treaty of Carlisle in 1753. Canassatego, and several of the sachems attached to the British interests, were dead; and the sachems at the head of the council of the Six Nations was known to be in the French interest, and the affections of that people appeared to be much shaken. Those who adhered to us were threatened by the arms of the French, and Indian affairs wore a most gloomy aspect. See votes of assembly, vol. 4, p, 152. At this critical time the Indian friends were unwilling to do any thing which would give room to suspect their fidelity. They remonstrated it is true; but they remonstrated without threats. They desired that our people would forbear settling on the Indian lands over the Allegheny hills; for so far they now encroached, although none of the land on the west side of the Susquehanna beyond the north, or Kittatiny mountain had been purchased. They advised the government to call back their people; that none should settle on the Juniata lands, till matters were settled between them and the French, "lest damage should be done, and we should | think ill of them." The council books, and votes of assembly shew the great anxiety of the government to strengthen the fidelity of the Six Nations, and of the Delaware and Ohio Indians; communications by means of agents were frequent, and the presents considerable; until the unfortunate purchase of 1754, contributed to kindle a flame which could be extinguished only by a deluge of blood. See votes of assembly, vol. 4, pages 336, 392-4-9.

The treaty of Albany, in 1754, with the Six Nations, was held by orders of the king. The lords of trade and plantations had recommended this, that all the provinces, if practicable, might be comprised in one general treaty, to be made in his majesty's name, as the practice of each province making a separate treaty for itself in its own name, was considered to be improper, and attended with great inconveniences to his majesty's service; votes of assembly, vol. 4, pages 279, 280, 286. See the whole proceedings in the minutes of council, Book M, page 339, to 386.

The Indian deed executed at Albany, is dated July 6th, 1754, and is as follows:-

Henry Peters, Abraham Peters, Blandt, Johannes Satfyhowano, Johannes Kanadakayon, Abraham Sastaghredohy, sachems or chiefs of the Mohawk nation. Aneegnaxqua Taraghorus, Tohaghaaghquyserry, alias Kachneghdackons sachems of chiefs of the Oneydo nation. Otsinughyada, alias Bunt, in behalf of himself, and all the sachems and chiefs of the Onondago nation. Scanuraty, Tannaghdorus, Tokaaiyon, Kaghradodon, sachems or chiefs of the Cayuga nation. Kah chdodon, alias Groote Younge, Takeghsatu; Tiyonenkokaraw, sachems of chiefs of the Seneca nation. Suntrughwackon, Sagochsidodagon, Tohashuwangarus Orontakayon, alias John Nixon, Tistoaghton, sachems or chiefs of the

It further appears from Conrad Weiser's Journal of his conference with the Indians at Aughwich, that the dissatisfaction with the purchase of 1754, was general. They said they did not understand the points of the compass, and if the line was so run as to include the west branch of Susquehanna, they would never agree to it. Whatever pretences there were for it, (for it was suggested that the Connecticut commissioners were endeavouring to treat for some lands claimed by them, and had been making surveys above Shamokin, and that this deed was intended to prevent the interference,) it is evident it left but a small part of the province to the natives, and that mountainous, and in a part too, most open to the Connecticut claimants. The lands where the Shawanese and Ohio Indians lived, and the hunting grounds of the Delawares, the Nanticokes, and the Tuteloes, were all included.

It will be evident also, that the course of the deed from Kayarondinghagh, or Penns-creek, was greatly mistaken, and that the line northwest and by west, would not strike the western boundary of the province; but would most probably have crossed the west branch of Susquehanna, a few miles below the mouth of Sinnemahoning, and have intersected the northern boundary a little to the west of Conewango creek.

The serious consequences likely to ensue to the British interests, occasioned an application to the proprie tors in England, from the government, through the lords commissioners of trade, and the proprietors agreed to limit the bounds of the purchase; and a commission was sent over, authorizing and directing a treaty to be held for that purpose, which commission is in the office of the secretary of the Land Office.

Previous to this treaty, great exertions were made to bring about an accommodation with the Delaware and Shawanese Indians, which was at length accomplished. These transactions will be found in the council books, and in the votes of assembly, vol. 4, p. 563, 583, 671, 672, 681.

pear. And whereas at a treaty held at Easton, on the 23d October, instant, the certain and exact bounds of such parts of the lands included in the before mentioned deed or purchase, which are and shall remain to the said proprietors, have been amicably and freely stipulated and settled between the aforesaid sachems and chiefs, and Richard Peters and Conrad Weiser, Esqrs. &c. and are hereby declared to be as follows, that is to say, beginning at the Kittachinny or blue hills on the west bank of Susquehanna river, and running thence up the said river, binding therewith to a mile above the mouth of a creek called Kaarondinbab, (or John Penn's creek,) thence northwest and by west to a creek called Buffaloe's creek, thence west of the east side of Alleghany or Apalachian hills, thence along the east side of said hills, binding therewith, to the south line or boundary of the said province, thence by the said south line or boundary to the south side of the Kittatinny hill, thence by the south side of the said hill to the place of beginning, in consideration of the said surrender, and five shillings, &c. And there is a covenant not to convey the residue to any persons else than the proprietors.

Recorded in book 1, vol. 4, p.488, September 5th, 1768. There is a rude map annexed to this deed, intended to represent the waters on the line from Buffaloe creek to Alleghany mountain, which line is represented as passing very near the junction of Spring creek with the Bald Eagle. It is probable the true line, relying on the correctness of Howell's map, would pass Belfont at the mouth of Logan's branch of Spring creek. So cautious, however, were the proprietors, at this period, of offending the Indians, by making surveys beyond the line, that the most positive instructions were given to the deputy surveyors on this head; and as the line was not run, nor its exact position known, the end of Nittany appears to have been assumed as a station, and a west line from thence presumed to be the purchase line. The error was on the safest side.although it is now known the end of Nittany is several miles within the deed of confirmation and surrender. In many instances, applications, where it was probable they called for lands near the line, were retained in the office, and endorsed "quære, if in the purchase." As controversies have existed and may still exist, respecting this boundary, more cannot with propriety be said upon this point.

We come therefore to the deed of October 23d, 1758, executed at Easton, which is as follows.

We Nichai Karaghiaghdatie, one of the chiefs and sachems of the Mohock nation; Assarodunqua, one of the sachems and chiefs of the Onondago nation; Sagebsadon, or Tagesbata, one of the sachems or chiefs of the Seneca nation; Thomas King, alias Sagubsonyont, sachem and chief of the Oneyda nation; Tokaboyon, sa chem and chief of the Cayuga nation; Wisbaquontagush, sachem and chief of the Tuscarora nation; on behalf of ourselves and all the nations aforesaid, send greeting.Whereas by a deed poll, bearing date at Albany, the 6th day of July, 1754, the sachems and chiefs of the said Six Nations, for, &c. (£400,) did grant and confirm to Thomas and Richard Penn, all the lands lying within the said province, &c. beginning at the Kittochinny or blue hills on the west bank of Susquehanna river, and thence by the said river to a mile above the mouth of a certain creek called Kaarondinbab, (since John Penn's creek,) thence northwest and by west as far as the said province of Pennsylvania extended, to its western line or boundary, thence along the said western line to the south line or boundary of the said province, then by the said south line or boundary to the south side of the said Kittochtinny hill, thence by the south side of the said hill along the said hill to the place of beginning, &c. And whereas by an endorsement in writing on the back of the said deed, it was stipulated and agreed on We, Tyanhasare, alias Abraham, sachem or chief of part of the said land proprietaries, by their agent, that the Indian nation called the Mohocks, Senughsis-of whenever the lands in the said deed,over the Apalachian the Oneydas; Chenughiata of the Onondagos; Gausor Allegheny hill, should be settled, the Indians who tarax-of the Senecas, Sequarisera--of the Tuscaroras; signed the deed were to receive a further sum, not ex- Tagaaia-ot the Cayugas, in general council of the Six ceeding the consideration money in the said deed men- Nations at Fort Stanwix, assembled for the purpose of tioned, &c. And whereas since the execution of said settling a general boundary line between the said Six deed, it having been represented to the said proprie- nations, and their confederates and dependent tribes, tors, that notwithstanding the said purchase was fairly and his majesty's middle colonies, send greeting, &c. made, yet there were some among the Indians who In consideration of ten thousand dollars, they grant to were disgusted with the said purchase, and were desirous Thomas Penn and Richard Penn, all that part of the that all that part of the said purchase for which they province of Pennsylvania, not heretofore purchased of were to receive a further consideration by the terms of the Indians, within the said general boundary line, and the indorsement of the said deed should be reserved beginning in the said boundary line, on the east side of for them, they the said proprietors, Thomas Penn and the east branch of the river Susquehanna, at a place Richard Penn, did authorize, appoint and empower called Owegy, and running with the said boundary line, Richard Peters and Conrad Weiser, Esqrs. their agents down the said branch on the east side thereof till it and attornies, to release and surrender to the said Six Na- comes opposite the mouth of a creek called by the Intions all the lands comprised within the herein before dians Awandac, (Tawandee,) and across the river and recited deed, lying to the northward and westward of up the said creek on the south side thereof, and along the Allegheny hill, provided they the said Six Nations the range of hills called Burnett's hills by the English, or their deputies at the same time, did fulty and effec and by the Indians , on the north side of them, tually agree, stipulate and settle the exact and certain to the heads of a creek which runs into the west branch bounds of the residue of the said lands, included in the of the Susquehanna, which creek is by the Indians callbefore mentioned purchase, which were stil to remained Tiadaghton, and down the said creek on the south to the said proprietors, after such surrrender made, as side thereof, to the said west branch of Susquehanna, by a letter of attorney duly executed by the said propri- then crossing the said river, and running up the same etors,dated 7th of November last past, may more fully ap-on the south side thereof, the several courses the reof to

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The last purchase of the proprietaries from the Indians, was made at Fort Stanwix, November 5th, 1768, and was as follows:

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