Imágenes de páginas

the summum bonum of existence, will assuredly find a high woollen dress, and put on a low muslin one in out she has made as great a mistake as when in her the evening. When she wears all winter thin boots, babyhood she cried, as most of us do, for the moon, gossamer stockings, a gown open at the chest and which we cannot get for all our crying. And yet it is arms, and a loose mantle that every wind blows under, a very good moon notwithstanding: a real moon too, yet wonders that she always has a cold!—and weighs who will help us to many a poetical dream, light us in herself down in summer-time with four petticoats many a lover's walk, till she shine over the grass of heaped one over the other, yet is quite astonished that our graves upon a new generation ready to follow she gets hot and tired so soon! Truly, any sensible, upon the immemorial quest, which, like the quest old-fashioned body, who knows how much the health, of the Sangreal, is only possible to pure hearts, and happiness, and general wellbeing of this generationwhich the very purest can never fully attain, except and, alas! not this generation alone-depend upon through the gates of the Holy City — the New these charming, lovable, fascinating young fools, cannot Jerusalem.

fail to be . aggravated' by them every day. Happy and unhappy women-the adjectives being However humiliating the fact may be to those applied less with reference to position than to charac- poetical theorists who, in spite of all the laws of ter, which is the only mode of judgment possible-to nature, wish to make the soul entirely independent of judge them and discourse of them is a very difficult the body-forgetting that if so, its temporary promatter at best. Yet I am afraid it cannot be bation in the body at all would have been quite unnedoubted that there is a great average of unhappiness cessary-I repeat there can be no really sanitary state existent among women : not merely unhappiness of of mind without a sane condition of body; and that circumstances, but unhappiness of soul-a state of one of the first requisites of happiness is good health. being often as unaccountable as it is irrational, But as this is not meant to be an essay on domestic finding vent in those innumerable faults of temper hygiene, I had better here leave the subject. and of character which arise from no inherent vice, Its corresponding phase opens a gate of misery so but merely because the individual is not happy. wide that one almost shrinks from entering it. Infinite,

Possibly, women more than men are liable to this past human counting or judging, are the causes of dreary mental eclipse-neither daylight nor darkness. mental unhappiness. Many of them spring from a A man will go poetically wretched or morbidly mis- real foundation, of sorrows varied beyond all measuranthropic, or any great misfortune will overthrow him ing or reasoning upon : of these, I do not attempt to entirely, drive him to insanity, lure him to slip out speak, for words would be idle and presumptuous; I of life through the terrible by-road of suicide ; but he only speak of that frame of mind-sometimes left rarely drags on existence from year to year with behind by a great trouble, sometimes arising from

nerves,' ' low spirits,' and the various maladies of troubles purely imaginary-which is called 'an unhappy mind and temper that make many women a torment disposition.' to themselves, and a burden to all connected with Its root of pain is manifold; but, with women, them.

undoubtedly can be oftenest traced to something conWhy is this ? and is it inevitable? Any one who nected with the affections: not inerely the passion could in the smallest degree answer this question, called par excellence love, but the entire range of perwould be doing something to the lessening of a great sonal sympathies and attachments, out of which we evil-greater than many other evils which, being social draw the sweetness and bitterness of the best part of and practical, shew more largely on the aggregate our lives. If otherwise---if, as the phrase goes, an census of female woe.

individual happens to have more head than heart,' Most assuredly, however unpoetical may be such a she may be a very clever agreeable personage, but she view of the matter, the origin of a great deal of un- is not properly a woman—not the creature who, with happiness is physical disease; or rather, the loss of that all lier imperfections, is nearer to heaven than man, in healthy condition of body, which in the present state one particular-she loves much.' And loving is so of civilisation, so far removed from a state of nature, frequently identical with suffering, either with or for can only be kept up in any individual by the know- or from the object beloved, that we need not go ledge and practice of the ordinary laws of hygiene- further to find the cause of the many anxious, soured generally the very last knowledge that women seem to faces, and irritable tempers, that we meet with among have. The daily necessities of water, freslı air, proper wornen. clothing, food, and sleep, with the due regulation of Charity cannot too deeply or too frequently call to each of these, without which no human being can mind how very difficult it is to be good, or amiable, or expect to live healthily or happily, are matters in which even commonly agreeable, when one is unhappy. I do the only excuse for lamentable neglect, is still more not think this fact is enough recognised by those very lamentable ignorance.

worthy people who take such a world of pains to make An ignorance the worse, because it is generally other people virtuous, and so very little to make them quite unacknowledged. If you tell a young girl that happy. They sow good seed, are everlastingly weeding water, the colder the better, is essential to every and watering, give it every care and advantage under pore of her delicate skin every morning; that daily the sun-except sunshine--and then they wonder that outdoor exercise, short of extreme fatigue, regular it does not flower! meals, employment and amusement, are to her a vital One may see many a young woman who has, outnecessity ; that she should make it a part of hier educa- wardly speaking, everything she can possibly want,' tion to acquire a certain amount of current information absolutely withering in the atmosphere of a loveless on sanitary science, and especially on the laws of her home, exposed to those small ill-humours by which own being, physical and mental: tell her this, and the people mean no harm-only do it; chilled by reserve, chances are she will stare at you uncomprehendingly, wounded by neglect, or worried by anxiety over some or be shocked, as if you were saying to her something thoughtless one who miglit so easily have spared her 'improper,' or answer flippantly: "Oh, yes; I know it all; safe from either misfortune or ill-treatment, all that:

yet harassed daily by petty pains and unconscious But what good does it do her ? - when she lies in bed cruelties, which a stranger might laugh at; and she till ten o' the clock, and sits up till any hour the next laughs herself when she counts them up, they are so morning; eats all manner of food at all manner of very small-yet they are there. irregular intervals; is horrified at leaving her bed- I can bear anything,' said to me a woman, no longer room window two inches open, or at being caught in a very young or very fascinating, or particularly clever, slight shower; yet will cower all day over the fire in who had gone through seas of sorrow, yet whose blue

eyes still kept the dewiness and cheerfulness of their a poetical nor beautiful thing, but a mere disease, and youth; 'I can bear anything, except unkindness.' as such ought to be combated and medicined with

She was right. There are numberless cases where all remedies in her power, practical, corporeal, and gentle creatures, who would have endured bravely any spiritual. For though it is folly to suppose that amount of real trouble, have their lives frozen up by happiness is a matter of volition, and that we can those small unkindnesses which copy-books avouch to make ourselves content and cheerful whenever we be “a great offence;' where an avalanche of worldly choose-a theory that many poor hypochondriacs are benefits

, an act of undoubted generosity, or the most taunted with till they are nigh driven mad-yet, on conscientious administering of a friendly rebuke, has the other hand, no sane mind is ever left without had its good effects wholly neutralised by the manner the power of self-discipline and self-control, in a in which it was done. It is vain to preach to people measure, which measure increases in proportion as it unless you also love them—Christianly love them; is exercised. it is not the smallest use to try to make people good, Let any sufferer be once convinced that she has this unless you try at the same time--and they feel that power--that it is possible, by careful watch, or, better, you try—to make them happy. And you rarely can by substitution of subjects and occupations, to abstract make another happy, unless you are happy yourself. her mind from dwelling on some predominant idea,

Naming the affections as the chief source of un- which otherwise runs in and out of the chambers of happiness among our sex, it would be wrong to pass the brain like a haunting devil, at last growing into over one phase of them, which must nevertheless be the monomania which, philosophy says, every human touched tenderly and delicately, as one that women being is affected with, on some one particular point instinctively hide out of sight and comment-I mean -only happily he does not know it; only let her what is usually termed a disappointment.' Alas- try if she has not, with regard to her mental constias if there were no disappointments but those of love! tution, the same faculty which would prevent her and yet, until men and women are made differently from dancing with a sprained ankle, or imagining from what God made them, it must always be, from that there is an earthquake because her own head is its very secretness and inwardness, the sharpest of all spinning with fever, and she will have at least taken pangs, save that of conscience.

the first steps towards cure. As many a man sits A lost love. Deny it who will, ridicule it, treat it wearying his soul out by trying to remedy some as mere imagination and sentiment, the thing is and grand flaw in the plan of society, or the problem of will be; and women do suffer therefrom, in all its the universe, when perhaps the chief thing wrong is infinite varieties: loss by death, by faithlessness or his own liver, or overtasked brain; so many a woman unworthiness, and by mistaken or unrequited affection. will pine away to the brink of the grave with an Of these, the second is beyond all question the worst : imaginary broken heart, or sour to the very essence since there is in death a consecration which lulls the of vinegar, on acccunt of everybody's supposed illsharpest personal anguish into comparative calm; and usage of her, when it is her own restless, dissatisfied, an attachment which has always been on one side only, selfish heart which makes her at war with everyhas a certain incompleteness which prevents its ever body. knowing the full agony of having and losing, while at Would that women and men too, but that their the same time it preserves to the last a dreamy sanctity busier and more active lives save most of them from which sweetens half its pain. But’to have loved and it-could be taught from their childhood to recognise lost, either by that total disenchantment which leaves as an evil spirit this spirit of causeless unhappinesscompassion as the sole substitute for love which can this demon which dwells among the tombs, and yet, exist no more, or by that slow torment which is which first shews itself in such a charming and picobliged to let go day by day all that constitutes the turesque form, that we hug it to our innocent breasts, diviner part of love-namely, reverence, belief, and and never suspect that it may enter in and dwell there trust, yet clings desperately to the only thing left it, till we are actually "possessed :' cease almost to be a long-suffering apologetic tenderness-this lot is the accountable beings, and are fitter for a lunatic asylum hardest for any woman to have to bear.

than for the home-circle, which, be it ever so bright What is good for a bootless bene?

and happy, has always, from the inevitable misfor—And she made answer, Endless sorrow.

tunes of life, only too much need of sunshine rather

than shadow, or permanent gloom. No. There is no sorrow under heaven which is, or Oh, if such women did but know what comfort there ought to be, endless. To believe or to make it so, is is in a cheerful spirit! how the heart leaps up to meet an insult to Heaven itself. Each of us must have a sunshiny face, a merry tongue, an even temper, and known more than one instance when a saintly or a heart which either naturally, or, what is better, from heroic life has been developed from what at first conscientious principle, has learned to take all things seemed a stroke like death itself: a life full of the on their bright side, believing that the Giver of life calmest and truest happiness--because it has bent being all-perfect Love, the best offering we can make to itself to the Divine will, and learned the best of all Him is to enjoy to the full what He sends of good, and lessons, to endure. But how that lesson is learned, bear what He allows of evil-like a child who, when through what bitter teaching hard to be understood once it thoroughly believes in its father, believes in all or obeyed, till the hand of the Great Teacher is his dealings with it, whether it understands them or recognised clearly through it all, is a subject too not. sacred to be entered upon here.

And here, if the subject were not too solemu to be It is a hard thing to say—and yet a truth forced more than touched upon, yet no one dare avoid it who upon us by daily observation that it is not the women believes that there are no such distinctions as 'secular who have suffered most who are the unhappy women. and 'religious,' but that the whole earth, with all thereA state of permanent unhappiness—not the morbid, in, is, not only on Sundays, but all days, continually half-cherished melancholy of youth, which generally the Lord's '-I will put it to most people's experience, wears off with wiser years, but that settled, incurable which is better than a hundred homilies, whether, discontent and dissatisfaction with all things and all though they may have known sincere Christians who, people, which we see in some women, is, with very from various causes, were not altogether happy, they rare exceptions, at once the index and the exponent ever knew one happy person, man or woman, who of a thoroughly selfish character. Nor can it be too whatever his or her form of creed might be, was not in early impressed upon every girl that this condition heart, and speech, and daily life emphatically a follower of mental malaise, whatever be its origin, is neither of Christ-a Christian ?

Among the many secondary influences which can be idle and dreary in; and by means of orderly be employed either by or upon a naturally anxious or arranged, light, airy rooms, neat dress, and every morbid temperament, there is none so ready to hand, pleasant external influence that is attainable, to leave or so wholesome, as one often referred to in the course untried none of these secondary means which are in of these pages, constant employment. A very large the power of every one of us, for our own benefit or number of women, particularly young women, are by that of others, and the importance of which we never nature constituted so exceedingly restless of mind, or know until we have proved them. with such a strong tendency to nervous depression, There is another maxim-easy to give, and hard to that they can by no possibility keep themselves in a practise-Accustom yourself always to look at the state of even tolerable cheerfulness, except by being bright side of things, and never make a fuss about continually occupied. At what, matters little: even trifles. It is pitiful to see what mere nothings some apparently useless work is far better for them than women will worry and fret over-lamenting as much no work at all. To such I cannot too strongly over an ill-made gown as others do over a lost forrecommend the case of

tune; how some people we can always depend upon Honest John Tomkins the hedger and ditcher,

for making the best, instead of the worst, of whatever Who, though he was poor, didn't want to be richer,

happens, thus lessening our anxieties for themselves

in their troubles; and oh! how infinitely comforting but always managed to keep in a state of sublime when we bring to them any of our own, assured that if content and superabundant gaiety; and how ?

any one can help us, they can and will; while others He always had something or other to do,

we never think of burdening with our cares at all, If not for himself—for his neighbour.

any more than we would think of putting a butterfly

in harness. And that work for our neighbour is perhaps the The disposition which can bear trouble; which, while most useful and satisfactory of the two, because it passing over the lesser annoyances of life, as unworthy takes us out of ourselves ; which, to a person who has to be measured in life's whole sum, can yet meet real not a happy self to rest in, is one good thing achieved ; affliction steadily, struggle with it while resistance this, quite apart from the abstract question of is possible; conquered, sit down patiently, and let the benevolence, or the notion of keeping a balance-sheet storms sweep over; and on their passing, if they pass, with heaven for work done to our fellow-creatures - rise up, and go on its way, looking up to that region of certainly a very fruitless recipe for happiness.

blue calm which is never long invisible to the pure of The sufferer, on waking in the morning-that cruel heart—this is the blessedest possession that any woman moment when any incurable pain wakes up too can have. Better than a house full of silver and gold, sharply, so sharply ! and the burden of a monotonous better than beauty, or high fortunes, or prosperous life falls down upon us, or rises like a dead blank wall and satisfied love. before us, making us turn round on the pillow longing While, on the other hand, of all characters not for another night, instead of an insupportable day- radically bad, there is none more useless to herself should rouse herself with the thought: “Now, what and everybody else, who inflicts more pain, anxiety, have I got to do to-day?' (Mark, not to enjoy or to and gloom on those around her, than the one who is suffer, only to do.) She should never lie down at night deprecatingly described as being of an unhappy temwithout counting up, with a resolute, uncompromising, perament. You may know her at once by her dull unexcusing veracity, 'How much have I done to-day?' or vinegar aspect, her fidgety ways, her proneness to 'I can't be happy,' she may ponder wearily; "'tis take the hard or ill-natured view of things and people. useless trying--80 we'll not think about it; but how Possibly she is unmarried, and her mocking acquaintmuch have I done-how much can I do to-morrow?' ance insult womanhood by setting down that as the And if she has strength steadily to fulfil this manner cause of her disagreeableness. Most wicked libel ! of life, it will be strange is, some day, the faint, invol. There never was an unhappy old maid yet who would untary thrill that we call 'feeling happy'-something not have been equally unhappy as a wife-and more like that with which we stop to see a daisy at our feet guilty, for she would have made two people miserable in January-does not come and startle into hope the instead of one. It needs only to count up all the poor wondering heart.

unhappy women one knows—women whom one would Another element of happiness, incalculable in its not change lots with for the riches of the Queen of influence over those of sensitive and delicate physical Sheba—to see that most of them are those whom fate organisation, is Order. Any one who has just quitted has apparently loaded with benefits, love, home, ease, a disorderly household, where the rooms are untidy luxury, leisure, and denied only the vague fine someand 'littery,' where meals take place at any hour and thing, as indescribable as it is unattainable, the in any fashion, where there is a general atmosphere of capacity to enjoy them all. noise, confusion, and irregularity of doing things at Unfortunate ones! You see by their countenances all times and seasons, or not doing anything in parti- that they never know what it is to enjoy. That thrill cular all day over ; who, emerging from this, drops of thankful gladness, oftenest caused by little things into a quiet, busy, regular family, where each has an -a lovely bit of nature, a holiday after long toil, a appointed work, and does it; where the day moves sudden piece of good news, an unexpected face, or a on smoothly, subdivided by proper seasons of labour, letter that warms one's inmost heart-to them is leisure, food, and sleep-oh, what a Paradise it seems altogether incomprehensible. To hear one of them, in How the restless or anxious spirit nestles down in it, her rampant phase, you would suppose the whole and almost without volition, falls into its cheerful machinery of the universe, down even to the weather, round, recovering tone, and calm, and strength. was in league against her small individuality; that Order is Heaven's first law,

everything everybody did, or said, or thought was with

one sole purpose—her personal injury. And when she and a mind without order can by no possibility be sinks to the melancholy mood, though your heart may either a healthy or a happy mind. Therefore, beyond bleed for her, aware how horribly real are her selfall sentimental sympathy, or contemptuous blame, created sufferings, still your tenderness sits uneasily, should be impressed upon all women inclined to melan- more as a duty than a pleasure, and you often feel, choly, or weighed down with any irremediable grief, and are shocked at feeling, that her presence acts this simple advice-to make their daily round of life upon you like the proverbial wet-blanket, and her as harmoniously methodical as they possibly can; absence gives you an involuntary sense of relief. leaving no odd hours, scarcely an odd ten minutes, to For, let us pity the unhappy ever so lovingly and

sincerely, and strive with all our power to lift them a headland (same word as nose]. Rath, a fort (Rathout of their grief, when they hug it, and refuse to be drum, Logierait, Cape Wrath, are examples). Ross, a lifted out of it, patience sometimes fails. Human life promontory. Stade (Anglo-Saxon), a town or dwelling. is eo full of pain, that once past the youthful delusion Stowe and Stock (Danish), a dwelling-place. Strat, a that a sad countenance is interesting, and an incurable street or road. Thorpe (Anglo-Saxon), a village. Wick woe the most delightful thing possible, the mind (Danish), a bay or a bend in a river; secondarily, a instinctively turns where it can get rest, and cheer, harbour. Worth (Anglo-Saxon), a village.- Chiefly from and sunshine. And the friend who can bring to it the Sullivan's Dictionary of Derivations, Dublin, 1855—a largest portion of these, is, of a natural necessity, the remarkably accurate and intelligent little book. most useful, the most welcome, and the most dear. The 'happy woman'-in this our world, which is

LOST AND FOUND. apparently meant to be the road to perfection, never its goal-you will find too few specimens to be ever SOLEMNLY, silently, sullenly slowlikely to mistake her. But you will recognise her It is the mournerspresence the moment she crosses your path. Not by

See how they go her extreme liveliness-lively people are rarely either

On through the rains, and the dabbled slush ; happy or able to diffuse happiness; but by a sense of

In the gray of the day, and the lonely hush brightness and cheerfulness that enters with her—as

Of the wailing winds, weary with weeping. an evening sunbeam across your parlour wall. Like the fairy Order in the nursery-tale, she takes up the Stretching above in the comfortless air, tangled threads of your mind, and reduces them to For it is winter, regularity, till you distinguish a clear pattern through And they are bare, the ugly maze. She may be neither handsome, nor Chestnut and sycamore, gaunt and gray, clever, nor entertaining, yet somehow she makes you

Overhead, o'er the dead motionless clay feel comfortable,' because she is so comfortable herself.

Bend down silently, thinking her sleeping. She shames you out of your complainings, for she makes none.

Yet mayhap, since it is the divine law Through the long avenue echoes the tread that we should all, like our Master, be made perfect Of the crowd, thronging through suffering,' you are fully aware that she has After the dead, had far more sorrow than ever you had ; that her daily Living, they knew not as I did know, path, had you trodden it, would be to you as gloomy and Yet, alas! as they pass, I may not go full of pitfalls as to her it is safe and bright. She may

To mingle my woe with their sadness. have even less than the medium lot of earthly blessings, yet all she has she enjoys to the full, and it is Loveliest, proudest, and gayest of all so pleasant to see any one enjoy! Her sorrows she Those haughty rich ones neither denies nor escapes; they come to her naturally That swarmed in the hall, and wholesomely, and passing over, leave her full Yet for me, lowly, unheeded, unknown, of compassion for all who may have to endure the She, apart bent her heart down from its throne, same.

To fill me with joy—and with madness. Thus, whatever lier fate may be-married or single, rich or poor, in health or sickness-though a cheerful

Like some grand meteor that startles the night spirit has twice as much chance of health as a melan

With its great glory choly one-she will be all hier days a living justi

Transcendently bright, fication of the ways of Providence, who makes the So on my soul-night a moment she shone, light as well as the darkness, nay, makes the light Sudden light, darker night for she was gone, out of the darkness-a help and a peacemaker to her Gone! Be still, heart, and cease this wild beating. fellow-creatures, because she is at peace in herself;

Yet, I shall follow where They dare not go, undoubtedly, as is plain to all, a Happy Woman.

Ha! those same mourners

Solemn and slow.

For it is creeping up, up to my heart,
It might give us a more intelligent idea of many places

Rampant pain, through each vein leaps like a dart. in our native country, if we knew the meaning of certain Ah! new pain adds new joy to our meeting. syllables, mostly Celtic, which form part of their names. Now is that wintry sky shut from my sight, Thus, Aber, as in Aberconway, Aberdeen, means the

All, all is darkness mouth of a river. [Berwick and Perth are believed to be Aberwick and Abertay.] Auch, as in Aucbinleck, is a field.

Deeper than night. Ard, as in Ardagh, is a height. Bal, as in Balgowan and

Here I no longer stay, mourning alone; Ballymena, is a village. Ben is a hill. By or bye (Danish),

Earth, farewell. Hush that bell; make no sad moan : as in Tenby, Rugby, is a small town or settlement Car Two souls are united in paradise. and Caer, as in Carstairs, Caernarvon, mean a fort [con

J. H. B. nected with cathedra, a seat or chair). Combe, as in Nettlecombe, Cwmneath, is a lengthy hollow. Craig, as in Craigphadrig and Carrickfergus, is a rock. Drum, as in Drumcondra, Drummore, is a ridge. Dun, a fortified hill. the name of this animal to have originated in the belief

Mr Timbs, in Popular Errors Explained, supposes Ey (Danish), as in Anglesey, Chelsea, is an island. Glass, as in Glasgow, is green. Ham, a dwelling or small town.

among the Greeks and Romans that the hyena could Hurst, a wood. Hope, as in Wallop (Wellhope]. Trollop charın shepherds by imitating the human voice. Let him [Troll-hope), is a hollow in the side of a hill. Innis and only visit the Zoological Gardens, and he will find from Inch, an island. Inver , the mouth of a small stream join-perfectly a peculiarity of the animal

, whose broken roar

observation of the hyena there, that the name describes ing a larger. Ken, the head, usually applied to a place bears a singular resemblance - not pleasant to nervous at the head of a lake, as in Kenmore, or the top of a height, as in Kinnaird. Kil, a cell or burial-place. Places people--to an exaggerated human laugh. bearing names with this syllable were mostly the hermitages of early Christian saints. Knock and Law both Printed and Published by W. and R. CHAMBERS, 47 Pater

noster Row, LONDON, and 339 High Street, EDINBURGA, mean a hill. Lin, a pool [Roslin, the promontory at the

sold by William ROBERTSON, 28 Upper Sackville Street, DUBLIN, pool]. More, great [Drummore, the great ridge]. Ness, and all Booksellers.




Science and Arts.


No. 204.


PRICE 11d.

play, to dance, to sing; has been least frowned at, HAPPINESS AND HEALTH.

awed down, and frightened ; which, in short, has been A HALE gentleman of ninety-four had one evening made the happiest. contributed largely to the entertainment of a social Health all admit to be necessary to happiness. It party by his performances on the violin. After his is a commonplace of little direct value to mankind. departure, the remainder of the company set them- Happiness is one of the pre-requisites of health-there selves to speculating on the causes of the good health is an apothegm comparatively new, and of great value. and soundness of condition which he continued to enjoy Yes, it is so in this world, that without a fair measure at so advanced an age. After many theories had been of happiness—that is, a tolerably continuous flow of discussed, one gentleman, who happened to be a near easy, cheerful, and agreeable sensations—there can be relative of the venerable violinist, told his companions no consistent good health, and, consequently, no such that he believed they were all wrong-upon good thing as long life. When a friend, therefore, wishes grounds of observation, it was his conviction that one long life, health, and happiness,' he uses a needMr owed his singular length of days and good lessly long formula. If he were to wish us happiness health to nothing else than his playing on the violin! only, he would be doing all that could be desired in He had been a player on that instrument for the last the case. seventy-eight years, had during that time played more As the world now is, we certainly see in it a vast or less every day, enjoyed it keenly, made others amount of unhappiness—the unhappiness which arises Bappy by his strains, and derived happiness from from want of physical necessaries—the unhappiness seeing them happy: lively music had been the very arising from the cares connected with social responsisalt of life to him-he scarcely ever knew what it bilities—the unhappiness arising from moral aberrawas to be dull or in low spirits. As there was no tions, from misapplied and mistreated affections, other special circumstance in his condition, it became from the infinite variety of tyrannies and cruelties we apparent that Mr- had reached an unusual age, exercise towards each other. Most sad is the scene in unbroken health and strength, solely by his playing consequently presented even in the most advanced on the fiddle! The company was startled at first, communities. Yet this comfort is seen through allbut, after a little reflection, they fully admitted that, knowledge has a manifest control over the matter, by in all probability, the right explanation bad been the improved conditions, the better regulations, the given.

more equable distribution of means, which it introduces, And it undoubtedly was It is now quite as well as by the control which it gives us severally over settled amongst plıysiologists, that cheerfulness sus- our various emotions; and knowledge we know to be tains, and care depresses health, and that a certain a power altogether unlimited. We may therefore amount of happy sensations is necessary to the pro- fairly expect that happiness will be extended even till longation of life. The doctrine works out its verity it overspreads all. Such appears to have been the in a striking manner wherever there are large bodies constitution of humanity. While the humbler animals of men concerned, as in military or naval expeditions. were as well at the beginning as they could be, man That officer, it is acknowledged, is sure to have the was made to start with only great potentialities; the healthiest regiment or ship’s crew who best can sus- perfection of his state in the world was only to be tain their cheerfulness or keep them in merriment; reached through the use of his reasonable mind and for this reason it becomes a matter of serious working out the best conditions for itself. concern to encourage the men in the getting up of There is little immediate good in contemplating plays and sports among themselves. This was done the matter in this general point of view. Enough with the best effects by Captain Parry during his for practical purposes that we see the direct bearing compulsory wintering in the Arctic regions. We will, of happiness upon health, and consequently, it may on the same grounds, pledge any reputation we may be said, on the highest secular interests of society. have for wisdom to the conclusion that, in two families This brings us at once to the duty we are under of young children, brought up in circumstances other towards our fellow-creatures with regard to what we wise identical, and starting with equal advantages in can do for their happiness. point of constitution, that will be the healthiest, and If it be true-and there seems no reason to doubt it come to be the most satisfactory set of men and that every one of us, however humble or insigniwomen, which has been in the hands of parents ficant, has some influence over the sensations and of cheerful and kindly dispositions; which has been experiences of some one else-it may be as a member most encouraged under decent bounds, to laughi, to of a household, or as one of many in a workshop, or

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