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tors it contained, amounting, according to some accounts, to eighty thousand, and, agreeably to others, to one hundred thousand.
66 Thirty thousand captive Jews are said to have been engaged by VESPASIAN, whose name it occasionnally bears, in the construction of this vast edifice; and they have not discredited their forefathers, the builders of Solomon's temple, by the performance. It was not finished, however, until the reign of his son Titus, who, on the first day of its being opened, introduced into the arena not less than 5000, or, according to Dio Cassius, 9000 wild beasts, between whom, and the primitive Christians held captive by the Romans, combats were fought. At the conclusion of this cruel spectacle, the whole place was put under water, and two fleets, named the Corcyrian and the Corinthian, represented a naval engagement. To render the vapour from such a multitude of persons less noxious, sweet-scented water, and frequently wine mixed with saffron, was showered down from a grated work above on the heads of the spectators.
“ The Roman Emperors who succeeded Titus were careful of the preservation of this superb monument ; even the voluptuous HELIOGABULUs caused it to be repaired after a great fire. The rude Goths, who sacked the city of Rome, were contented with despoiling it of its internal ornaments, but respected the structure itself. Pope Paul II., however, had as much of it levelled as was necessary to furnish materials for building the Palace of ST. MARK, and his example was followed by CARDINAL RIARIO, in the construction of what is now called the Chancery. Lastly, a portion of it was employed by POPE PAUL III. in the erection of the Palace Farnese. Notwithstanding all these dilapidations, there still exists enough of it to inspire the spectator with awe. Innmense masses appear fastened to and upon one another without any mortar or cement; and these alone, from their structure, are calculated for a duration of many thousands of years. Occasionally, where the destroyers have not effectually attained their object, the half-loosened masses appear
to be holden in the air, by some invisible power; for the wide interstices among them leave no other support than their joints, which seem every moment as if about to yield unavoidably to the superior force of gravitation. • They will fall ;' they must fall;' they are falling ;' is, and has been, the language of all beholders, during the vast periods through whicla this stupendous edifice has thus hung together in the air.”
ANECDOTE OF THE LATE MARQUIS CORN.
WALLIS. The following fact was related by the famous BUONAPARTE, as an instance of the high honour and integrity of Lord CORNWALL13, who negotiated, on the part of the British Government, the Treaty of Peace between England and France, concluded at Ainiens in 1802,
“ He never broke his word. At Amiens, the treaty was ready, and was to be signed by him at nine o'clock. Something happened, which prevented him from going ; but he sent word to the French Ministers, that they might consider the Treaty as having been signed, and that he would sign it the next day. A courier from England arrived at night, with directions for him to refuse his consent to certain Articles, and not to sign the Treaty. Though CORNWALLIS had not signed it, and might hare easily availed himself of this order, he was a man of such strict honour, that he said he considered his promise to be equivalent to his signature ; and wrote to iell his Government that he had promised, and that having once pledged his word, he would keep it;-adding, that if they were not satisfied, they might still refuse to ratify the Treaty.”—“ There," exclaimed BUONAPARTE, “ was a inan of honour,-a true Englishman! (“ Voice from St. Helena : vol.i.
THE JUVENILE NATURALIST,
FOR OCTOBER, 1822.
(From “ Time's Telescope for 1822.") “ As the Spring and Summer seasons have their distinguishing excellencies, so it is, in an especial manner, with respect to Autumn. The reviving freshness of the Spring is long past, and the Summer is declining; Autumn succeeds, and its rich blessings Hay be considered as pleasing to the sight and gratifying to the palate.
“ Abont the middle of the month, the common martin disappears, and, shortly afterwards, the smallest kind of swallow, the sand-martin, migrates. The Royston, or hooded crow, arrives from Scotland and the northern parts of England, being driver theace by the severity of the season, The woodcock returns, and is found on our eastern coasts. Various kinds of waterfowl make their appearance; and, about the middle of the month, wild geese leave the fens, and go to the rye-lands, to devour the young corn. Rooks sport and dive, in a playful manner, before they go to roost, congregating in large numbers. The starling sings.
“ The flowers which are usually in blow in this month, are, the holyoak, Michaelmas daisy, stocks, nasturtium, marigold, mignionette, lavender, wall-flower, China rose, Virginia stock, heart's-ease, laurustinus, rocket, St. John's wort, periwinkle, &c.
Hips and haws now ornament the hedges : an abundance of the latter was considered by LORD Bacon to foretell a severe winter. This prognostick, however, is often known to fail ; and there is indeed little foundation for the remark. An attention to the rules of Lord Bacon's own philosophy would have taught him to regard it as the effect of a genial and favourable spring, which allowed the blossoms to set and mature into fruit.-The berries of the bryony and the privet, the barberry, the blackberry, the holly, and the elder, with sloes, bullaces, and damsons, are now in great plenty.
- The principal harvest of apples is about the beginning of this month ; and in this month also is the great potatoe harvest.
“ The sowing of wheat is generally completed in this month : when the weather is too wet for this occupation, the farmer ploughs up the stubble fields for winter-fallows. Acorns are sown at this scason, and the planting of forest and fruit trees takes place.”
BRIEF ASTRONOMICAL NOTICES,
FOR OCTOBER, 1822. “ Tue Moon rises, on the 1st, about eight minutes before sunset, under the four stars in square. On the 2d, Saturn will be seen rising under her in a little more than three quarters of an hour, and she will pass him about suiu-rise. On the 3d, she is still followed in her rising by Saturn, and will be seen advancing towards the Pleiades, which she will have passed before her next appearance. She directs her course above Jupiter, below them to the cast. On the 4th, she rises under and near to the Pleiades to the west of her, and will pass Jupiter before sun-rise. On the 13th, she rises under Venus to the east of her; and on the 15th is New Moon, at thirty-two minutes past one in the morning. On the 30th is Full Moon, at forty-one minutes past nine in the morning.
“ MERCURY is an evening star. «Venus is a morning star.
“ Mars is an eveniug star. He is seen at first, soon after sunset, to the west of south-west.
“ JUPITER rises about eight at night on the 1st, and on the 25th at half past six.
“SATURN rises about seven at night on the 1st, and about three quarters past five on the 20th. “ HERSCHEL is an erening star."
BY BERNARD BARTON.
Dost thou not love, in the season of spring,
To twine thee a flowery wreath ;
Its shade on the grass beneath ?
And summer has just begun,
Where glittering waters run,
When leaves are changing before thee,
Shed their own mild influence o'er thee?
gaze, The touching lesson such scene displays ? It should be thus at an age like thine ;
And it has been thus with me,
As they never more can be ;
The trunk of a blighted oak,
Beneath time's resistless stroke,
And wreath'd it with verdure no longer its own ? Perchance thou hast seen that sight, and then,
As I at thy years might do,
That scathed wreck to view;
If it be with instruction fraught;
Is alone worth a serious thought !
Should ought be unlovely which thus can shed
Who giveth, upbraiding not,
And his love be unforgot ;
WHAT IS MAN?
BY MRS. CAROLINE FRY.
The bud of this morning, and withered at night,
Like a flower, he dies as he grows ; With lustre delusive he glitters awhile,
And returns to the dust whence he rose.
And the beings they saw are no more ;
On all who have trod it before.
And soon shall we be where they are,
To hasten and follow us there.
For the children of years yet unborn;
They lived, they have died, and are gone.
The purpose of to-day,
To-morrow rends his way.
Vice seems already slain ;
And it revives again.
Finds out his weaker part;
But pleasure wins his heart.