Imágenes de páginas

Blood was par

The Israelites act as


commanded by Moses. A. M. 2513. 50 Thus did all the children | 51 And it came to pass the A. M. 2513. B. C. 1491.

B. C. 1491. an. Exod. Isr. 1. of Israel; as the LORD com- self-same day, that the Lord did An. Exod. Isr. l. Abib or Nisan. manded Moses and Aaron, so bring the children of Israel out

Abib or Nisan. did they.

of the land of Egypt w by their armies. v Ver. 41.

w Chap. vi. 26. The word ler, law, among the Romans, has been objects also of their adoration, died. derived from lego, I read; because when a law..or ticularly offensive to them, and the touch of any dead statute was made, it was hung up in the most public animal rendered them unclean. When then their great places, that it might be seen, read, and known by all god, the river, was turned into 'blood, and its watcrs men, that those who were to obey the laws might not became putrid, so that all the fish, minor objects of break them through ignorance, and thus incur the their devotion, died, we see a judgment at once calcupenalty. This was ealled promulgatio legis, q. pro-lated to punish, correct, and reform them.

Could they vulgatio, the promulgation of the law, i. e., the laying ever more trust in gods who conld neither save themit before the common people. 'Or from ligo, I bind, selves nor their deluded worshippers ? because the law binds men to the strict observance of 2. Mr. Bryant has endeavoured to prove that frogs, its precepts. The Greeks call a law voploç nomos, the second plague, were sacred animals in Egypt, and from veuw, to divide, distribute, minister to, or serve, were dedicated to Osiris : they certainly appear on because the law divides to all their just rights, appoints many ancient Egyptian monuments, and in such çiror distributes to each his proper duty, and thus serves cumstances and connections as to show that they were or ministers to the welfare of the individual and the held in 'religious veneration. These therefore became sarport of society. Hence where there are either no an awful scourge; first, by their numbers, and their laws, or unequal and unjust ones, all is distraction, intrusion into every place; and, secondly, by their violence, rapine, oppression, anarchy, and ruin: death, and the infection of the atmosphere which took

Verse 51. By their armies.] Dnx3y tsibotham, from place in consequence. x33 Isaba, to assemble, meet logether, in an orderly or 3. We have seen also that the Egyptians, esperegulated manner, and hence to war, to act together cially the priests, assected great cleanliness, and would as troops in battle ; whence nixoy tsebaoth, troops, not wear woollen garments Jest any kind of vermin armies; hosts. It is from this that the Divine Being should harbour about them. The third plague, by calls himself niXIY 0717" Yehovah tsebaoth, the Lord means of lice or such like vermin, was wisely calcuof hosts or armies, because the Israelites were brought lated both to humble and confound them. In this they out of Egypt under his direction, marshalled and order- immediately saw a power superior to any that could ed by himself, guided by his wisdom, supported by his be exerted by their gods or their magicians; and the providence, and protected by his might. This is the latter were obliged to confess, This is the finger of true and simple reason why God is so frequently styled God! in Scripture the Lord of hosts ; for the Lord did 4. That flies were held sacred among the Egypbring the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt tians and among various other nations, admits of the by their ARMIES.

strongest proof. It is very probable that Baal-zebub

himself was worshipped under the form of a fly or On this chapter the notes have been so full and so great cantharid. These, therefore, or some kind of explicit, that little can be added to set the subject be- winged noxious insects, became the prime agents in fore the reader in a clearer light. On the ordinance the FOURTH plague; and if the cynomyia or dog-fly be of the PASSOVER, the reader is requested to consult the intended, we have already seen in the notes with what notes on verses 7, 14, and 27. For the display of propriety and effect this judgment was inflicted. God's power and providence in supporting so great a 5. The murrain or mortality among the cattle was multitude where, humanly speaking, there was no pro- the FIFTH plague, and the most decisive mark of the vision, and the proof that the exodus of the Israelites power and indignation of Jehovah. That dogs, cals, gives of the truth of the Mosaic history, he is referred monkeys, rams, heifers, and bulls, were all objects of to ver. 37. And for the meaning of the term law, their most religious veneration, all the world knows. 10 ver. 49.

These were smitten in a most singular manner by the On the ten plagues it may be but just necessary, hand of God; and the Egyptians saw themselves deafter what has been said in the notes, to make a few prived at once of all their imaginary helpers. Even general reflections. When the nature of the Egyptian Apis, their ox-god, in whom they particularly trusted, idolatry is considered, and the plagues which were now suffers, groans, ánd dies under the hand of Jehosent upon them, we may see at once the peculiarity vah. Thus does he execute judgment against all the of the judgment, and the great propriety of its being gods of Egypt. See ver. 12. inflicted in the way related by Moses.

The plagues 6. The sixth plague, viz., of boils and blains, was were either inflicted on the objects of their idolatry, or as appropriate as any of the preceding; and the sprinkby their means.

ling of the ashes, the means by which it was produced, 1. That the river Nile was an object of their wor- peculiarly significant. Pharmacy, Mr. Bryant has obship, and one of their greatest gods, we have already served, was in high repute among the Egyptians; and seen. As the first plague, its waters were therefore Isis, their most celebrated goddess, was considered as turned into blood; and the fish, many of which were the preventer or healer of all diseases. “For this


General observations


on the ten plagues. goddess," says Diodorus, Hist., lib. i., "used to reveal | a species of idolatry which had been long prevalent in herself to people in their sleep when they laboured that and other countries, viz., the worship of the celesunder any disorder, and afford them relief. Many who tial luminaries. The sun and moon were both adored placed their confidence in her influence tapadośws as supreme deities, as the sole dispensers of light and üylalveotai, were miraculously restored. Many like- life; and the sun was invoked as the giver of immor. wise who had been despaired of and given over by the tality and eternal blessedness. Porphyry, De Abstin., physicians on account of the obstinacy of the distem- | 1. 4, preserves the very form used by the Egyptian per, were saved by this goddess. Numbers who had priests in addressing the sun on behalf of a deceased been deprived of their eyes, and of other parts of their person, that he might be admitted into the society of bodies, were all restored on their application to Isis.” | the gods: Ω δεσποτα Ηλιε, και θεοι παντες, οι την By this disorder, therefore, which no application to swmv Tois av@pwToLS dovtes, Toode fagde je, kai papatheir gods could cure, and which was upon the magi- SOTE Tous aidious Oroiç ovvolkov. “O sovereign lord the cians also, who were supposed to possess most power sun, and all ye other deities who bestow life on manand influence, God confounded their pride, showed the kind ! receive me, and grant that I may be admitted folly of their worship, and the vanity of their depend as a companion with the immortal gods!" These

The means by which these boils and blains objects of their superstitious worship Jehovah showed were inflicted, viz., the sprinkling of ashes from the by this plague to be his creatures, dispensing or withfurnace, was peculiarly appropriate. Plutarch assures holding their light merely at his will and pleasure ; us, De Iside et Osiride, that in several cities of Egypt and that the people might be convinced that all this they were åceustomed to sacrifice human beings to came by his appointment alone, he predicted this awful Typhon, which they burned alive upon a high altar; and darkness; and that their astronomers might have the at the close of the sacrifice the priests gathered the fullest proof that this was no natural occurrence, and ashes of these victims, and scattered them in the air : could not be the effect of any kind of eclipse, which “ I presume,” says Mr. Bryant, “ with this view, that even when tolal could endure only about four minutes, where an atom of their dust was wafted, a blessing (and this case could happen only once in a thousand might be entailed. The like was done by Moses with years, he caused this palpable darkness to continue the ashes of the furnace, that wherever any, the small- for three days ! est portion, alighted, it might prove a plague and a curse 10. The Tenth and last plague, the slaying of the to this cruel, ungrateful, and infatuated people. Thus first-born or chief person in each family, may be conthere was a designed contrast in these workings of sidered in the light of a Divine retribution : for after Providence, an apparent opposition to the superstition that their nation had been preserved by one of the of the times."

Israelitish family, “they had,” says Mr. Bryant, “ con7. The grievous hail, the seventh plague, attended trary to all right, and in defiance of original stipulation, with rain, thunder, and lightning, in a country where enslaved the people to whom they had been so much these scarcely ever occur, and according to an express indebted; and not contented with this, they had proprediction of Moses, must in the most signal manner ceeded to murder their offspring, and to render the point out the power and justice of God. Fire and water people's bondage intolerable by a wanton exertion of were some of the principal objects of Egyptian idolatry; power. It had been told them that the family of the and fire, as Porphyry says, they considered peyav elval Israelites were esteemed as God's first-born, chap. iv. Oeov, to be a great god. To find, therefore, that these 22; therefore God said : Let my son go, that he may very elements, the objects of their adoration, were, at serve me; and if thou refuse-behold, I will slay thy the command of a servant of Jehovah, bronght as a son, even thy FIRST-BÖRN, ver. 23. But they heeded curse and scourge on the whole land, and upon men not this admonition, and hence those judgments came also and cattle, must have shaken their belief in these upon them that terminated in the death of the eldest imaginary deities, while it proved to the Israelites that in each family; a just retaliation for their disobedience there was none like the God of Jeshurun.

and cruelty." See several curious and important 8. In the eighth plague we see by what insignifi, remarks on this subject in a work entitled, Observacant creatures God can bring about a general destructions upon the Plagues inflicted on the Egyptians, by tion. A caterpillar is beyond all animals the most Jacob Bryant, 8vo., 1810. contemptible, and, taken singly, the least to be dreaded On the whole we may say, Behold the goodness in the whole empire of nature ; but in the hand of and severity of God! Severity mixed with goodness Divine justice it becomes one of the most formidable even to the same people. He punished and corrected foes of the human race. From the examples in the them at the same time; for there was not one of these notes we see how little human power, industry, or art, judgments that had not, from its peculiar nature and can avail against this most awful scourge. Not even circumstances, some emendatory influence. Nor could the most contemptible animal should be considered a more effectual mode be adopted to demonstrate to with disrespect, as in the hand of God it may become that people the absurdity of their idolatry, and the the most terrible instrument for the punishment of a inefficacy of their dependence, than that made use of criminal individual or a guilty land.

on this occasion by the wise, just, and merciful God. 9. The Ninth plague, the total and horrible dark. At the same time the Israelites themselves must have ness that lasted for three days, afforded both Israelites received a lesson of the most impressive instruction on and Egyptians the most illustrious proof of the power the vanity and wickedness of idolatry, to which they and universal dominion of God; and was particularly were at all times most deplorably prone, and of which to the latter a most awful yet instructive lesson against I they would no doubt, have given many more examples,


The law concerning the


first-born of man and beast. had they not had the Egyptian plagues continually be- risk of greater by an attempt to escape from their prefore their eyes. It was probably these signal displays sent bondage. This is proved by their murmurings, of God's power and justice, and these alone, that in- chap. xvi., from which it is evident that they preferred duced them to leave Egypt at his command by Moses Egypt with all its curses to their situation in the wiland Aaron; otherwise, with the dreadful wilderness de ess, and never could have been induced to leave before them, totally unprovided for such a journey, in it had they not had the fullest evidence that it was the which humanly speaking it was impossible for them will of God; which will they were obliged, on pain and their households to subsist, they would have rather of utter destruction, to obey. preferred the ills they then suffered, than have run the

CHAPTER XIII. God establishes the law concerning the first-born, and commands that all such, both of man and beast, should

be sanctified unto him, 1, 2. Orders them to remember the day in which they were brought out of Egypt, when they should be brought to the land of Canaan ; and to keep this service in the month Abib, 3-5. Repeats the command concerning the leavened bread, 6, 7, and orders them to teach their children the cause of it, 8, and to keep strictly in remembrance that it was by the might of God alone they had been delivered from Egypt, 9. Shows that the consecration of the first-born, both of man and beast, should take place when they should be settled in Canaan; 10-12. The first-born of man and beast to be redeemed, 13. The reason of this also to be shown to their children, 14, 15. Frontlets or phylacteries for the hands and forehead commanded, 16. And the people are not led directly to the promised land, but about through the wilderness; and the reason assigned, 17, 18, Moses takes the bones of Joseph with him, 19. They journey from Succoth and come to Etham, 20. And the Lord goes before them by day in a pillar of cloud, and by night in a pillar of fire, 21, which miracle is regularly continued both by day and night, 22. A. M. 2513. AND the Lord spake unto 4. This day came ye .out, in

A. M. 2513. B. C. 1491.

B. C. 1491. An. Exod. Isr. I. Moses, saying, the month Abib.

An, Exod. Isr. 1. Abib or Nisan.

Abib or Nisan. 2 Sanctify unto me all the 5 And it shall be, when the first-born, whatsoever openeth the womb among LơRD shall bring thee into the land of the the children of Israel, both of man and of Canaanites, and the Hittites, and the Amorites, beast: it is mine.

and the Hivites, and the Jebusites, which he 3 And Moses said unto the people, “Re-sware unto thy fathers to give thee, a land member this day, in which ye came out from flowing with milk and honey, i that thou shalt Egypt, out of the house of « bondage ; for d by keep this service in this month.. strength of hand the Lord brought you out 6 Seven days thou shalt eat unleavened from this place : there shall no leavened bread, and in the seventh day shall be a feast bread be eaten.

to the LORD. . Ver. 12, 13, 15; chap. xxii. 29, 30;. xxxiv. 19; Lev. xxvii. c Heb. servants. d Chap. vi... Le Chap. xii. 8. Chap. 26 ; Num. 11. 13; viii. 16, 17; xviii. 15; Deut. xv. 19; Luke xxiii. 15; xxxiv. 18; Deut. xvi. 1.-5 Chap. iii. 8. ii. 23. - Chap. xii. 42; Deut. xvi. 3.

vi. 8. - Chap. xii. 25, 26. - Chap. xii. 15, 16.

Lh Clap.


is permitted to run wild, as a consecrated animal. A Verse 1. The Lord spake unto Moses] The com- child thus devoted has a lock of hair separated, which mands in this chapter appear to have been given at at the time appointed is cut off and placed near the Succoth, on the same day in which they left Egypt. idol. Hindoo women sometimes pray to Gunga (the

Verse 2. Sanctify unto me all the first-born] To Ganges) for children, and promise to devote the firstsanctify, vip kadash, signifies to consecrate, separate, born to her. Children thus devoted are cast into the and set apart a thing or person from all secular pur- Ganges, bụt are generally saved by the friendly hand poses to some religious use; and exactly answers to of some stranger.- Ward's Customs. the import of the Greek áyłatw, from a, privative, and Whatsoever openeth the womb] That is, the firstm, the earth, because every thing offered or conse-born, if a male ; for females were not offered, nor the crated to God was separated from all earthly uses. first male, if a female had been born previously. Again, Hence a holy person or saint is termed úycos, i. .e., a if a man had several wives, the first-born of each, if à person separated from the earth; one who lives a holy male, was to be offered to God. And all this was done life, entirely devoted to the service of God. Thas the to commemorate the preservation of the first-born of persons and animals sanctified to God were employed in the Israelites, when those of the Egyptians were the service of the tabernacle and temple; and the ani- destroyed. mals, such as were proper, were offered in sacrifice. Verse 5. When the Lord shall bring thee into the

The Hindoos frequenly make a vow, and devote to land] Hence it is pretty evident that the Israelites an idol the first-born of a goat and of a man. The goat were not obliged to celebrate the passover, or keep


B. C. 1491.

B. C. 1491.


cause to pass over.

The annual celebration


of the passover commanded. A. M. 2513. 7 Unleavened bread shall be eyes, that the Lord's law may

A. M. 2513. An. Exod. Isr. 1, eaten seven days; and there in thy mouth : for with a strong An. Exod. Isr. 1. Abib or Nisan. shall no leavened bread be seen hand hath the Lord brought thee

Abib or Nisan. with thee, neither shall there be leaven seen out of Egypt. with thee in all thy quarters.

• Thou shalt therefore keep this ordi8 And thou shalt m show thy son in that day, nance in his season, from year to year. saying, This is done, because of that which 11 And it shall be, when the LORD shall the Lord did unto me, when I came forth out bring thee into the land of the Canaanites, as of Egypt.

he sware unto thee and to thy fathers, and 9 And it shall be for " a sign unto thee upon shall give it thee, thine hand, and for a memorial between thine 12 v That thou shalt 4 set apart unto the LORD

Chap. xii. 19. -m Ver. 14; chap. xii. 26.— See ver. 16; p Ver. 2; chapter xxii. 29 ; xxxiv. 19, Lev. txvii. 26 ; Nam. chap. xii. 14; Num. xv. 39; Deut. vi. 8; xi. 18; Prov.i. 9; Isa. viii. 17; xviii. 15; Deut. xv. 19; Ezek. xliv. 30. -4 Hebrew, xlix. 16; Jer, xxii. 24 ; Matt. xxiii. 5. — Chap. xi. 14, 24. the feast of unleavened bread, till they were brought lacteries on their heads and on their hands. And the into the promised land.

Pharisees, who in our Lord's time affected extraordiVerse 6. Unleavened bread] See on chap. xii. 15, 16. nary piety, made their phylacteries very broad, that

Verse 9. And it shall be for a sign-upon thine hand] they might have many sentences written upon them, This direction, repeated and enlarged ver. 16, gave or the ordinary portions in very large and observable rise to phylacteries or tephillin, and this is one of the letters. passages which the Jews write upon them to the pre- It appears that the Jews wore these for three dif. sent day. The manner in which the Jews understood ferent purposes : and kept these commands may appear in their practice. 1. As signs or remembrancers. This was the original They wrote the following four portions of the law upon design, as the institution itself sufficiently proves. slips of parchment or vellum : Sanctify unto me the 2. To procure reverence and respect in the sight of first-born, Exod. xiii., from verse 2 to 10 inclusive. the heathen. This reason is given in the Gemara,

And' it shall be, when the Lord shall bring thee into the Berachoth, chap. i. : “Whence is it proved that the land, Exod. xiii., from verse 11 to 16 inclusive. Hear, phylacteries or tephillin are the strength of Israel ? O Israel, the Lord our God is one Lord, Deut. vi., Ans. From what is written, Deut. xxviii. 10: All the from verse 4 to 9 inclusive. And it shall come to pass, people of the earth shall see that thou art called by if ye shall hearken diligently, Deut. xi., from verse 13 the name of the LORD (17177Yehovah) and they shall to 21 inclusive. These four portions, making in all 30 be afraid of thee." verses, written as mentioned above, and covered with 3. They used them as amulets or charms, to drive leather, they tied to the forehead and to the hand or arm. away evil spirits. This appears from the Targum on

Those which were for the head (the frontlets) they Canticles viii. 3: His left hand is under my head; $. wrote on four slips of parchment, and rolled up each by “ The congregation of Israel hath said, I am elect itself, and placed them in four compartments, joined above all people, because I bind my phylacteries on together in one piece of skin or leather. Those which my left hand and on my head, and the scroll is fixed were designed for the hand were formed of one piece to the right side of my gate, the third part of which of parchment, the four portions being written upon it looks to my bed-chamber, that demons may not be in four columns, and rolled up from one end to the permitted to injure me.". other. These were all correct transcripts from the One of the original phylacteries or on tephillin Mosaic text, without one redundant or deficient letter, now lies before me; it is a piece of fine vellum, about otherwise they were not lawful to be worn. Those eighteen inches long, and an inch and quarter broad. It for the head were tied on so as to rest on the forehead. is divided into four unequal compartments; the letters Those for the hand or arm were usually tied on the are very well formed, but written with many apices, left arm, a little above the elbow, on the inside, that after the manner of the German Jews. In the first they might be near the heart, according to the com- compartment is written the portion taken from Exod. mand, Deut. vi. 6: And these words which I command xiii. 2–10; in the second, Exod. xiii. 11-16; in the thee this day shall be in thine heart. These phylac- third, Deut. vi. 4-9; in the fourth, Deut. xi. 13–21, teries formed no inconsiderable part of a Jew's religion; as before related. This had originally served for the they wore them as a sign of their obligation to God, hand or arm. and as representing some future blessedness. Hence These passages seem to be chosen in vindication of they did not wear them on feast days nor on the Sab- the use of the phylactery itself, as the reader may see bath, because these things were in themselves signs ; on consulting them at large. Bind them for a SIGN but they wore them always when they read the law, or upon thy hand; and for FRONTLEts between thy Eyes; when they prayed, and hence they called them phan write them upon the posts of thy house and upon thy tephillin, prayer, ornaments, oratories, or incitements to Gates ; all which commands the Jews take in the prayer. In process of time the spirit of this law was most literal sense. To acquire the reputation of exJost in the letter, and when the word was not in their traordinary sanctity they wore the fringes of their mouth, nor the law in their heart, they had their phy- garments of an uncommon length. Moses had com

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A. M. 2513.
B. C. 1491.

Reasons assigned for the


consecration of the first-born. A. M. 2513. all that openeth the matrix, and first-born of man, and the first

B. C. 1491.
An. Exod. Isr, 1. every firstling that cometh of a born of beasts: therefore I sacri- an. Exod. 1st. 1.
Abib or Nisan. beast which thou hast ; the males fice to the Lord all that openeth

Abib or Nisan. shall be the LORD's.

the matrix, being males; but all the first13 And every firstling of an ass thou shalt born of my children I redeem. redeem with a * lamb; and if thou wilt not 16. And it shall be for y a token


thine redeem it, then thou shalt - break his neck : hand, and for frontlets between thine eyes : and all the first-born of man among thy chil- for by strength of hand the Lord brought us dren shalt thou redeem.

forth out of Egypt. 14 a And it shall be when thy son asketh 17 And it came to pass, when Pharaoh had thee in time to come, saying, What is this? let the people go, that God led them not that thou shalt say unto him, " By strength through the way of the land of the Philistines, of hand the Lord brought us out from Egypt, although that was near ; for God said, Lest from the house of bondage :

peradventure the people ? repent when they 15 And it came to pass, when Pharaoh see war, and a they return to Egypt : would hardly let us go, that ' the Lord slew all 18 But God bled the people about, through the first-born in the land of Egypt, both the the way of the wilderness of the Red Sea :

Chap. xxxiv. 20; Num. xviii. 15, 16. Or, kid. Num. w Ver. 3. - * Chap. xii. 29.-y Ver. 9. - Chap. xiv. 11, üi. 46, 47; xvui. 15, 16. - Chap. xii. 26; Deut. vi. 20; Josh. 12; Num. xiv. 1-4. - Deut. xvii. 16.-- Ch. xiy. 2; Num. iv. 6,21.- Heb. to-morfow.

xxxii. 6, &c.

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manded them, Num. xv. 38, 39, to put fringes to the brew doctors teach, that if a father had neglected or borders of their garments, that when they looked upon refused thus to redeem his first-born, the son himself even these distinct threads they might' remember, not was obliged to do it when he came of age. As this only the law in general but also the very minutiæ or redeeming of the first-born was instituted in consesmaller parts of all the precepts, rites, and ceremonies quence of sparing the first-born of the Israelites, when belonging to it. As those hypocrites (for such our the first-born both of man and beast among the EgypLord proves them to be) were destitute of all the life tians was destroyed, on this ground all the first-born and power of religion within, they endeavoured to sup- were the Lord's, and should have been employed in ply. its place with phylacteries and fringes without. (his service ; but he permitted the first-born of a useful The same principles distinguish hypocrites every unclean animal to be redeemed by a clean animal of where, and multitudes of them may be found among much less value. And he chose the tribe of Levi in those termed Christians as well as among the Jews. place of all the first-born of the tribes in general; and It is probably to this institution relative to the phylac- the five shekels were ordered to be paid in lieu of tery that the words, Rev. xiv. 1, allude: And I looked, such first-born sons as were liable to serve in the and, lo, a hundred and forty-four thousand having his sanctuary, and the money was applied to the support Father's name written on their foreheads. “That is,” of the priests and Levites. See this subject at large says Mr. Ainsworth, “ as a sign of the profession of in Num. iii. 12, 13, 41, 43, 45, 47–51. God's law; for that which in the Gospel is called his Verse 16. It shall be for a token, &c.] See the NAME, (Matt. xii. 21,) in the prophets is called his note on ver. 9. LAW, (Isa. xlii. 4).” So again antichrist exacts the Verse 17. God led them not through the way of the obedience to his precepts by a mark on men's right land of the Philistines, fc.] Had the Israelites been hands or on their foreheads, Rev. xiii. 16.

obliged to commence their journey to the promised land Verse 13. Every firstling of an ass thou shalt redcem by a military campaign, there is little room to doubt with a lamb] Or a kid, as in the margin. In Num. that they would have been discouraged, have rebelled xviii. 15, it is said : “ The first-born of man shalt thou against Moses and Aaron, and have returned back to surely redeem; and the firstling of an unclean beast Egypt. Their long slavery had so degraded their shalt thou redeem.” Henoe we may infer that ass is minds that they were incapable of any great or noble put here for any unclean beast, or for unclean beasts exertions; and it is only on the ground of this mental in general. The lamb was to be given to the Lord, degradation, the infallible consequence of slavery, that that is, to his priest, Num. xviii. 8, 15. And then we can account for their many dastardly acts, murthe owner of the ass might use it for his own service, murings, and repinings after their escape from Egypt. which without this redemption he could not do ; see The reader is requested to bear this in mind, as it will Deut. xv. 19.

serve to elucidate several circumstances in the ensuing The first-born of man-shalt thou redeem.] This was history. Besides, the Israelites were in all probability done by giving to the priests five standard shekels, unarmed, and totally unequipped for battle, encumbered or shekels of the sanctuary, every shekel weighing with their flocks, and certain culinary utensils, which twenty gerahs. What the gerah was, see on Gen. xx. they were obliged to carry with them in the wilder16. And for the shekel, see Gen. xxiii. 15. ness to provide them with bread, &c. It may be necessary to observe here that the He- Verse 18. But God led the people about) Dr. Shaw

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