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The learner may sometimes find it convenient, in the writing of proper names and words not in common use, to be more explicit in relation to vowels, diphthongal sounds, and doubtfiil consonants; for which purpose the following instructions are given. They will, however, be found less necessary, as the writing and reading become more familiar and should only be used to prevent obscurity.

RULES. 1st. As A, I, O, are the only vowels ever used alone, they may be easily distinguished as follows . i; that is, A above, I in the centre, and O below, the line of writing.

2d. At the beginning and end of words make use of the same distinctions, •i or y

3d. To show what vowels are omitted in the middle of words, place a :('mma over the word as follows, thus :

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a or e

.0 or u

for a ore;

for i ory;

for o or u

4th. For diphthongal sounds place the comma under the word, as follows, ī for ou; and 7 for oy.


5th. In doubtful cases, let

be made heavi. If 9 / vier than k

Arbitrary Characters. Enough has been already said in relation to Arbitrary Characters, and therefore a single remark must suffice. The Compiler of this work, after having learned, at great expense of memory, some hundreds of arbitrary signs, has at length abandoned the whole, except the following, 0 The world

These are

learned, and are so + Jesus Christ

very appropriate as x Christianity

not to be soon forx Christian Religion





The preceding system is complete in itself, and has no dependance on the following instruction. It is, therefore, earnestly recommended, that beginners have nothing to do with short hand shortened, till they are quite familiar with short hand. They may then increase their facility of writing, by adding other links to the chain of abbreviation, without weakening those which precede.

The learner will here discover no characters with which he is not already familiar; although, from the manner in which they are made and located, they receive additional powers. And, notwithstanding the instruction here given is considered quite sufficient, still, the learner may, upon the same plan, go much farther by the use of other stenographic letters above or below the line-and all this, without material encroachment upon the fundamental principles of the system; but it is no more necessary for the common stenographer, than conic sections or fluxions to the humble arithmetician.


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See the tirst chapter of Ge nesis, as written upon this plan, plate 17.


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Instructions. 1st make an inverted* m, for him, am, most.


peculiar, people, practical.
h, “ hand, heart, how.
b, “ but, because, believe.
1, law, live, large.

was, what, without.
th, “ them, then, this.

“ ious,“ virtuous, righteous, religious. 2d. Make a horizontal touch above the line of writing for and the, or by the; and the same touch _ below the line for in the, or of the

30. Make two dots above the line of writing, for for the, or from the ; and the same below the line, for wilh the, or was the.

Remark.-When signs are placed above or below the line, to represent a word or words, they should not stand near the preceding or following words, lest they be taken for parts thereof.

* The inverted characters, may be seen on the right of plate 2, against the alphabet and words. I'he looped characters are frequently thus inserted, for convenience in joining, but never when alone, except in short hand shortened.

1st CHAP. OF GENESIS.—See plate 17. 1. In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.

2. And the earth was without form, and void ; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.

3. And God said, Let there be light: and there was light.

4. Ănd God saw the light, that it was good; and God divided the light from the darkness.

5. And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And the evening and the morning were the first day.

6. And God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.

7. And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament, from the waters which were above the firmamenta and it was so.

8. And God called the firmament Heaven. And the evening and the morning were the second day.

9. And God said, Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry land appear; and it was so.

10. And God called the dry land Earth; and the gathering together of the waters called he Seas: and God saw that it was good.

11. And God said, Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding seed, and the fruit-tree yielding fruit after his kind, whose seed is in itself, upon the earth : and it was so.

12. And the earth brought 'orth grass, and herb

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