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into the state of the country, and the the general state and circumstances means by which it might be improve of the people could best be imed; and if we were to suppose, that proved ? the facts necessary to enable any go “ Deeply impressed with the ad. vernment to judge what measures it vantages to be derived from statistical ought to attempt, were once col. inquiries on the principles above de. lected, it would probably be desirous tailed, I was led to engage in a long of having them arranged, nearly in and extensive correspondence with a the following order :
inost respectable body of men, the "" The first part would naturally clergy of the church of Scotland, by state the geographical circumstances of whom, (or by some other corresponthe country, its situation, extent, soil, dent, when they were prevented, by climate, divisions, advantages natural any unforeseen and unavoidable cirand incidental, and other points of a cumstance, from transmitting their similar nature.
reports) I was furnished, without the “ The second object would be to exception of a single parish, with a ascertain the population of the country, minute and particular description of comparing the present with the for the different districts where they remer state of its population, explaining spectively resided. From such an the causes of iis increase or decrease unexampled mass of important inforin the different districts, pointing out mation, and from various other authe manner in which the people were thorities which it will be in my power divided, according to their sex, age, to consult, I trust I shall be enabled professions, and other particulars. to prepare an account of North Bri
6. The third point would be to dis- tain, according to the system above cover how the people acquire the means sketched out, whence the advantages of their subsistence; to what extent they to be derived from such inquiries will depended on agriculture, fisheries, be sufficiently apparent. Fortunate manufactures, or commerce, and what if it should tend to promote the imwere the indirect sources of income provement of my native country, but on which they relied.
still more so, should it furnish an ex“ The next point would naturally ample, which other nations might be be to inquire into the laws and public disposed to imitate, and from which establishments of the country, and to the improvement of political society see how far they were capable of im- in general, and the happiness of the provement; how the people were go- species at large, might be promoted. verned; what checks there were to It is only necessary to add, that prevent bad government or oppres the great improvements recently sion; whence arose the public reve made, in the various sciences and nue; how the laws were adminis
arts, can only be attributed to that tered; how the sanctions of religion anxiety for establishing facts, which were observed; how the health of the is a peculiar distinction of modern people was watched over ; and what times. Since science and art hare institutions were established for the rested, not on visionary theory, but education of youth, and other public on the sure basis of investigation and purposes.
experiment, they have been carried "There are also many miscella to a heiglit, of which anciently, they neous objects of inquiry which such a were supposed incapable. It is by government would be desirous of pursuing the same method in regard having under their view, namely, the to political disquisitions, by analysing language of the people, the arts and the real state of mankind, and exasciences cultivated by them, ibeir mining, with anatomical accuracy: morals, manners, customs, &c. and almost chemical minuteness, the
" And if all these important parti- internal structure of society, that the culars were laid before a wise and be- science of government can alune be neficent government, in one connect- brought to the same state of perfeced report, drawn up on proper diata; tion. By such inquiries, when pro; permit me to ask, would 'there bé perly conducted, and wisely acted any difficulty for them to ascertain
upon, every individual in a great the ultimate object of the whole in political community, may be enabled quiry, namely, how the interest of their to enjov as much "real happiness in nation could best be promoted, and how this world, as the imperfect condition
of human nature will admit; and may necessity of warm clothing, more indulge the pleasing hopes, of pare especially in advanced life, and durtaking in those superior blessings, ing the cold seasons, as the best mode which revelation teaches us, a truly of preventing a number of diseases to virtuous character will inherit beyond which old men are particularly exthe grave.” p. 17-22.
posed, and which, by no other ineans From the last Essay, which is on can be avoided. longevity, a subject generally inter “ 3. Habitation. The health of esting, we beg leave to present our every individual must greatly depend readers with the following:
on the place where be resides, and
the nature of the house which he in“ Rules tending to promote long life. habits; and as it has frequently been
"We shall now proceed to state remarked, that the greatest number such rules as have been followed by of old people die in winter, and that those who have attained great age, many individuals, in a weak and conas they may furnish some bints that sumptive state, are obliged to fly to may be serviceable to others. warmer climates as the only means
“The plan laid down by the cele- of safety, it has thence occurred to brated Cornaro, is well known, and Dr. Pearson, that it would be of serthe abstemious manner in which he vice both to the aged and to the conlived, has often been recommended suinptive, to have houses erected, of to the imitation of others; but I ques. such a peculiar construction that the tion much whether many would wish air could always be preserved, not to lead the same life, for the sake of only pure, but nearly of the same, mere existence. Life is no longer and of rather an elevated temperadesirable than whilst it can be en- ture, so that the invalids who resided joyed with some degree of satisfac. in them should never be affected by tion, and it is of little consequence, the vicissitudes of the seasons. Such if a person merely vegetates, whether an idea, it must be admitted, cannot he lives or not.
be a general remedy or resource, but " Without entering therefore into it is well entitled to the attention of various particulars, fitter for the dis- those who are in afluent circumcussions of experimental philosophy, stances, by some of whom, it is to be than for real life, (as weighing the hoped, an hospital for the aged and food taken, &c &c.) we shall pro- the consumptive will be erected, and ceed to mention the rules which have the experiment fairly tried, both for been found the most effectual, and their own sakes, and for that of hu. which are the most likely to be car man nature in general. ried into practice. They may be “ 4. Exercise and labour. That eiclassed under the following heads : ther exercise or moderate labour is 1. Food. 2. Clothing. 3. Ilabita- necessary even to aged persons, for tion. 4. Labour or exercise. 5. Ha- the purpose of preserving the human bits or customs. 6. Medicine ; and, frame in order, can hardly be ques7. Disposition of mind.
tioned, provided any great exertion * 1. Diet. The importance of whole. is avoided, than which nothing is some food, for the preservation of more likely to destroy the springs of health and long life, and the avoid. life, particularly when these become ing of excess, whether in eating or feeble. Travelling in moderation also, drinking, need not be dwelt upon. from the change of air and scene, Iras Some instances, indeed, are
been found of great use. tioned of persons who have continued " 5. Habits and customs. In the to commit excesses, and have lived next place, good health, and conselong; but these are to be considered quently longevity, depends much on in no other light than as exceptions personal cleanliness, and a variety of from a general rule; and it may rea
habits and customs, or minute attensonably be contended, that it' such tions, which it is impossible here to persons lived to a great age, notwith- discuss. It were much to be wished, standing their intemperance, they that some author would undertake would have lived much longer had the trouble of collecting the result of they followed a different course. general experience upon that subject,
.: 2. Clothing. It is equally unne and would point out those habits, cessary to detail at any length, the which, taken singly, appear very tri
Bing, yet when combined, there is every reason to believe, that much CIII. ASCERBI's Travels through additional health and confort would Sweden, Finland, and Lapland. arise from their observance. “ 6. Medicine. It is a common
(Continued from page 341.) saying, that every man, after the age HAP. XIII. Our travellers arrive of 40, should be his own physician.
in This seems, however, to be a dan- describe the city, library, and unigerous maxim. The greatest physi. versity. The custom for providing cians, when they are sick, seldom subjects for anatomy is thus expressventure to prescribe for themselves, ed. Their school of anatomy is in but generally rely on the advice of considerable repute; it is not likely their medical friends. Persons who to want subjects for dissection, since, pretend to be their own physicians, , by a particular regulation, all such are generally much addicted to quack• persons as hold lands or pensions ery, than which nothing can be more from the crown are bound to leave injurious to the constitution. It is their bodies to be dissected at the essential to health, that medicines anatomical theatre. If the same law should never be taken but when ne. had been extended to physicians and cessary, and never without the best surgeons, it would have appeared less advice, in regard to the commence- rational. I made acquaintance with ment, which ought not to be too long professor Porthaan, who shewed us delayed, otherwise much benefit can every thing of any value in the linot be expected from them; and also brary, and with great politeness gave with respect to nature or sort, quan
us all the information in his power tity, and continuance.
respecting our route through Finland. “ At present, the powers of physic, He also made us a present of some it is generally acknowledged, are ex dissertations he had written on differtremely bounded. The medical art, ent subjects concerning that country." however, is probably still in its in- p. 206. fancy, and it is impossible yet to say, The principalbuildings, inhabitants, to what perfection it may reach, not and commerce, finish this chapter. only in consequence of the new im Chap. XIV. begins with their deprovements which chemistry daily parture from Abo towards the North, furnishes, but also of those which may and describes the nature of travelling be made, by the discovery of new in Finland thus: “To order to be free and valuable plants, in countries ei- for the future from the trouble of ther already known or hitherto un- changing our baggage at every stage, explored, and indeed the new uses we had provided ourselves with to which old medicinal plants may sledges of our own. We purchased be applied. Perhaps such discoveries them at Abo, and they were of the will be much accelerated, when, in same description as those which stead of being left to the zeal and the peasantry made use of. The industry of individuals, they shall winter had been extremely severe; meet with that public encouragement but there had not fallen a great quanand protection, to which they are so tity of snow in comparison of former peculiarly well entitled.
A March sun, and some days “7. Disposition of mind. In the thaw, had made it disappear entirely last place, nothing is more conducive in many places. The sledge was oito longevity than to preserve equa- ten suddenly stopped, and the poor nimity and good spirits, and not to horse made repeated etforts, without sink under the disappointments of effect, to drag it over the naked and life, to which all, but particularly the sandy soil, which sunk under his feet old, are necessarily subjected. In- with a sort of disagreeable crackling deed, this is a point which cannot be noise. We were every moment obligtoo much inculcated, for experience ed to leave the sledge, and walk on sufficiently demonstrates, that many foot till we came to ground covered perish from despondency, who, if they with snow, or to a frozen lake or ri. had preserved their spirit and vigour ver. This mode of travelling at last of mind, might have survived many became extremely tiresome, but have years longer. p.436–440.
ing no alternative, we endeavoured to submit to it cheerfully. In many
places the snow had been melted in since they are supplied with every the middle of the road, but still re- thing that constitutes, in their opiinained on the side and at the edges nion, good living. If they have more of the ditches. In those situations money than they have immediate not unfrequently the love of ease in use for, they lay it up for some unduced us to try the expedient of risk- foreseen emergency, or convert it into ing the sledge on the edge of the a vase, or some other domestic utenditch, which constantly gave way, sil. You must not be surprised in and our indolence availed us nothing. Finland, if in a small wooden house, The horse was unable to keep in the where you can get nothing but herprecise line, and constantly drawing rings and milk, they should bring to one side or to the other, we were you water in a silver vessel of the every now and then overturned in value of fifty or sixty rixdollars. the ditch, and plunged over the ears The women are warınly clad ; above in the snow.
their clothes they wear a linen shift, “ This species of sledge, being ex. which gives them the air of being in tremely-narrow, is very easily over a sort of undress, and produces an turned; but as it is at the same time odd though not a disagreeable fancy. very low, the fall is accompanied The inside of the house is always with no manner of danger, and when warm, and indeed too much so for the road is in a proper state it goes, one who comes out of the external very steadily and salely; but when air, and is not accustomed to that the sun has begun to melt the snow, temperature. The peasants remain and this partial thaw, as often bap- in the house constantly in their shirt pens, is succeeded by a fresh attack sleeves, without a coat, and with but of the frost, then there is formed on. a single waistcoat; they frequently the declivities of the road a polished go abroad in the same dress, without mirror of ice, which occasions much dread either of rheumatism or fever. trouble and difficulty to the travel. We shall see the reason of this when ler. The sledge in descending never we come to speak of their baths. The keeps a direct line, but is hitched out Finlanders, who accompany travelof ils proper direction by the smallest lers behind their sledges, are generally accident: when turned side-ways, it dressed in a kind of short coat made slips all at once out of the road, and of a calf's skin, or in a woollen shirt, is overturned either into the ditch or fastened round the middle with a · against a tree, and sometimes twists girdle. They pull over their boots
the horse, and throws him down along coarse woollen stockings, which have with it. We were often obliged to the double advantage of keeping get out of the sledge, but our boots them warm, and preventing them being too slippery to support us on from slipping on the ice. an inclined plane of smooth ice, we “The interior of the peasant's house were reduced to the necessity of sit- presents a picture of considerable inting down, and sliding gently to the ierest. The women are occupied in bottom of the descent." p. 216– teasing or spinning wool for their 219.
clothing, the men in cutting faggots, In the road from Abo to Yerven- mahing nets, and mending or conkyle, notice is taken of the habita- structing sledges.”, p. 218, 219. tions, &c. of the peasantry. “The Arriving at Yervenkyle, among houses of the peasants are well built, other things the author particularly and the stranger tirds every where describes the manner of living among lodging and beds; and be may be the peasantry thus: “ Before taking tolerably accommodated, if he have leave of Yervenkyle, we wished to the precaution to carry some conve be made acquainted with the econiences along with him. You are re nomy of our host, and to ask hiin ceived with great hospitality ; the some questions respecting the exa! peasant furnishes you with whatever pences of bis family, and the price he bas got to eat, though, in general, of provision in this part of Finland. be can only offer you fresh and cur Wood costs but the trouble of cutdled milk, salt herrings, and perhaps, ting it down and transporting it. The as beforementioned, a little sait meat. wages of the day labourers are high, In comparison with those who travel being from twelve to sixteen skillings. among them they are poor, but in re- Our honest peasant had the appear. lation to themselves they are rich, ance of being very much at his ease. VOL.I.
What pleasure is it to see a happy inent in society give rise to such fea peasantry. He had six cows, which verish and pernicious desires, as in. had produced him as many calves, duce great landed proprietors to fly and eight goats. The small twigs of' from the country to overgrown cities, the birch tree, which the goats feed and forfeit their influence, independon in winter, give a delicious odour ence, and estates, for worthless page: to the place in which they are antry and frivolous baubles; and kept. He had besides eight lambs when, by folly less excusable than and three horses. The cows afforded Esau's, they involve in their ruin him a pail of milk each day: A cow thousands of industrious members of is sold for ve or six rixdollars, a society, we unavoidably overlook calf for two, a goat for one, a roe. many cares and anxieties which must buck only costs sixteen skillings. attend this artless scene of life, and Wheat does not thrive here. Rye is forget the exquisite enjoyments of five and a half rixdollars the barrel. polished societies.” We asked him if he had ever eaten Chap. XV. Departing from Yerbread made of the bark of a tree, or venkyle, they proceed through a large if he had ever been obliged to feed forest eighty miles long, the full exhis cows with their own dung, mixed tent of which they traversed. Here and seasoned with a little salt, meal, the author notices the devastations and straw; but he had been fortunate made in these woods by fire and enough not to have experienced any wind; as also that the disagreeableof these hardships. The Darlicar ness of travelling in many places by lians, however, have been reduced land induced them to prefer the more to such extremities on different oc- perilous circumstances attending their casions.
journeying over lakes and rivers. “ The farmstead of this good and " It was between Tuskola and happy man consisted of the house, Gumsila," says the author, " that we which he himself occupied with his found travelling on the river harass. family. To the right of this there ing and dangerous, but for the aswas a small building, expressly ale sistance of two peasants, who underlotted to strangers, in which he lodg- took to serve us as guides, and point ed; to the left were places for cattle. out to us the places of the river where In speaking of the dwelling of a Fin- the ice was strongest and in the best nish peasant, I think I shall gratify condition to support us. Between the reader by the annexed engrav- Tuskola and Gumsila the river is exing, representing the inside of the tremely rapid, and the current being house, where at the same time a scene stronger in some places than in others, of domestic amusement is exhibited, the ice in those parts is of a slender which is not unfrequent among the texture, so that it was necessary, in Finnish peasantry. One of the men order to ensure our safety, to have a is playing on the national instrument perfect knowledge of the direction of Finland, called the harpu (which of the current in summer. Our guides will be described more particularly went before us in their sledge, and hereafter) while two other men, bea we followed close behind them with ing seated opposite each other, and all the precision which an atfair of having 'their hands locked toge- such delicacy and importance rether, accompany the instrument with quires. Having come io a part of their song and the motion of their the river which was almost entirely bodies, raising each other alternately, open, we thought it would be imprufrom their seats. The other part of dent to attempt to pass it. We had, the company enjoy the scene as spec- however, no alternative, but either tators.
to return and travel five or six miles "The simple accommodation, ease, by land, with all its known inconveand contentment of this hospitable niences, or passing hard by a house, Finlander, forms a striking contrast to make our horses leap a barrier, to the excessive luxury of the great and drag the sledge over a heap of in Europe. It seems impossible to stones, lill we should arrive again at behold the agricultural state of life the ice of the same river. We chose without feeling attachment to it; and to prefer this last mode of proceed. though I am not insensible to the ing; the horses cleared the barrier; pleasures and blessings which luxu. we all gave our assistance to lift up rious ages produce, yet when refine. the sledge and throw it on the other