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formerly much used. According to Albertus Magnus, at least we have never wanted it so badly as when I the right eye of a hedgehog fried in oil, and kept in a had the fever.' brass vessel, imparts a virtue to the oil, so that when "O Jacques, can yon ever forget that?' used as an ointment to the eye, it iinparts such a Never, mother. No day passes, but the torture I wonderful clearness of vision, as to enable a person to suffered then for å draught of water comes into my see as well by night as by day! The fat is still mind; and I envy no man his wealth in anything save believed by our country-folks to be very efficacious in his more abundant supply of that one good gift. Is deafness, and many a hedgehog falls a martyr to the there no way of relieving this want by which the poor delusion.

of Marseille suffer so much, and so often ? We were about taking leave of our hero without “It is just because the poor are those who suffer saying a word about his domestic relations. He chooses that they must continue to do so: wealth might his mate early in the spring, and it is said remains con- remedy the evil,' answered his father. stant to her during the season; but they must be very • How so ? asked Jacques. knowing people who can speak positively upon such a 'Easily enough. Only let an aqueduct be condelicate subject. She usually produces from two to structed to bring pure water from a distant river.' four at a time. When first born, they are very pretty And what would that cost, think you, father?' little animals, with soft white spines and hanging ears. More money than you could count, my son,' As they approach maturity, the thorns become harder replied the elder Guyot ; so let us to our supper and darker, and the ears become erect.

before it is as cold as the water you are always dreaming about

The meal over, Jacques wandered in the garden THE MISER OF MARSEILLE.

thoughtful_and silent, but not unnoticed by his MARSEILLE is a city of fountains, and has a fine parents. They conversed together in an undertone aqueduct, almost entirely subterranean, by which pure about the extraordinary manner in which his mind water is brought from the little rivers Huveaume and dwelt on the one night of suffering from thirst so long Juvet. But this was not always the case. Look back gone by. with me many, many years, and I will shew you how is always thinking of it. I quite feared to tell him

It is strange,' said Madame Guyot, "how the lad ill it used to be supplied with water, and how in the how little water we have left to-night, for it seems to fulness of time it came to be otherwise.

grieve and trouble him so much; not for ourselves Once upon a time-I know not the exact date-there alone, but lest some unfortunate should have to bear dwelt at Marseille a man named Guyot, with his wife sufferings like those he experienced seven years ago.'. and one son. They were but humble people; and at Well,' replied the father, even that is not the the time my narrative begins, the child lay sick of a chief object of his anxiety.' fever, his tongue cleaving to the roof of his mouth, Why, surely he does not fancy himself in love yet! and his little hot hand pressed to his still hotter said Madame Guyot in an accent of alarm. Our forehead, while he ceased not to cry in a plaintive neighbour's daughter, Madeline, casts sheep's eyes at tone for a draught of water.

him, I know, young as he is ; and Jacques often tells * Alas, my child,' said Madame Guyot, in reply to her how like a little angel she seemed to him when his moaning, you know I have told you already the her mother made her the bearer of that draught of cistern is empty. Not a drop of water have I in the water. But it is doubtless only nonsense, for he is house, and I fear all our neighbours are as badly off as still

a boy, and she a full year younger.' ourselves. See, take a draught of milk; I have nought 'I was not thinking of Madeline, wife,' replied else to give you."

Monsieur Guyot : 'in my opinion, Jacques loves some‘But, mother, it is not like water,' replied the boy: thing else better than all the little damsels in the ‘it makes me only the more thirsty, and almost chokes world—I mean money. He is always hoarding every me, it seems so thick ; while water is so cold, and sou he can collect, and trying, by all sorts of extra refreshes me for a long time. But, alas ! you have none services, to earn more than his daily wages; and I to give me. If it would but rain, for I am burning! almost fear our son will turn miser, since he spends Oh, if I were rich, I would care little for the finest nothing he can avoid.' wines, if I had but plenty of fresh, pure, cold water.' "Oh, if that be the case, he is doubtless thinking of

Madame Guyot, with true maternal love, strove to some girl, and trying to save against the time when he pacify the young gufferer; and having succeeded in is old enough to marry; but he is a good youth, partially relieving his cravings by means of a draught added Madame Guyot, brushing a tear from her eye at of water, which a kind neighbour, scarcely better off the thought of having a rival in the love of her only than herself, sent by the hand of her little daughter, child. he at length slept. Even in his dreams, however, the * Ab, wife,' said her husband, you are almost memory of his feverish longings haunted him; and jealous of little Madeline ; but remember, you cannot his plaintive cry for water at oft-recurring interrals expect to keep this one lamb of yours always by your brought tears to the mother's eyes; and she trod side; and I say, that if the thought of having some softly, dreading to awaken the boy, lest by so doing day to provide for a wife makes the lad so saving, I she should also awaken his desires to greater activity, for one am well content.' when she knew she was without the means of satisfying The return of Jacques here stopped the converthem.

sation. Hours after his parents were at rest, the Seven years later, and the fever-stricken boy has youth sat by the lattice in his little chamber. A grown into a fine thoughtful youth of sixteen. No luxuriant vine hung over the casement, and, waving longer dependent on his parents, the young Jacques backwards and forwards in the moonlight, cast fanGuyot cheerfully performed his part in gaining a tastic shadows on the wall. Little knew the parents living. One evening, after his return from work, as of Jacques by what strong feelings he was actuated, Madame Guyot was busily engaged in placing the though both were in part right, the father when evening meal on the table, she said to her son: speaking of his almost miserly habits, the mother in “Jacques, you must be content with less than your believing that her son loved Madeline. usual quantity of water to-night, for again the cistern The youth possessed one of those thoughtful natures is nearly dry.'

which become old too soon; and those who wonder at 'I am sorry for that, mother,' replied Jacques ; 'but love in a boy of sixteen, must remember that in though we have often since been very scarce of water, southern France the blood runs warmer than in our

foggy island. It was indeed wonderful how he always only. The brother of the bridegroom, a gay and handthought of Madeline in connection with that night some fellow, now at Marseille for the first time, was of feverish agony-how like a ministering angel the smitten with her charms, and after the wedding, found, child had seemed in his eyes, when she tripped lightly or made, many excuses for visiting the town which in with the cooling draught to satisfy his longing. contained Madeline. Jacques, it seemed, would not The cup of cold water had worked with a marvel. be piqued into submission, and she was not inclined lous charm, and the youth regarded the girl with a either for a spinster's life or a longer silent wooing; feeling akin to worship. In the eyes of others, she was 80, after some hesitation on the part of her parents, just a bright-eyed laughing thing, somewhat wilful who still leaned to their young neighbour, partly from and capricious at times, as girls are apt to be; but old association, and still more because of his reputed to poor Jacques she was a being of heavenly beauty. wealth, Madeline was betrothed to the stranger.

The recent scarcity of water had again brought the Madame Guyot often sighed, and said in her son's old scene most vividly to his mind, and you might hearing that it was a pity two of the prettiest maidens have seen by the moonlight how pale and agitated was in Marseille should be carried off by strangers; for his face. After a long vigil, he rose, and taking from she had long since made up her mind, that since a secret repository a sum of money-large for him to Jacques would needs marry soon or late, it would be possess-he slowly counted it, and then gazing ear- well to have a daughter-in-law whom she had known nestly on his treasure, said softly : 'It might be done from babyhood. All her hints might have been in a long lifetime; but, O Madeline, Madeline !' then unheard, for any outward effect they produced on her with tears streaming down his cheeks, he flung himself son ; but when the marriage-day came, he remained on his knees to pray. Poor Jacques ! he prayed with shut up in his little chamber. Neither food nor drink such earnest simple faith, that he rose tranquil, and passed his lips ; but could he have been seen by any seeking his couch, soon fell into a sound sleep. one, a mighty mental conflict would have been revealed

Three more years went by, and still Jacques con- to the watcher-it was the last great struggle with tinually added to his store. So scrupulous was he in human passion. The last bar to his devoting himself denying himself every superfluity, that the neighbours to one great object was removed. whispered how the young Guyot had become a miser. The gossips who had aforetime interested themselves Some did more than whisper, they spoke openly to so liberally in the affairs of Jacques and Madeline, his mother respecting this peculiarity in her son. once more twitted Madame Guyot, saying, it plainly Madame Guyot looked very sagacious, and gave myste- was not love that made her son such a miser in his rious hints about the virtue of sparing on one's self to habits; but she answered them more proudly than spend on another, glancing as she spoke at Jacques ever, that Jacques would now look higher for a wife. and Madeline, who were just visible to the group of So, first one great lady and then another was said to gossips.

be the fair object for whom our hero cherished a secret Let love be the presumed cause of a man's actions, passion, and whom he was trying to equal in wealth. a woman will hardly ever deem him in the wrong, But though Madame Guyot fostered the idea, she, however extravagant they may be. Even vice in her poor soul, knew better; for only a few days after the sight assumes the dignity of virtue, if she can ascribe marriage of his one love, Jacques had begged her, in a its committal to the power of love. So it was with the broken voice, to find out whether the little vessel in gossips at whose self-constituted tribunal Jacques was which Madeline had borne the precious draught of tried, and from that time many a sly joke was levelled water to his bedside, a dozen long years ago, were at Madeline, till the little damsel's head was almost still in existence. turned with thinking of the-of course much magnified O my son,' said Madame Guyot, since you did so -riches which were hoarded by her admirer for her to love Madeline, why did you let her go? She would spend some day. She felt she was beloved, for it is not now be the wife of a stranger, if you had asked her not hard to divine when one is the dearest of all for thyself.' earthly objects to a pure and honest heart; but in *Better as it is, mother,' replied Jacques, though his spite of her convictions in this respect, the conduct of lip quivered while he spoke, and again begged his Jacques was a sad puzzle to her.

mother to procure what he had mentioned, at any He is never so happy as when by my side,' she would cost. often say to her mother; "that any one may see; but I Madame Guyot's mission proved successful, though do not think he cares to gain me for a wife. The the mother of Madeline marvelled greatly at the mother would bid her be patient, and all would in time request; and both the worthy matrons agreed that the turn out well; but Madeline thought there should be conduct of Jacques was a problem beyond their power some limit to the expected patience, so she would pout to solve. Eagerly was the little vessel seized by him, her cherry lips, and give Jacques short answers. Still, and after bestowing many grateful thanks on his though she evidently succeeded in giving him pain, he mother, he conveyed it to his own little room. Could seemed as far from declaring his sentiments as ever. the thing of clay have spoken, it might have told

The crisis, however, came at last. Madeline had a how, when others slept, Jacques spent many an hour cousin Marie, who was not only a near neighbour, but in sighs, and even tears. Ay, for every drop of also a sort of rival beauty. There had been no slight water it had once held, the strong man paid in tears jealousy between the girls on the subjects of love and a thousandfold. marriage ; but Marie had at last triumphed, and, the Years sped on, and the father and mother of day for her own wedding being fixed, she openly twitted Jacques passed from the earth. The young man had Madeline about her laggard lover. This was a sad been called a miser, even during their lifetime, but blow to the vanity of the young girl. Marie's fiance now, indeed, he merited the title. Ever craving came from what was in those days thought a great for money, he added to his store by the strictest distance, and neither grudged spending time nor parsimony. His clothes were patched by himself, money in visits to his betrothed; while Madeline, with again and again, till no traces of the original stuff her lover almost at the door, seemed likely enough to remained. Generally his feet were bare, and even remain single. Oh, it was too much for any maiden's when he wore any covering on them, it consisted of patience.

old shoes which had been cast away as worthless, and The wedding-day came, and she of course was one picked up by him in his solitary wanderings through of the guests, together with Jacques; and the girl, bent the town. His food was of the coarsest description, on punishing her tardy admirer, coquetted with others and taken simply to sustain life. He no longer occuby his very side. But she did not stop at coquetry pied the dwelling in which his early days had been

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spent; his present liome was an old and roomy house, from those around him, he asked from the same built with a degree of strength which defied any attempt Almighty source strength to 'endure to the end.' at entrance, unsanctioned by the will of its occupant; A very old man was Jacques Guyot when the end at least without a degree of force being used, which came, but he met it with joy and hope, for he must inevitably have led to discovery. Here, then, had lived long enough to finish his self-imposed task. dwelt Jacques Guyot quite alone. But far worse than Stretched upon his wretched pallet, he smiled and alone was he when absent from his house, for the evil talked to himself. 'Ah, Jacques,' said he, they will repute in which he was held was such, that as he never more call thee accursed. The last stone has been walked, the little children ran shouting after him: cast at thy worthless carcass, for worthless it may

There goes Guyot. See the wretched miser, how thin well be called, since even the worms will scarcely be he is! He grudges himself food to make himself fat, able to banquet on the scanty covering of thy old and clothes to cover his lean old body.' Then the bones. But, oh, what joy to think the miser has not mischievous urchins would cast stones at Jacques, lived in vain! And thou, too,' said he, taking in his and load him with insults, unchecked by their parents. hand Madeline's little pitcher, well bast thou perBut even this was not the worst. One day he met formed thy part. Though but a thing of clay, the a friend, or at least he had been such in youth, sight of thee has reminded me each day and hour and whom he had not seen for many a long year. that, having given up her to whom thou didst once For the moment, Jacques forgot his rags and his belong, no greater sacrifice could be demanded from isolation-it was so long since a kindly word had me; and more than that-it ever brought before me been bestowed on him, and oh! how he yearned to the memory of the one pressing want which inspired win it. Eagerly he advanced, with an indescribable the resolution God has in his goodness given me gleam of joy lighting his pinched features; but his strength to fulfil. I will indulge just one weakness, former comrade shrank back, holding up his hands, as and having taken my last draught from thee, no other if to forbid his nearer approach, saying, as he did so: lip shall touch thee.' So saying, he drank the water 'I will not hold communion with a thing like you. it contained, and gathering all his remaining strength, Did you not love thy money better than her who ought shivered it to atoms. One hour after, and the miser to be your wife? but you suffered a stranger to carry lay dead. Only lifeless clay, senseless as that shivered her away, and now the accursed thing is dearer to by his last act, now remained of Jacques Guyot. you than yourself, though you have neither child nor As soon as he was missed from his daily haunts, the kin to whom to leave it. Away! touch me not!' propriety of examining his dwelling suggested itself

Another trial came still later, and it was the hardest to the towns-people, for there were many who would of all. A portly dame, elderly, but still fresh and not touch him while living, who would gladly have comely-looking, and with a fair daughter by her side, acted as his executors. Fancy, then, the crowd around passed leisurely along the streets of Marseille. They the door-the forcible entrance-the curious ransackseemed to be new arrivals; but the elder one was ing each room till they at last stood beside all that evidently no stranger, for she pointed out to her remained of the object of their bitter loathing. The daughter various changes which had been made of authorities of the town, who led the way, took posseslate. Jacques Guyot looked earnestly at the girl, sion of a sealed paper, which Jacques, ere he lay for her features brought vividly to his mind those of down to die, had placed in a conspicuous position. the object of his one love-dream, and as he came near, It was his will, duly executed, and contained these he heard her mother call her Madeline. Another words: “Having observed from my youth that the glance, and he recognised the elder female as the poor of Marseille are ill supplied with water, wliich Madeline of his youth. Though so many years had can be procured for them only at a great cost, I have gone over his head, his pale face was in a moment cheerfully laboured all my life to gain them this great flushed. Again he forgot the curses and the stones blessing, and I bequeath all I possess to be spent in daily showered around him; the vision of the bright- building an aqueduct for their use." eyed child, with the little treasured pitcher in her Jacques had told the truth. The curses turned hand was before him, and he too was for an instant into blessings, and his death made a city full of selfyoung; but for how brief an instant! Madeline, reproaching mourners. Many a man has won the even in her distant home, had heard of the miser name of hero by one gallant deed; but he who made Guyot, who heaped up wealth, though with none a conquest of a city by the continued heroism of a to share it, and denied even the smallest aid to the long life, methinks deserves the name indeed. And miserable, though surrounded with gold. Even at that thus I have told you to whom the inhabitants of moment, too, she heard the taunts of the passers-by; Marseille owe their aqueduct. so, gathering her skirts closely around her, as though his very touch would poison, she swept by with such a look of scorn as rooted the miser to the spot, and

SEDENTARY OCCUPATIONS. brought back the sense of his loneliness more terribly HEALTH is the greatest of earthly blessings : with than ever.

health a peasant may be rich, for he may be content; Though no inhabitant of Marseille ever entered the and without it, a Cræsus may be miserable in the miser's dwelling during his life, yet I am able to tell midst of his gold. And yet this inestimable gift is how he spent his time there. I know he never daily and hourly Aung away, as if, like money, it entered his silent, comfortless home without feeling was of use only when spent ; or as if its preservation that his heart would leap with joy to hear a friendly was not worth the cost of a little reflection and selfvoice, or if he might be permitted to clasp a child to denial. It is our purpose hereafter to bring before his bosom. I know that, in spite of insults, reproaches, the readers of this Journal some plain and simple and taunts, his heart teemed with loving-kindness to observations relating to the preservation of health ; his fellow-creatures, and often when suffering from but we would now attempt to explain, in a popular them, he would even smile, and murmur: 'It is because way, why sedentary employments are so generally they know me not; for one day these curses will be injurious, and to offer some suggestions, by attending turned to blessings. Ay, and that, when seated on to which, our sedentary brethren may avoid in a great his hard bench, to take the food needful to prolong his degree the mischievous consequences now too often life until the object should be accomplished for which found attending their pursuits. he had given up all that could tend to its enjoyment, Health depends mainly on three essential conditions he prayed for a blessing on his coarse fare; and I-sufficient nutriment, pure air, and a uniform flow know, too, that after each more biting proof of scorn | and circulation of the blood throughout the entire

system. Experience amply proves that vegetable food be on the toes-springing on them, as is done in dancing will sustain the human frame in strength and vigour. -a most excellent winter exercise for the sedentary. Beyond a certain point, it is not so much what we eat, If need be, wrap your feet and legs in some warm as our power of digesting and assimilating it, on which garment when you resume your seat: an old cloak or our physical strength depends. As regards food and dressing-gown will do. It is far better to use a hotair, we are, most of us, dependent on circumstances; water footstool —anything rather than submit to cold and we shall presume that those for whom we write feet. You may as well expect to live without air eat such wholesome food as they can procure, breathe or food, as to enjoy health unless you can contrire the air such as they find it, and can exercise no great to counteract a tendency to cold feet, if you are power of choice in either of these particulars. It is, unfortunate enough to suffer from it. then, to the third condition of health-namely, a regular Never imagine that you are doing yourself justice, and equable flow of blood to every part of the system if you do not walk as much each day as can be done

- that we shall chiefly confine ourselves, because seden- without absolute fatigue. What this may be, will tary occupations interfere directly with this condition; vary according to age, state of health, &c.; but, as a and much may be done, by a little care and forethought, rule, it may be laid down, that a slight feeling of lasto counteract their injurious tendency.

situde is about the best measure you can have. The Man is naturally calculated to sustain, when in healthy will only increase their debility by attempting health, severe and continuous labour. This, his natural long constitutional walks' beyond their powers, and condition, provides for the uniform circulation of which without proper training. Great mistakes are made we speak; but when he spends the greater part of his here by young men in their summer excursions, from time in bodily inaction, and more especially when at which they often return with the seeds of jaundice and the same time his mind is at work, then, in two fever lurking in their constitutions, in consequence of different ways, the great rule of health is violated. overheating, chilling, and over-exertion.

It is an ascertained fact, that when any portion of the Sedentary persons should feed moderately, and avoid animal economy is called into action, it is subjected to fermented liquors as much as possible, especially if of immediate waste, and requires an immediate succour a naturally sanguineous temperament. Those who in the form of an increased supply of the vital fluid. are naturally pallid and dyspeptic should use a more Thus, the engagement of the eyes and brain in seden- generous diet, eating a moderate quantity at each tary pursuits, tends directly to that state of fulness in repast, and above all things, avoiding that disturbance of the blood-vessels of the head, which, when in excess, is the digestive process which is the result of application called congestion, and becomes a most dangerous, and too to study soon after eating. An excellent drink for often fatal malady. We say in excess,' because, upon such persons is bitter beer with a dash of soda-water the principles just now laid down, an extra flow of into it, in the proportion of about 'half-and-half.' blood to those parts is necessary at certain times, and This is by no means a complete system ; but it it rests with ourselves to keep it within proper bounds. contains nothing which may not be profitably put in

Now, if we take a healthy man, after half an hour's practice by the sedentary. They should also avoid moderate exercise in the open air, as a type of the small print in reading, small hand in writing, and human frame in its best state, we shall find that the insufficient or too glaring light at all times. large muscular lower limbs are receiving-are, in fact, at any given moment in possession of-a very large

ARTIFICER-SOLDIERS. proportion of his blood. Such is by no means the case when the same person has been sitting a couple The Royal Sappers and Miners have now merged into of hours at a table or desk, especially if exposed to a the corps of Royal Engineers. When this useful and low temperature. This blood must flow somewhere; distinguished branch of the service was first formed, and a good deal of it goes to the head—not only what it consisted of only sixty-eight men, under the desig. is necessary, as we have supposed—but more than nation of the Soldier-artificer Company. In 1813, that, and thus a tendency to congestion is established. when the name of the corps was changed to that of

If all which is withdrawn from the lower limbs the Royal Sappers and Miners, it numbered about crowded at once to the head, the consequences would 3000 men; and in 1856, when the Sappers ceased to be immediately fatal, as apoplexy or paralysis would be distinguished from the Engineers, their total force be thereby induced. But nature takes means to was over 4000. Up to the latter date, the corps was prevent this, and the internal organs have their share officered by the Engineers, and was, latterly, divided of the superfluity. They are thus 'engorged' and into thirty-two companies, of which twenty-eight were oppressed, and a tendency to disease is engendered in devoted to general service, four being set aside for the them also. Such are the effects of those conditions national surveys. There was also a small troop of of body in which the equable flow of the circulation drivers attached to the corps. About two years ago,* through every part alike is compromised.

we drew attention to the remarkable history of these The great object, then, should be the maintenance military artificers, written by one of themselvesof the desirable state of equilibrium which we have Mr Connolly, now quarter-master of the Engineers. supposed above; and failing that, we should aim at as Mr Connolly's work was sui generis-a picturesque near an approach to it as it is possible to attain. For biographical history, setting forth the leading incidents these ends, it will be well to attend to the following in the lives of the different members of the corps, with simple rules :

singular impartiality, privates coming in for mention Avoid study as much as you can during the first equally with their superiors. The work seems to periods of digestion. The eyes and stomach are both have proved the success which its merits entitled its supplied with nerves from the same branch, and the writer to expect; and we have it now before us in a employment of the eyes in reading or writing soon second edition, with considerable additions, including after eating deranges digestion, and throws the whole minute details of the various operations in which the system out of gear. All who transgress this law, will Sappers were engaged in the Crimea, as well as some bave a reckoning to pay sooner or later. Avoid the fresh notes on the achievements of the survey-comsitting posture as much as possible. This may be panies. done by using a standing-desk for reading and writing, In the Crimea the corps had constantly to work and transferring your work to it now and then. If this under the fire of the enemy. Read this account cannot be done, get up occasionally, and take a few of the formation of the double sap between the two turns up and down the room; or even stand up and sit down again. If your feet are cold, let your walk

* June 23, 1855, No. 77.

foremost parallels on the left attack: Not without “I regret much," wrote Lieutenant-colonel Chapman great toil and watching was it completed. In aspect, to Sir Harry Jones, on the 6th, " to have to report it bore a wild crenated outline, as if the miners, in that Sergeant Wilson, of the first company Royal struggling to make a direct approach, were so oppressed Sappers and Miners, was killed in the Quarries by with difficulties, that, defying the energy and capacity a round-shot yesterday evening. Frequently comof art, they were forced to make progress by running mended, and not long ago promoted for his distininto sidings and notches. The last gabion to connect guished conduct during the progress of the siege, the sap with the parallel was fixed by Corporal this excellent sergeant of Sappers has earned the Lendrim. The whole way was broken up by mining, esteem, not only of three successive directors of the and the planting of every gabion was attended with right attack, but also of every officer under whom he imminent risk. Stones blown from the rock were has done duty. Always ready for whatever he might built into the parapets and compacted with earth and be called upon in the severe weather of last winter; clay thrown among the blocks from sacks and bread ever foremost at the point of danger, he has left to bags. So fierce at times was the firing, and so clear the young soldiers of the corps an example of devotion the moon, that the extension of the trench throughout to the service which they may do well to emulate.” an anxious night was confined to the placement of Corporal John Ross would appear to be one of the only four gabions. Some nights the sap was pushed most distinguished of the corps. He was several times ahead as much as ten yards, which was regarded as during the siege specially singled out for reward by an exemplary effort. “For every three gabions fixed the commander-in-chief, and it was he who discovered during the night, two were knocked down at daylight and was the first to announce the abandonment of the by round shot;" and not unfrequently one has been Redan by the Russians. These pages contain many struck from the hands of the sapper essaying to stake instances of his kindliness, skill, and valour. it. Such gaps and such violence sufficiently mark the It is impossible to make our quotations reflect in trials of the undertaking, and account for its slow any degree faithfully the quality of Mr Connolly's and wearying progress. Up to the close of the siege, book; but before closing it, we must draw attention the sap demanded the labour and vigilance of small to the services of the survey.companies. The four parties to patch up the broken revetments and replace survey-companies,' says Mr Connolly, are engaged the shivered gabions. It fared no better with them in completing the secondary and minor triangulation in the sap near the Cemetery: One night, at this of Great Britain; the detail-survey and contouring of sap, Corporal Henry T. Stredwick had with him a Seotland and the four northern counties of England, half brigade of Sappers who were tasked to lodge and and the revision and contouring of the northern counfill eighteen gabions; but the moment they began to ties of Ireland. Occasionally, they carry on special work, a galling array of heavy projectiles opposed surveys for the government; execute similar work for every foot of progress. Repeatedly the gabions were sanitary purposes for local boards of health, and make capsized : full ones on two or three occasions were surveys of particular towns, parishes, and manorial blown from the trace, and the Sappers knocked over estates-for municipal service or proprietary record and buried under them. Even resolute men would and reference-at the expense of local corporations or have had ample excuse for abandoning so murderous of private noblemen and gentlemen. Small parties a spot; but, regarding nothing as insuperable or too have at times been employed in making tidal obserhot, the Sappers held obstinately to the work, and vations for investigating the theory of the tides and succeeded in lengthening the trench by twelve gabions.' for other scientific uses, and also in gleaning much

The Quarries was a fatal spot to the Sappers ; subsidiary information, to be embodied in the Ordnance it was there that Sergeant Wilson, a man of no Memoir of the Survey, should it at a future day be common merit, lost his life. “Two old acquaint- published. In Ireland, the companies did excellent ances who had not met for years, chanced in the service in collecting various statistical details, and early night, as the darkness was falling, to recognise gathering minerals, fossils, and objects of natural each other in the Quarries. Each grasped the other's history, to assist in developing the investigations of hand, and while engaged in an animated greeting, those interesting subjects. In conducting the survey with the warm smile of welcome on their lips, a of Great Britain, however, that branch of the duty round-shot struck off both their heads! The friends has been abandoned.' were Sergeants William Wilson of the corps and One cannot read of these companies without surprise Morrison of the Royal Artillery. A genuine Scotchman at the superior accomplishments of their sergeants. was Wilson, with an accent as provincial as a High- Here is a short notice of Sergeant-major Steel: “As lander. Thick-set, well knit, and athletic, he was a mathematician, he holds a fair reputation for proformed for the hardships of labour. His composure ficiency and accuracy ; but it is chiefly with the under fire was remarkable; of danger, he knew nothing. work of the triangulation and astronomy he has Among detachments of the corps, he was the spirit of most distinguished himself

. His early service was the trench, and moved about the lines and batteries passed on severe hill-duty. Ben Auler and Creach with the same air of tranquillity as in a workshop. Ben were his first mountain-stations. • : ... At As a sapper, few were more excellent, few more apt Creach Ben he learned the use of the instrument, and bold in situations of difficulty, peril, and surprise and succeeded Lieutenant Hamley, R.E., in its charge than he. Throughout the siege, he scarcely ever in 1841. He is the first non-commissioned officer missed his turn in the front. If counted up, it would of the corps who used one of the larger instrube found there were not many in the corps who had ments. In prosecuting his new trust, his travels passed as many months in the trenches as Wilson. embraced all parts of the British isles. Now, he Safe and reliable, he was greatly in requisition by bis would have his station on the mountain-top-now officers. When new approaches were to be opened or on some craggy peak, and anon staged on the tower new batteries constructed, Wilson, if not more import- of some majestic castle or cathedral. This, again, he antly employed, was mostly deputed to start them. would leave for service on some stormy coast, or to Indeed, of the execution of many he had the charge, perch his observatory on the slender weather-worn and the tact he exercised in the arrangement of his spire of some quiet village or city church. At Norwich working-parties was something extraordinary. For Cathedral, his observatory rested on a scaffolding 315 many weeks of the concluding operations, he was feet from the floor of the building-nearly the height rarely away from the trenches ; and had he lived, his of St Paul's—but without the advantage of a dome brilliant services would have put him in the possession at the base, to diminish the apparent distance of the of the highest honours it belonged to his class to wear.' observer from the ground. Here he used to creep into

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