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If the Reader is defirous of having this almost incredible in stance of popish priesterast, and lay bigottry, further authen: ticated, we refer him to D: Middleton's Letter from Rome.,'
For our Author's account of his travels to Naples, Venice, &c. we refer to his book; concerning which we have only to mention this further particular, viz, that if the Writer's English is fometimes a little deficient, (as well as his French, Italian, &c.) it is by no means improved under the hands of the printer: who appears to have inade considerable additions to the defects of bis Author.
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Observations on a Series of Electrical Experiments. By Dr.
Hoadley, and Mr. Wilson. 460.) IS. 6d. Payne. A F 'subtile disputations, founded on arbitrary hypotheses;
could have given satisfactory reasons for the phænomena of Nature, the doctrine of the schoolmen, or the principles Des Cartes, would have rendered all sedulous enquiries, and accurate experiments, needless. But as all hypothefes, howa ever plaufible, are banished from the present method of phia lofophizing, and nothing admitted as a principle that will
not bear the rigid teft of experiment, every attempt to account for natural phænomena, on other principles, is justly looked upon as supposititious only, and denied a place among the difcoveries of genuine philosophy,
From a great variety of optical experiments, Newton was led to conclude, that there is a very fine
luid, of the same nature with air, but extremely more subtle and elastic, every where dispersed throughout all fpace, which Fluid he called Æther: That this æther is much rarer the dense bodies of the fun, stars, planets, and comets, than in the empty Celestial spaces between them ; and, in paffing from them to great distances, it perpetually grows denser and denser, and thereby causes the gravity of those bodies towards one another, and of their parts towards the bodies; every body endeavouring to go from the denser parts of the æther, towards the rarer : That, therefore, the earth is surrounded every where by this æther, to a very great distance, in confequence of which the air, and all hodies in it, gravitate towards the earth, and towards each other, agreeably to the appearances at the surface of it. That this æther likewise pervades the pores of all bodies, and lies hid in them; and whilft the bodies, with this fluid in them, are undisturbed by any external violence, this fluid, from its elastic nature, conforms itself, as to its degree of denfity, to
er within t
the particular 'make of that body it is in. e. gr. It is not só dente in dense bodies as in rare ones. Such are the properties of the æther, according to Sir Isaac; but as he was not able
this fine Auid, most of his follows the exiftence of
the principles of the Newtonian Philofophy. ili But from the experiments of Dr. Hoadley and Mr. Wilson, enumerated in the pamphlet before us, it appears, that there is really, in nature, such a fluid, which is the cause of all electrical phænomena; that the electrical fluid is not elementary fire, as many have supposed; but that the æther of Sir Ifaackand that of electricity, is one and the same fluid.
As it is impossible to give the substance of their experiments, without transcribing too much from the pamphlet, we must fetep our philosophical Readers to the whole, and content ourselves with the following extract; in which the Authors have
delivered the refult of their several experiments. bir Thus have we," say they, gone through the most interesting of the electrical experiments, and from the various appearances they afford, it appears, that the electrical fluid
is as 'univerfal and powerful an agent, at or near the surface of the earth, as that fluid which Sir Isaac Newton, in his • Optics, calls Æther; that it is as subtle and elastic in its nature, as æther is ; and, as æther does, that it pervades the
pores of all bodies whatever, that we are conversant with; s iš dispersed thro
Whatever vacuum it is in our power to pro*duce by art; and from the natural phænomena of thunder, Goin the air.tw
lightning, &c. seems to be extended to very great distances , 25160We fhall make no fcruple, therefore, now to affirm, that thefe two fluids are one and the fame Auid; as it is much
more philosophical to do so, than to suppose two such Auids, each of them equally capable of producing these effects, and
equally present every where ;, which would be multiplying * caufes, where there manner of occasion, 306 The word electrica '
is of too confined a meaning to be Ta proper epithet for a fluid of fo universal an activity, as this
is found at last to be, from the experiments we have been
confidering, because it expresses its power but partially: 20• Elétricity means no more than the power we give bodies seby rubbing them, to attract and repel light bodies that are ar near them, in the fame manner" as amber does when it is of rubbed. But this fluid not only makes light bodies, that are near an electrified body and from that body, and to
fly appear to be attracted and repelled: but it heats them, by
' putting 00 TL manifs 299 putting their component particles, and the particles of air • and light within them, into a vibrating motion; and makes
them throw out the rays of light, that before lay hid, and part with their fulphurcollsand volatile component particles, which, with the rays of lighte' 911 mixing with the air, burst out into sparks of real culinary fire, as the che
milts express themielvęs iš nay, more, in passing through & animals, it occalions convullions, tremors, pain, and death • sometimes!: and in palling violently, throogh leaf-gold, held *
tight between two pieces of glass, makes a fusion both of
the gold, and of the surface of the glass, so instantaneously, • that no sensible heat remains in them, and they immediately
after become incorporated, and form an enamel. - It is likewise improper to call this Auid, Fire. Air may I just as properly be called found, as this fluid can be called « fire. When found is produced, the particles of the air are * put into fo regular a motion, as to convey fuch sensations,
by means of the ear, as raise the idea of sound. But air is s not therefore found. In the same manner, when a body has
all its component particles thrown into such agitations in the sair by the force and action of this Auid, within it, and
without it, that it grows hot, and lines, and glows, and o consumes away, in imoke and Aame, we say the body is on • fire, or burns's but this Auid is not therefore fire : nor can
it, without confounding our ideas, have that name given to it; nor, indeed, can fire be called a Principle, or Element, in the chemists fenfe of the word, any more than found
9''ORI) &! Sir Isaac Newton, at the end of the Principia, in the le
cond edition, anno 1713, describes this Huid, and its effects, in the following words; and says, expressly, that it is the scaufe of the Electricity. osis is Adjicere jam liceret nonnulla de spiritu quodam fubtilir
" fimo corpora crafia pervadente et in iifdem latente : cujus ** vi, et actionibus particulæ corporum ad minimas diftanties 26. fe' mụtuo attrahunt, et contiguæ facta coherent: et corpo
ra electrica agunt ad distantias majores tam repellenda quam 31.4 attrahendo corpufonla vicina, ct lux emittitur, reflectitur, di refringitur, rinflectitur, et corpora calefacit: et fensatio
omnis excitatur, et membra animalium ad voluntatem mo.. wentur vibrationibus fcilicet hujus fpiritus per folida nervo“srum capillamenta ab externis fenfuum organis ad cerebrum, et a cerebro ad mulculos propagatis.
Sed paucis expo“ ni non poflunt ; neque adest sufficiens copia experimentorum,
e toitair on Electrical Experiments.
469 " quibus actionum hujus fpiritus accurate
accurate determinare et monftrari debent!!! Selaing 19010ef303 viseli gnista
No one, we think, can read this paragraph, after having confidered the appearances in the experiments described above, without recollecting instances in fome one or other of them, of almost all the effects of this fluid, enumerated
agreeing with us, that the pither appeárances
electrified bodies, as well as that of their repélling and attracting light bodies that are near them, mayrill of them arise from the force and action of this fluid, on the component particles of the bodies zon the rays ofdlight within them; and on the air they are in; and the reaction of there on the æther.rent ni aussi jegd sidítast on jadi
( When a Aint and steel are struck together with fufficient YAMA
force and velocity, a fpark of fire, as we call it, is produced, which readily fires gunpowder, or lights tinders but foon cools if left to itself. uporq ei bol nan Wanit
Now, if such a spark be caught on a sheet of paper and examined in a microscope, it will be found to be a piece deither of the fint, or of the steel struck off, fo exactly sphe
polished, that the windows of the room may be seen in it, in the same manner as they are in a large polithed sphere of metal or glass: and they could not be fo spherical,
and well polished, as they are found to be, if they had not $0,404 been melted,
Tandk kept in this form by the cohesion of their OJ the component particles. Essbi tuo gruibruoto dvodiw edi
* In either of these cafes, a piece of Aint or steel, is eviSo, 1
dently separated from the body, and its component particles o put into such agitations among each other, as to throw off es the rays of light which were among them, and shine, and
melt, and afterwards cool in a spherical form: by the action
of the æther on light and air, and these component partihiples ; and the reaction of these upon the achiers on their
191 ms buli ali 19 919bavi99 bin 5709107 omil sa zwing There would have been no such spark produced, if any
e of these had been wanting, and, consequently, they are 4. all necessary,
y, tho", perhaps not equally fo, to the proi ducing this effea, the æther seeming to be as powerful an
agent as any amongst them; without which the intestine
notion among the component particles of the piece struck off, could not have been kept regularly up, even for the very small time in which these changes are made in that
2016969019 olulum bs ords19s 13 ) citas rigoa zoriontini Hh 3294 e nultog non int *a Isa Pudiup
of light in th
6 In the same manner are the appearances
there electrical experiments, whether in faint ftreams of different 6 colours, or in bright and active sparks, to be considered ( as 'arising from smaller parts of grofs bodies separated from "them, and carried off by the activity of the excited æther,
paffing from one body into another; which parts, tho' im• perceptible to us, must have their component particles put
into agitations amongst themselves; and, in being decom
posed, part with the light that before lay hid within them) "and their most volatile particles; and to shine, and smell, " and explode, in paffing through the air.
And not only these appearances of light, sparks, and exsplosion, but the effects of them on bodies, exposed to theni o in electrical experiments, seem all to be explicable by the < mutual action and reaction of the æther, of the component "particles of the small parts of bodies thrown off in these ex
periments, of the particles of light within these, and of the
air, one upon another, when they are once made active by « friction.
We fhall conclude this article with the following curious discovery made by these Gentlemen, namely, that the weight of a chain is not sufficientito bring the links of it into contact with each other, but requires a very considerable additional force to perform it. We mention this as it has a strong tendency to confirm what the late ingenious Mr. Melvill ob served, to wit, that the drops of water on the leaves of colewort, do'not in reality touch the plant. See our last Review, page 382, feq.
Writer is never so effectually confuted, as when he is
made to confute himself.--The learned Dr. Patten, in his Reply to Mr. Heathcote, (page 3.) after having given it as his opinion, that the science of theology was at its utmost perfection about the beginning of the last century, goes on thus. +“ The volumes, I mean, of Jewel, and Jackson, and An“ drews, and Reynolds, and Hall, and Taylor. These glo« rious defenders of Christianity would have pitied, instead * of abetting, the attempts of those writers, who undertake, 66 with the shallow line of human conjecture, (the true name " of Realon partially informed) to fathom the deep things of ".God, and who concede to infidels, that nothing is to be