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The Mausoleum for Marquess Cornwallis, in which is intended to be placed the beautiful monument now sending to India by the Honourable East-India Company (of which lithographic drawings are given in the present publication), and which will hereafter be described, is erected over his remains on the left banks of the Ganges, a little above the town of Ghazeepore, in the Benares district. It is at a small distance from the river, near the place where that nobleman ended his valuable life, upon a high commanding spot, not likely, from the solid nature of the bank, to be encroached upon by the river. The building is a circular peripetral temple of the Roman Doric order; the stylobate, or basement on which it is placed, is a solid piece of masonry, with deep foundations under the walls of the cell and columns, in the centre of which is, an arch over the tomb where the body is laid. The cell, or circular apartment, in the centre of which the monument will be placed, is 24 feet 6 inches in diameter, and 30 feet in height to the cornice; it has two lofty doors opposite one another, and two high square windows on the sides, to give light to the upper part of the cell, like the Temple of Westa at Tivoli, to which this building has a general resemblance. From immediately above the cornice is thrown a light hemispherical cupola, or dome of brickwork, for interior show, and the walls of the cell are carried up to the whole height of this cupola, which they enclose, forming a cylindrical elevation with a light cornice, to relieve the plainness of which, there are eight counter-sunk pannels, ornamented with sculptured trophies of war; over this is thrown a second more solid dome, with some receding steps, in the manner of the Pantheon at Rome. This superstructure is solely meant for exterior show, and to give a proper elevation to
Asiatic Journ —No. 101. Wol. XVII. 3 R
the building, which purpose it answers perfectly well. The cell is surrounded by a peristyle of twelve columns, at the distance of eight feet, forming an ambilacrum, or walk, round the whole, which is covered by a flat arch thrown from the cell to the entablature of the peristyle; the columns are 3 feet 9 inches in diameter at the base, and 30 feet in height, including the base and capital; the entablature is 7 feet 6 inches in height, and all the proportions of its members, as well as of the columns, are those adopted by Sir William Chambers. The intercolumniation is strictly according to the rule laid down for this order, having in the frieze three exactly square metopes; these, instead of being ornamented with oxes' heads, with festoons of flowers and implements of sacrifice, are sculptured with helmets and warlike instruments, being (like the male character of the order and building) more appropriate to the high military rank and reputation of the great man whose remains were therein deposited. The ascent to the temple is by a single flight of steps opposite the front door, and occupies the whole space between two columns. The building is 57 feet in diameter, and 72 feet in height; the whole has been exceedingly well executed on a hard free-stone from Chunar, which has been proved to be of great durability, and is of a good colour and pleasing effect in buildings. From the commanding situation and considerable magnitude and height of this building, it is a very conspicuous object from the river, which is the great road for all travellers proceeding to or from the upper provinces; and the general report of those who have seen it since it has been completed, is, that it produces a grand and striking effect. This lasting testimonial to the virtues and public services of the illustrious nobleman and distinguished Governor-General, so well and justly recorded on the elegant and classical monumental altar by Mr. Flaxman, was unanimously voted at a meeting of the principal inhabitants of Calcutta. A considerable sum was subscribed for its erection, but insufficient for the purpose, and it was completed by Government at the expense of the Honourable East-India Company. The design was given by Colonel Alexander Kyd, then holding the office of Chief-Engineer. The construction of the building is of so solid a nature, and of such excellent materials, that it cannot fail of being of long duration, if taken proper care of, and not wantonly injured : to guard against which, the East-India Company are sending out a strong iron railing to surround it. When the whole is accomplished, this will be without a doubt the most magnificent monument that has ever been erected by Europeans in India to the memory of any individual, public or private; and it certainly does honour to the general feeling in Bengal, from which it originated, as well as to the Governments, both abroad and at home, under whose auspices it has been fostered and brought to a desired completion.
ALTAR-TOMB. On the front is a basso-relievo of the Marquess's portrait, between the figures of a Brahmin and a Mohammedan, in attitudes expressive of grief. On the back are the arms of the East-India Company, with the figures of a British grenadier on one side of the arms, and a seapoy on the other side. Each bassorelievo is decorated with the lotus and the olive; on the sides of the pedestal are garlands of laurel and oak; above the cornice, a Marquess's coronet on a
cushion, which finishes the design. The whole is 12 feet 6 inches high, of statuary marble.
SACRED TO THE MEMORY OF
His first Administration, Commencing in September 1786 and terminating in October 1793, Was not less distinguished By the successful Operations of War, And by the Forbearance and Moderation With which he dictated the Terms of Peace, Than by the Just and Liberal Principles Which marked his Internal Government. He regulated the Remuneration of the Servants of the State On a scale calculated to insure the purity of their Conduct; He laid the foundation of a System of Revenue, Which, while it limited and defined the Claims of Government, Was intended to confirm Hereditary Rights to the Proprietors, And to give security to the Cultivators of the Soil. He framed a System of Judicature, Which restrained within strict bounds the power of Public Functionaries, And extended to the Population of India The effective Protection of Laws, Adapted to their Usages, And promulgated in their own Languages. Invited, in December 1804, to resume the important Station, He did not hesitate, though in advanced age, To obey the call of his Country. During the short term of his last Administration, He was occupied in forming a plan for the Pacification of India, Which, having the sanction of his high authority, Was carried into effect by his Successor. He died near this spot, Where his remains are deposited, On the 5th day of October 1805, In the 67th year of his age. This Monument, erected by the British Inhabitants of Calcutta, Attests their sense of those virtues Which will live in the remembrance of Grateful Millions, Long after this memorial of them shall have mouldered into dust.