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THE

ASIATIC JOURNAL

FOR

MAY, 1824.

Original Communications,

&c. &c. &c.

THE MAUSOLEUM AND ALTAR-TOMB FOR THE FIRST

MARQUESS CORNWALLIS.

MAUSOLEUM.

The Mausoleum for Marquess Cornwallis, in which is intended to be placed the beautiful monument now sending to India by the Honourable East-India Company (of which lithographic drawings are given in the present publication), and which will hereafter be described, is erected over his remains on the left banks of the Ganges, a little above the town of Ghazcepore, in the Benares district. It is at a small distance from the river, near the place where that nobleman ended his valuable life, upon a high commanding spot, not likely, from the solid nature of the bank, to be encroached upon by the river. The building is a circular peripetral temple of the Roman Doric order; the stylobate, or basement on which it is placed, is a solid piece of masonry, with deep foundations under the walls of the cell and columns, in the centre of which is an arch over the tomb where the body is laid. The cell, or circular apartment, in the centre of which the monument will be placed, is 24 feet 6 inches in diameter, and 30 feet in height to the cornice; it has two lofty doors opposite one another, and two high square windows on the sides, to give light to the upper part of the cell, like the Temple of Vesta at Tivoli, to which this building has a general resemblance. From immediately above the cornice is thrown a light hemispherical cupola, or dome of brickwork, for interior show, and the walls of the cell are carried up to the whole height of this cupola, which they enclose, forming a cylindrical elevation with a light cornice, to relieve the plainness of which, there are eight counter-sunk pannels, ornamented with sculptured trophies of war ; over this is thrown a second more solid dome, with some receding steps, in the manner of the Pantheon at Rome. This superstructure is solely meant for exterior show, and to give a proper elevation to Asiatic Journ No. 101.

Vol. XVII. 3 R

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the building, which purpose it answers perfectly well. The cell is surrounded by a peristyle of twelve columns, at the distance of eight feet, forming an ambilacrum, or walk, round the whole, which is covered by a flat arch thrown from the cell to the entablature of the peristyle; the columns are 3 feet 9 inches in diameter at the base, and 30 feet in beight, inclading the base and capital ; the entablature is 7 feet 6 inches in height, and all the proportions of its members, as well as of the columns, are those adopted by Sir William Chambers. The intercolumniation is strictly according to the rule laid down for this order, having in the frieze three exactly square metopes; these, instead of being ornamented with oxes' heads, with festoons of flowers and implements of sacrifice, are sculptured with helmets and warlike instruments, being (like the male character of the order and building) more appropriate to the high military rank and reputation of the great man whose remains were therein deposited. The ascent to the temple is by a single flight of steps opposite the front door, and occupies the whole space between two columns. The building i is 57 feet in diameter, and 72 feet in height; the whole has been exceedingly well executed on a hard free-stone from Chunar, which has been proved to be of great durability, and is of a good colour and pleasing effect in buildings. From the commanding situation and considerable magnitude and height of this building, it is a very conspicuous object from the river, which is the great road for all travellers proceeding to or from the upper provinces; and the general report of those who have seen it since it has been completed, is, that it produces a grand and striking effect.

This lasting testimonial to the virtues and public services of the illustrious nobleman and distinguished Governor-General, so well and justly recorded on the elegant and classical monumental altar by Mr. Flaxman, was unanimousły voted at a meeting of the principal inhabitants of Calcutta. A considerable sum was subscribed for its erection, but insufficient for the purpose, and it was completed by Government at the expense of the Honourable East-India Company. The design was given by Colonel Alexander Kyd, then holding the office of Chief-Engineer. The construction of the building is of so solid a nature, and of such excellent materials, that it cannot fail of being of long duration, if taken proper care of, and not wantonly injured : to guard against which, the East-India Company are sending out a strong iron railing to surround it.

When the whole is accomplished, this will be without a doubt the most magnificent monument that has ever been erected by Europeans in India to the memory of any individual, public or private; and it certainly does honour to the general feeling in Bengal, from which it originated, as well as to the Governments, both abroad and at home, under whose auspices it has been fostered and brought to a desired completion.

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ALTAR-TOMB. On the front is a basso-relievo of the Marquess's portrait, between the figura of a Brahmin and a Mohammedan, in attitudes expressive of grief. On the back are the arms of the East-India Company, with the figures of a British grenadier on one side of the arms, and a seapoy on the other side. Each basso relievo is decorated with the lotus and the olive; on the sides of the pedestal are garlands of laurel and oak; above the cornice, a Marquess's coronet ons cushion, which finishes the design. The whole is 12 feet 6 inches higt, of statuary marble.

INSCRIPTION.

SACRED TO THE MEMORY OF

CHARLES MARQUESS CORNWALLIS,
KNIGHT OF THE MOST NOBLE ORDER OF THE GARTER,

GENERAL IN HIS MAJESTY'S ARMY,
GOVERNOR-GENERAL AND COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF IN INDIA,

&c. &c. &c.

His first Administration,
Commencing in September 1786 and terminating in October 1793,

Was not less distinguished
By the successful Operations of War,
And by the Forbearance and Moderation
With which he dictated the Terms of Peace,

Than by the Just and Liberal Principles

Which marked his Internal Government.
He regulated the Remuneration of the Servants of the State
On a scale calculated to insure the purity of their Conduct;

He laid the foundation of a System of Revenue,
Which, while it limited and defined the Claims of Government,
Was intended to confirm Hereditary Rights to the Proprietors,
And to give security to the Cultivators of the Soil.

He framed a System of Judicature,
Which restrained within strict bounds the power of Public Functionaries,

And extended to the Population of India
The effective Protection of Laws,

Adapted to their Usages,
And promulgated in their own Languages.
Invited, in December 1804, to resume the important Station,

He did not hesitate, though in advanced age,

To obey the call of his Country.
During the short term of his last Administration,
He was occupied in forming a plan for the Pacification of India,

Which, having the sanction of his high authority,
Was carried into effect by his Successor.

He died near this spot,
Where his remains are deposited,
On the 5th day of October 1805,

In the 67th year of his age.
This Monument, erected by the British Inhabitants of Calcutta,

Attests their sense of those virtues
Which will live in the remembrance of

Grateful Millions,
Long after this memorial of them shall have mouldered into dust.

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SLAVE TRADE IN THE INDIAN ARCHIPELAGO.

To the Editor of the Asiatic Journal, SIR: The third volume of the His To describe fully the evils of the tory of the Island of Celebes, by its system of slave-labour, and its conEx-governor, Mr. R. Blok, which comitant the traffic in slaves, as it was published at Calcutta in 1817, existed in the Eastern Islands, and consists of a report upon the slave. indeed in all the Dutch settlements in trade of Macassar, prepared by autho- India, would occupy too large a porrity of the Dutch Government in the tion of your publication at the present year 1799, and accompanied by some moment: I will, therefore, only obnotes of the translator, which are not serve, that from this report, and the less valuable than the report itself. notes of the translator, which con. As I have reason to believe that this tain some very interesting facts, and work is but little known in England, from the various other authorities* and as every piece of authentic infor- that creat of the Dutch establishments mation relative to the enslavement of in India, I conceive the following view the human species possesses a peculiar of the more prominent evils of that interest with the British public, I system may be fairly educed, enclose transcripts of these papers for It entailed upon the Government insertion in your next number. They the extra expense of a large proporappear to have been drawn up with tion of their judicial and police estacandour, although they contain some blishments, designed exclusively for expressions of that feeling which the the regulation of slaves, slave-holders, subject of them is calculated to ex. and slave-traders; which part of their cite. Their professed object was to establishments was, nevertheless, the promote the amelioration of the least efficientin its administration of jusDutch slave-system, the evils of which tice, and uniformly productive of most they exhibit in very striking colours ; disquiet to the superior authorities. but the reporters having received no The powers assumed by professed authority to recommend an entire slavc-dealers were wholly inconsistent abolition of the traffic, which was with any well-regulated government; evidently in their opinion the only the right which they claimed to hold remedy for those evils, they concluded the persons of men and women in their report with a recommendation durance,' as their alleged property, in to try again expedients which had prisons or slave-holes, in their own already failed, and to endeavour, with houses, or on their own estates, withhowever little prospect of success, to

out the cognizance or supervision of commit the future administration of the magistrate, was a perpetual source the slave-laws to more energetic and of annoyance to the Government, as less venal hands. Consequently, it is well as of terror to the peaceable not to be wondered at, that when the inhabitants; while the wealth and Eastern Islands were subjected to the power acquired by the traffickers in British power in 1811, the slave-sys- slaves enabled them to maintain estatem should have been found existing blishments of professed slave-thieves, there in its utmost virulence, and or man-stealers, who were in every that it should have appeared to the point of view the most pestilent memEnglish Government, represented by bers of the community. Sir T. S. Raffles, as presenting the Not less unfriendly to good morals most formidable obstacle to the com

* Voyage aux Inde Orientales. mercial and agricultural improvement of the colony.

Description Historique du Royaume de Ma.

Vies des Gouverneurs.

cassar, &c.

and good government, were the laws tives who inhabited the country; which enacted for the regulation and punish. were constantly exposed to as great ment of slaves. These laws, pro- outrage, alarm, and insecurity, as ceeding upon the principles of intimi- would have attended a state of pubdation and discouragement only(where lic warfare and invasion. depression and fear arising out of the That a system which was so perabject mental state of the slaves had plexing and annoying both to the gonearly attained their utmost limit), vernors and governed, in time of peace, were shockingly sanguinary and dis- should also prove cumbersome and gusting; outraging the better feelings insecure in time of war, is by no of human nature equally with any means surprising; and such was the thing recorded of the proceedings of fact with respect to the system of Englishmen in Africa or the West- slavery in the Eastern Islands. It Indies. And tlfe execution of the appears by the trial of Colonel Filz, punishments described in these laws in the fourth volume of Blok's hiscould have no other tendency than to tory, that that unfortunate officer, to engender a barbarous and savage tem whom the defence of Amboyna was enper in the minds of spectators, and trusted by General Daendals in 1810, particularly of the rising generation. ascribed the loss of the colony, among It is impossible to conceive that a other things, to the entire desertion young man, trained to witness with of the slaves of all descriptions. “The apathy the legal torture and butchery slaves of the Chinese, as well as those of condemned slaves (which were au- belonging to the other inhabitants, thorized by the Dutch law), and com- had, from the commencement of hos. ing into possession of that almost tilities, withdrawn from the contest; absolute power over his fellow-crea and the slaves of the Company, extures which the Dutch slave-system cept twelve boys or convicts, who were would give him, would do otherwise, in chains, had also run away." For from the mere force of habit, than not having, under such circumstances, exercise it without sympathy or com defended the colony against an impassion for the sufferers.

posing British force, Filz was shot to So great appear to have been the

death at Batavia, with circumstances innate evils of the Dutch slave-trade, of cruelty, by the sentence of a court that it proved, as it must ever prove, over which Daendels presided; yet incurable by any means within the Daendels himself, in not more than power of man, short of a complete twelve months from that time, was abolition of slavery; because so long as compelled to lay down his arms and a price is set upon the persons of any resign the whole Eastern Archipelago, of the human race, of whatever com with all its European inhabitants, and plexion, fraud and violence will be all the Dutch Company's valuable profound active in pursuit of the un- perty in slaves to boot, to a comparahallowed thrift. This appears to have tively inferior British force. been the case in the instance before Under the government of Sir T. S. us; in which we learn that heavy pe- Raffles, a general emancipation of nalties, imposed upon the detention the slaves and abolition of the traffic and enslavement of free-born persons, in them took place; but it is rumoured and all the legal and expensive for that the restoration of the Dutch malities contrived, with a view to authority has been accompanied by at ascertain, and, if I may be allowed least a partial return to the system of such an expression in such a case, slavery.* solemnize the transfer of slaves, were I ought to apologize for having so unavailing, for the prevention of

* Al Malacca a better system has been adopted. slave theft, and the protection of

Every child of slave parents born after the year the persons and properties of the na

1819 is free.

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